Special Issue "Drivers and Consequences of Ocean Acidification on Different Temporal and Spatial Scales"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Marta Álvarez
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña, 15001 A Coruña, Spain
Interests: CO2 in seawater; ocean acidification; water masses; ocean biogeochemistry; time series; coastal ocean

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ocean acidification (OA) has been identified as a major threat to ocean ecosystems because of the unprecedented rate of change in ocean CO2 chemistry since the starting of the anthropogenic activity. This change has unknown consequences for marine chemistry, life, and resources. This Special Issue is open for manuscript submissions on different topics dealing with OA from observations, to experiments or predictions from model results in different spatial and temporal scales, including the following topics:

  • Changing carbonate chemistry from coastal to open ocean
  • Organism to ecosystem responses and consequences of OA
  • Natural analogs to OA
  • Methods to study OA and data integration and analysis, capacity building
  • Societal consequences of OA, regional policies, mitigation, and adaptation

Dr. Marta Álvarez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • CO2 chemistry
  • CO2 variables methods
  • temporal variability
  • natural and anthropogenic drivers
  • Adaptation vs. mitigation
  • OA biological consequences
  • OA societal consequences

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Acidification and Deoxygenation of the Northwestern Japan/East Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090953 - 01 Sep 2021
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Abstract
Seasonal hypoxia in the bottom waters of the Peter the Great Bay (PGB) of the Japan/East Sea (JES) occurs in summer. Using the empirical relationship between dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH obtained for hypoxic conditions and available historical DO data, acidification rates were [...] Read more.
Seasonal hypoxia in the bottom waters of the Peter the Great Bay (PGB) of the Japan/East Sea (JES) occurs in summer. Using the empirical relationship between dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH obtained for hypoxic conditions and available historical DO data, acidification rates were estimated. Carefully sampled time-series observations from the northwestern part of the JES, carried out from 1999 to 2014 along the 132°20′ E and 134°00′ E longitudes, were chosen to determine the interannual variability of the sea’s hydrochemical parameters (DO, pH, and TA—the total alkalinity phosphates, nitrate, and silicates). To limit the effects of seasonal and spatial variability, only data obtained in the warm period were used. Additionally, all data from depths shallower than 500 m were discarded because they are affected by high natural variability, mostly due to strong mesoscale dynamic structures. Our results demonstrated that the pH and DO concentrations measured in the Upper Japan Sea Proper Water (750 m), Lower Japan Sea Proper Water (1250, 1750, 2250 m), and Bottom Water (3000 m) have been decreasing in recent years. On the other hand, calculated normalized dissolved inorganic carbon (NDIC), CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), and measured nutrient concentrations have been increasing. Maximum rates of acidification and deoxygenation are occurring at around 750 m. The annual rate of increase of pCO2 in the water exceeds the atmospheric rate more than 2-fold at a depth of 750 m. The observed variability of the hydrochemical properties can be explained by the combination of the slowdown ventilation of the vertical water column and eutrophication. However, the results obtained here are valid for the subpolar region of the JES, not for the whole sea. The synchronization of the deoxygenation of the open part of the JES and PGB has been found. Full article
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Article
Evaluating the Sensor-Equipped Autonomous Surface Vehicle C-Worker 4 as a Tool for Identifying Coastal Ocean Acidification and Changes in Carbonate Chemistry
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(11), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110939 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The interface between land and sea is a key environment for biogeochemical carbon cycling, yet these dynamic environments are traditionally under sampled. Logistical limitations have historically precluded a comprehensive understanding of coastal zone processes, including ocean acidification. Using sensors on autonomous platforms is [...] Read more.
The interface between land and sea is a key environment for biogeochemical carbon cycling, yet these dynamic environments are traditionally under sampled. Logistical limitations have historically precluded a comprehensive understanding of coastal zone processes, including ocean acidification. Using sensors on autonomous platforms is a promising approach to enhance data collection in these environments. Here, we evaluate the use of an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), the C-Worker 4 (CW4), equipped with pH and pCO2 sensors and with the capacity to mount additional sensors for up to 10 other parameters, for the collection of high-resolution data in shallow coastal environments. We deployed the CW4 on two occasions in Belizean coastal waters for 2.5 and 4 days, demonstrating its capability for high-resolution spatial mapping of surface coastal biogeochemistry. This enabled the characterisation of small-scale variability and the identification of sources of low pH/high pCO2 waters as well as identifying potential controls on coastal pH. We demonstrated the capabilities of the CW4 in both pre-planned “autonomous” mission mode and remote “manually” operated mode. After documenting platform behaviour, we provide recommendations for further usage, such as the ideal mode of operation for better quality pH data, e.g., using constant speed. The CW4 has a high power supply capacity, which permits the deployment of multiple sensors sampling concurrently, a shallow draught, and is highly controllable and manoeuvrable. This makes it a highly suitable tool for observing and characterising the carbonate system alongside identifying potential drivers and controls in shallow coastal regions. Full article
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Article
Effects of Low pH and Low Salinity Induced by Meltwater Inflow on the Behavior and Physical Condition of the Antarctic Limpet, Nacella concinna
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100822 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Seawater acidification and freshening in the intertidal zone of Marian Cove, Antarctica, which occurs by the freshwater inflow from snow fields and glaciers, could affect the physiology and behavior of intertidal marine organisms. In this study, we exposed Antarctic limpets, Nacella concinna, [...] Read more.
Seawater acidification and freshening in the intertidal zone of Marian Cove, Antarctica, which occurs by the freshwater inflow from snow fields and glaciers, could affect the physiology and behavior of intertidal marine organisms. In this study, we exposed Antarctic limpets, Nacella concinna, to two different pH (8.00 and 7.55) and salinity (34.0 and 27.0 psu) levels and measured their righting ability after being flipped over, mortality, condition factor, and shell dissolution. During the 35-day exposure, there was no significant difference in behavior and mortality between different treatments. However, the condition factor was negatively affected by low salinity. Both low pH and low salinity negatively influenced shell formation by decreasing the aragonite saturation state (Ωarg) and enhancing shell dissolution. Our results suggest that, though limpets can tolerate short-term low pH and salinity conditions, intrusions of meltwater accompanied by the glacial retreat may act as a serious threat to the population of N. concinna. Full article
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Article
Severe Coastal Hypoxia Interchange with Ocean Acidification: An Experimental Perturbation Study on Carbon and Nutrient Biogeochemistry
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060462 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Normally atmospheric CO2 is the major driver of ocean acidification (OA); however, local discharge/degradation of organic matter (OM) and redox reactions can exacerbate OA in coastal areas. In this work we study the response of nutrient and carbon systems to pH decrease [...] Read more.
Normally atmospheric CO2 is the major driver of ocean acidification (OA); however, local discharge/degradation of organic matter (OM) and redox reactions can exacerbate OA in coastal areas. In this work we study the response of nutrient and carbon systems to pH decrease in relation to hydrographically induced intermittent characteristics and examine scenarios for future ocean acidification in a coastal system. Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using seawater and surface sediment collected from the deepest part of Elefsis Bay; the pH was constantly being monitored while CO2 gas addition was adjusted automatically. In Elefsis Bay surface pCO2 is already higher than global present atmospheric values, while near the bottom pCO2 reaches 1538 μatm and carbonate saturation states were calculated to be around 1.5. During the experiment, in more acidified conditions, limited alkalinity increase was observed and was correlated with the addition of bicarbonates and OM. Ammonium oxidation was decelerated and a nitrification mechanism was noticed, despite oxygen deficiency, paralleled by reduction of Mn-oxides. Phosphate was found significantly elevated for the first time in lower pH values, without reprecipitating after reoxygenation; this was linked with Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reprecipitation without phosphate adsorption affecting both available dissolved phosphate and (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) DIN:DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphate)ratio. Full article
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