Energy Saving Devices for Ships

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2023) | Viewed by 18427

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: ship and marine hydrodynamics; wave-body–seabed interactions; wave–current interaction; propagation in inhomogeneous environment; wave climate and potential; marine renewable energy systems
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Guest Editor
School of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: computational fluid dynamics; hybrid methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy-saving devices for ships have become a subject of intensive research and development in recent times, aiming at reducing fuel consumption and emissions and contributing to Blue Growth. A particular class deals with devices controlling the hydrodynamic flow properties, leading to drag reduction, improving the hull–propeller interaction and the propeller performance. Another important category is based on the exploitation of renewable energy, such as wind, wave and solar to improve the overall ship performance. Many of the developed systems are considered particularly suitable for retrofitting seagoing vessels. The investigation should consider not only the improvement of the calm water performance of ships but also the system operation in realistic sea-states of moderate and higher severity.

The Special Issue will welcome submissions of both review papers and research papers. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Energy-saving devices improving ship hydrodynamic performance;
  • Renewable energy powered marine vehicles;
  • Biomimetic systems and flapping thrusters;
  • Systems augmenting ship propulsion in waves;
  • Wind-assisted ship propulsion;
  • Experimental and computational ship hydrodynamics.

Prof. Dr. Kostas Belibassakis
Dr. George Papadakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • ship hydrodynamics
  • energy saving devices
  • wave augmented propulsion
  • wind assisted propulsion
  • biomimetic systems
  • flapping thrusters
  • drag reduction
  • hull-propeller interaction
  • propeller performance enhancement
  • experimental ship hydrodynamics
  • computational ship hydrodynamics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 5073 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Submergence Depth and Wave-Induced Effects on the Performance of a Fully Passive Energy Harvesting Flapping Foil Operating Beneath the Free Surface
by Nikos Petikidis and George Papadakis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(8), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11081559 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
This paper investigates the performance of a fully passive flapping foil device for energy harvesting in a free surface flow. The study uses numerical simulations to examine the effects of varying submergence depths and the impact of monochromatic waves on the foil’s performance. [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the performance of a fully passive flapping foil device for energy harvesting in a free surface flow. The study uses numerical simulations to examine the effects of varying submergence depths and the impact of monochromatic waves on the foil’s performance. For the numerical simulations, a in-house artificial compressibility two-phase solver is employed and coupled with a rigid body dynamic solver. The results show that the fully passive flapping foil device can achieve high efficiency for submergence depths between 4 and 9 chords, with an “optimum” submergence depth where the flapping foil performance is maximised. The effects of regular waves on the foil’s performance were also investigated, showing that waves with a frequency close to that of the natural frequency of the flapping foil-aided energy harvesting. Overall, this study provides insights that could be useful for future design improvements for fully passive flapping foil devices for energy harvesting operating near the free surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving Devices for Ships)
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18 pages, 5732 KiB  
Article
The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Rotating Cylinder Based on Large-Eddy Simulations
by Dagang Zhao, Yang Zhang, Mingqi Bi, Xin Zheng, Xianghai Zhong and Shun Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061162 - 1 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2451
Abstract
The cylindrical flow around a cylinder is present in several engineering problems. Moreover, the flow pattern around a rotating cylinder is more complex than that around a cylinder. In this paper, a rotating cylinder at different speed ratios is investigated by means of [...] Read more.
The cylindrical flow around a cylinder is present in several engineering problems. Moreover, the flow pattern around a rotating cylinder is more complex than that around a cylinder. In this paper, a rotating cylinder at different speed ratios is investigated by means of large-eddy simulations. In particular, the lift coefficient CL, drag coefficient CD, lift-to-drag ratio k, Strouhal number St, the flow field in each section, and the three-dimensional eddy structure are compared at different speed ratios. In addition, the effects of an end disk on the aerodynamic loads and flow field of the rotating cylinder were investigated. The results showed that, in the absence of an end disk, CL increased, CD increased and then decreased, k increased and then decreased, and St increased and then decreased as the speed ratio increased. The turnaround occurs for each parameter at a speed ratio of n = 2, and vortex shedding is suppressed at this speed ratio. Notably, the tip vortex at the free end was not suppressed. The CL, CD, and k values of the cylinder when adding the end disk were greater than those of the normal cylinder. For example, when the speed ratio is 3, the lift coefficient is increased by 27%, the drag coefficient is increased by 24%, and the lift-to-drag ratio is increased by 23% after adding the end plate. In addition, the vortex structure at the free end differed substantially. This study provides a systematic method to evaluate the aerodynamic loads and flow field changes around a cylinder, laying the foundation for solving the problems of cylinder flow and rotating cylinder flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving Devices for Ships)
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16 pages, 9359 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Blade Position on an Asymmetric Pre-Swirl Stator Used in Container Ships
by Woo-Seok Jin, Moon-Chan Kim, Jin-Gu Kang, Yong-Jin Shin and Kyuong-Wan Lee
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010050 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Owing to environmental regulations, ships are equipped with a pre-swirl stator (PSS), which is one of the most effective energy-saving devices (ESDs) that is widely applied to various kinds of ships. It improves energy efficiency by recovering the rotational kinetic energy of the [...] Read more.
Owing to environmental regulations, ships are equipped with a pre-swirl stator (PSS), which is one of the most effective energy-saving devices (ESDs) that is widely applied to various kinds of ships. It improves energy efficiency by recovering the rotational kinetic energy of the propeller with the aid of a PSS placed in front of the propeller. In this study, an asymmetric PSS system is applied to the 2500 TEU eco-friendly liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel feeder container ship, aimed at optimizing the position of stator blades, using a potential-based program. Additionally, a parametric study was conducted for evaluating the optimum pitch angle and blade spacing. STAR-CCM+ was used for validating the efficiency of the final design. The Samsung towing tank and large cavitation tunnel were also utilized to verify the improvement in the performance of the proposed PSS. Although the efficiency gain is not largely affected by blade position optimization, the cavitation and pressure fluctuation issues are addressed by improving the in-flow to the propeller. Therefore, blade spacing optimization of the stator is important for container ships whose cavitation performance is very significant, especially the relatively high-speed commercial vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving Devices for Ships)
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18 pages, 10272 KiB  
Article
Ship Bow Wings with Application to Trim and Resistance Control in Calm Water and in Waves
by Dimitris Ntouras, George Papadakis and Kostas Belibassakis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(4), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10040492 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
Flapping foils for augmenting thrust production have drawn attention as a means of assisting ship propulsion in waves due to their high efficiency rate compared to traditional screw propellers. However, they can also offer substantial resistance reduction when used as stabilizers. In this [...] Read more.
Flapping foils for augmenting thrust production have drawn attention as a means of assisting ship propulsion in waves due to their high efficiency rate compared to traditional screw propellers. However, they can also offer substantial resistance reduction when used as stabilizers. In this work, the aim is to investigate the feasibility of a symbiotic concept combining the ship’s propeller with a foil arranged at the ship’s bow at a fixed position operating as a trim-pitch stabilizer. The work presents results obtained from experiments conducted in the towing tank of the Laboratory of Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics of the National Technical University of Athens (LMSH NTUA), as well as results from an in-house CFD solver. The test cases focused on the resistance and the dynamic behavior of the wing–vessel configuration in calm water conditions and in head waves. All results were compared against the performance of a bare hull (without foil). The findings of this work are based both on numerical and experimental data and indicate that a bow wing in static mode can be used for trim-control of a vessel by altering the angle of attack leading to a possible drop in wave resistance both in calm water and in waves. In the latter case, utilizing the wing in head waves results in a significant reduction in the pitching and heaving responses of the vessel, which may lead to substantial enhancement of the propulsion performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving Devices for Ships)
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24 pages, 11890 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Performance of Dynamic Wing for Augmenting Ship Propulsion in Head and Quartering Seas
by Kostas Belibassakis, Evangelos Filippas and George Papadakis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10010024 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2902
Abstract
Flapping-foil thrusters arranged at the bow of the ship are examined for the exploitation of energy from wave motions by direct conversion to useful propulsive power, offering at the same time dynamic stability and reduction of added wave resistance. In the present work, [...] Read more.
Flapping-foil thrusters arranged at the bow of the ship are examined for the exploitation of energy from wave motions by direct conversion to useful propulsive power, offering at the same time dynamic stability and reduction of added wave resistance. In the present work, the system consisting of the ship and an actively controlled wing located in front of its bow is examined in irregular waves. Frequency-domain seakeeping analysis is used for the estimation of ship-foil responses and compared against experimental measurements of a ferry model in head waves tested at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) towing tank. Next, to exploit the information concerning the responses from the verified seakeeping model, a detailed time-domain analysis of the loads acting on the foil, both in head and quartering seas, is presented, as obtained by means of a cost-effective time-domain boundary element method (BEM) solver validated by a higher fidelity RANSE finite volume solver. The results demonstrate the good performance of the examined system and will further support the development of the system at a larger model scale and the optimal design at full scale for specific ship types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving Devices for Ships)
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Review

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17 pages, 1881 KiB  
Review
Shipping Decarbonization: An Overview of the Different Stern Hydrodynamic Energy Saving Devices
by Flaminia Spinelli, Simone Mancini, Luigi Vitiello, Rasul Niazmand Bilandi and Maria De Carlini
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(5), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10050574 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3456
Abstract
In recent years, research into ships has focused on reducing emissions, consuming less energy, and being more efficient. As a result, the maritime industry has been continuing in a green and sustainable direction. Improving the fuel efficiency of ships and the decarbonization of [...] Read more.
In recent years, research into ships has focused on reducing emissions, consuming less energy, and being more efficient. As a result, the maritime industry has been continuing in a green and sustainable direction. Improving the fuel efficiency of ships and the decarbonization of shipping are important issues to reduce fuel consumption and emitted Greenhouse Gas (GHG) amounts. Decarbonization in the shipping industry could be achieved through technical and operational strategies such as Energy Saving Devices (ESDs) to reduce the fuel consumption of new and existing ships. According to the makers, ESDs can optimize fuel efficiency by up to 15%. This paper reviews the current literature on stern hydrodynamic ESDs, which are mainly used on typical merchant vessels, i.e., bulkers, tankers, and carriers. A comprehensive review is carried out analysing the different available solutions for stern hydrodynamic ESDs, the working principles, the methods used for the design, optimization, and evaluation of the performance improvements, and the relevant issues of these specific ESDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving Devices for Ships)
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