Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Environmental Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2023) | Viewed by 22261

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Faculty of Marine Engineering and Natural Sciences, Klaipeda University, Klaipėda, Lithuania
Interests: application of alternative marine fuels; ship power plants; energy efficiency analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The problem of decarbonization is as relevant for the maritime sector as it is for land transport, which is a major air pollutant. In the future, the environmental impact from ships will increase due to an expansion in the global fleet and the associated consumption, almost exclusively, of fossil fuels. Accordingly, the International Maritime Organization adopted amendments to MARPOL 73/78, which introduced the CO2 emission limitation indicator—the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). EEDI also serves as an indicator of a ship's energy efficiency. The regulated improvement in the short term EEDI of 20-30% allows for the implementation of a wide range of innovative technologies that provide: reduction of resistance to movement, cogeneration and trigeneration of secondary heat sources, effective use of unconventional and alternative fuels (including natural gas, synthetic alcohols, hydrogen, ammonium), improvement in propulsion of ships by sources of alternative energy such as wind power (Magnus effect, for instance), solar power, etc. Achieving a synergistic effect by the application of innovations provides a systematic approach to the multilevel parametric optimization of the indicators of systems and power plants of a ship.

The Special Issue is focused on a broad presentation of the results of scientific research, design- technological and regulatory decisions related to the above-mentioned aspects of the problem.

Prof. Dr. Sergejus Lebedevas
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • EEDI
  • energy efficiency
  • main and auxiliary engines
  • cogeneration systems
  • alternative fuels
  • ship propulsion
  • parametric optimization
  • CO2 standardization methodology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4437 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hull and Propeller Roughness during the Assessment of Ship Fuel Consumption
by Mina Tadros, Manuel Ventura and C. Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040784 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
The effects of hull and propeller roughness are presented over ten years of operation on ship performance. The developed model used in this study is a combination of NavCad and Matlab to perform the resistance and propulsion computations of the selected ship as [...] Read more.
The effects of hull and propeller roughness are presented over ten years of operation on ship performance. The developed model used in this study is a combination of NavCad and Matlab to perform the resistance and propulsion computations of the selected ship as well as the processing of input and output data. By considering the ship hull, the engine installed and an optimized propeller, the ship performance is computed for a different combination of hull and propeller roughness according to the ITTC recommendations and the opinion of experts in the marine field. Twelve cases are simulated over the selected years of operations and compared to the new ship performance. The hull roughness has the dominant effect on the performance of the ship due to its large area. However, by adding the effect of propeller roughness, an increment is noticed in the loading ratio and fuel consumption by 1–4% and 2–4%, respectively, in addition to the hull roughness. From this study, it is concluded that the roughness of both the hull and propeller is important consider to achieve more accurate results than just considering the hull roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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22 pages, 3038 KiB  
Article
Proposal of Zero-Emission Tug in South Korea Using Fuel Cell/Energy Storage System: Economic and Environmental Long-Term Impacts
by Kyunghwa Kim, Kido Park, Gilltae Roh, Choungho Choung, Kyuhyeong Kwag and Wook Kim
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030540 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
This study presents the results of economic and environmental analysis for two types of zero-emission ships (ZESs) that are receiving more attention to meet strengthened environmental regulations. One of the two types of ZES is the ZES using only the energy storage system [...] Read more.
This study presents the results of economic and environmental analysis for two types of zero-emission ships (ZESs) that are receiving more attention to meet strengthened environmental regulations. One of the two types of ZES is the ZES using only the energy storage system (All-ESS), and the other is the ZES with fuel cell and ESS hybrid system (FC–ESS). The target ship is a tug operating in South Korea, and the main parameters are based on the specific circumstances of South Korea. The optimal capacity of the ESS for each proposed system is determined using an optimization tool. The total cost for a ship’s lifetime is calculated using economic analysis. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for the fuel’s lifecycle (well-to-wake) is calculated using environmental analysis. The results reveal that the proposed ZESs are 1.7–3.4 times more expensive than the conventional marine gas oil (MGO)-fueled ship; however, it could be reduced by 1.3–2.4 times if the carbon price is considered. The proposed ZESs have 58.7–74.3% lower lifecycle GHG emissions than the one from the conventional ship. The results also highlight that the electricity- or hydrogen-based ZESs should reduce GHG emissions from the upstream phase (well-to-tank) to realize genuine ZESs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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22 pages, 2641 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Heat Release Characteristics Identification Method of Diesel Engine under Operating Conditions
by Sergejus Lebedevas, Justas Žaglinskis and Martynas Drazdauskas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010182 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
The decarbonisation of maritime transport in connection with the European Union and International Maritime Organisation directives is mainly associated with renewable and low-carbon fuel use. For optimisation of energy indicators of ship power plants in operation on renewable and low-carbon fuel, it is [...] Read more.
The decarbonisation of maritime transport in connection with the European Union and International Maritime Organisation directives is mainly associated with renewable and low-carbon fuel use. For optimisation of energy indicators of ship power plants in operation on renewable and low-carbon fuel, it is rational to use numerical research methods. The purpose of this research is to devise methodological solutions for determining the heat release characteristics, m and φz parameters of Wiebe model that can be applied to mathematical models of diesel engines under operating conditions. Innovative solutions are proposed, which in contrast with the methods used in practice, are not related to experimental registration of combustion cycle parameters. These registration techniques were replaced by the proposed exhaust gas temperature or exhaust manifold surface temperature registration method. The acceptable accuracy of results validates the methodological solutions for solving practical tasks: according to the Wiebe model, the error of determining m and φz compared with experimental data does not exceed 3–4%. The proposed method was implemented by simulating the energy indicators of two diesel engines, car engine 1Z 1.9 TDI (Pe = 66 kW; n = 4000 RPM) and multipurpose 8V396TC4 (Pe = 380–600 kW; n = 1850 RPM), in a single-zone model. The variation in experimental data when the engines operated on both diesel and rapeseed methyl ester (a biodiesel fuel), was approximately 1%. The authors anticipate further development of completed solutions with their direct application to ship power plants in real operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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12 pages, 1837 KiB  
Article
Ship Air Pollution Estimation by AIS Data: Case Port of Klaipeda
by Paulius Rapalis, Giedrius Šilas and Justas Žaglinskis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121950 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Ships operating on fossil fuel release pollutant emissions into the atmosphere. Released pollutants have a negative effect on the environment and human health, especially in port cities. For this reason, it is very important to properly evaluate these emissions so they can be [...] Read more.
Ships operating on fossil fuel release pollutant emissions into the atmosphere. Released pollutants have a negative effect on the environment and human health, especially in port cities. For this reason, it is very important to properly evaluate these emissions so they can be managed. The current and most common methodologies for shipping pollution evaluation are used for whole port areas or larger terminals over a long period of time and are not analyzed in terms of detailed activity, which may lead to underestimations in certain areas. This study aims to evaluate emissions from ships in port by combining ships’ technical, AIS and EMEP data that allow us to evaluate emissions in port, not as a singular area source but enables individual ship emissions evaluation at any given point in time. To achieve this emission calculation, an algorithm was compiled by using EMEP/EEA Tier 3 methodology. The developed method presents a way to evaluate emissions in a detailed manner not only for groups of ships but also for individual ships if that is required. This method also lets us analyze shipping emissions’ intensity throughout all port territory and identify the most excessive pollution sources. However, the method adds additional work for researchers because of the huge data arrays required for complex calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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26 pages, 12351 KiB  
Article
Alternative Power Options for Improvement of the Environmental Friendliness of Fishing Trawlers
by Marija Koričan, Maja Perčić, Nikola Vladimir, Neven Alujević and Ailong Fan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121882 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3674
Abstract
The fishing sector is faced with emission problems arising from the extensive use of diesel engines as prime movers. Energy efficiency, environmental performance, and minimization of operative costs through the reduction of fuel consumption are key research topics across the whole maritime sector. [...] Read more.
The fishing sector is faced with emission problems arising from the extensive use of diesel engines as prime movers. Energy efficiency, environmental performance, and minimization of operative costs through the reduction of fuel consumption are key research topics across the whole maritime sector. Ship emissions can be determined at different levels of complexity and accuracy, i.e., by analyzing ship technical data and assuming its operative profile, or by direct measurements of key parameters. This paper deals with the analysis of the environmental footprint of a fishing trawler operating in the Adriatic Sea, including three phases of the Life-Cycle Assessment (manufacturing, Well-to-Pump (WTP), and Pump-to-Wake (PTW)). Based on the data on fuel consumption, the viability of replacing the conventional diesel-powered system with alternative options is analyzed. The results showed that fuels such as LNG and B20 represent the easiest solution that would result in a reduction of harmful gases and have a positive impact on overall costs. Although electrification and hydrogen represent one of the cleanest forms of energy, due to their high price and complex application in an obsolete fleet, they do not present an optimal solution for the time being. The paper showed that the use of alternative fuels would have a positive effect on the reduction of harmful emissions, but further work is needed to find an environmentally acceptable and economically profitable pathway for redesigning the ship power system of fishing trawlers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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13 pages, 2075 KiB  
Article
Ship Power Plant Decarbonisation Using Hybrid Systems and Ammonia Fuel—A Techno-Economic–Environmental Analysis
by Panagiotis Karvounis, João L. D. Dantas, Charalampos Tsoumpris and Gerasimos Theotokatos
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111675 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
The shipping sector decarbonisation has attracted great attention due to the sector contribution to worldwide carbon emissions. This study aims at investigating the techno-economic–environmental performance of different ship power plants to identify sustainable solutions for a case study cargo ship. Four scenarios, considering [...] Read more.
The shipping sector decarbonisation has attracted great attention due to the sector contribution to worldwide carbon emissions. This study aims at investigating the techno-economic–environmental performance of different ship power plants to identify sustainable solutions for a case study cargo ship. Four scenarios, considering conventional and hybrid power plants, the latter with installed batteries, both using marine gas oil and ammonia fuels, are analysed to estimate the pertinent lifetime key performance indicators characterising their economic and environmental performance. Additionally, taxation schemes of varying extent are considered, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the most uncertain input parameters, namely, fuel prices and capital cost. This study results demonstrate that the hybrid plant using ammonia exhibits the lowest environmental footprint associated with 66% carbon emission reduction, whilst increasing the lifetime cost by 40%. Taxation schemes close to 340 EUR per CO2 tonne are required to render it economically viable whilst meeting the IMO targets for 2050 on CO2 emissions reduction. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the economic parameters is highly sensitive to fuel price and the capital expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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19 pages, 4929 KiB  
Article
Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle for Marine Dual Fuel Engine Efficiency Enhancement by Utilizing Exhaust Gas and Charge Air Heat
by Yuemao Jiang, Zhe Wang, Yue Ma, Yulong Ji, Wenjian Cai and Fenghui Han
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101404 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
Dual fuel engines with LNG as fuel have become a feasible solution for ship power units in the current situation, but their fuel efficiency needs to be further enhanced to meet the increasingly stringent emission requirements. This paper designs a dual-loop system, including [...] Read more.
Dual fuel engines with LNG as fuel have become a feasible solution for ship power units in the current situation, but their fuel efficiency needs to be further enhanced to meet the increasingly stringent emission requirements. This paper designs a dual-loop system, including a supercritical CO2 power cycle and a thermally driven ejector refrigeration cycle, for recovering the exhaust gas and charge air heat of a marine dual fuel engine. The models of the waste heat recovery system, the evaluation indicators of the combined system, and the genetic algorithm optimization program are developed. Compared to the standalone machine, the waste heat recovery system can improve by about 9.3% of the engine’s fuel efficiency. The performance analysis shows that the ejector contributes to the highest share of exergy destruction and accounts for approximate 53% of the refrigeration cycle. There are optimal values for the compressor inlet temperature of about 8.1 MPa and for the turbine inlet temperature of about 305 °C. Finally, after optimization, the specific fuel consumption, fuel efficiency, and CO2 emissions of the combined system are around 137.9 g/kWh, 53.3%, and 537.4 g/kWh, respectively. It provides a feasible solution in which the charge air cooler can be wholly replaced by the ejector refrigeration cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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25 pages, 1440 KiB  
Article
Research of Organic Rankine Cycle Energy Characteristics at Operating Modes of Marine Diesel Engine
by Sergejus Lebedevas and Tomas Čepaitis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101049 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
The publication examines one of the most effective ways to decarbonize marine transport, specifically the secondary heat sources utilization in the cogeneration cycle of the main engines. The research focuses on the optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) performance parameters by combining them [...] Read more.
The publication examines one of the most effective ways to decarbonize marine transport, specifically the secondary heat sources utilization in the cogeneration cycle of the main engines. The research focuses on the optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) performance parameters by combining them with the exhaust energy potential of a medium speed four-stroke main diesel engine in ISO8178 (E3) load cycle modes. Significant advantages were not found between the evaluated Wet-, Isentropic-, and Dry-type liquids (R134a, R141b, R142b, R245fa, Isopentane) in terms of ORC energy performance with a 10% difference. The use of a variable geometry turbogenerator turbine with Dry-type (R134a) working fluid is characterized by the highest ORC energy efficiency up to 15% and an increase in power plant (including turbogenerator generated mechanical) by 6.2%. For a fixed geometry turbine, a rational control strategy of the working fluid flow (Gd.skπT) is determined by the priorities of the power plant in certain load modes. The influence of the overboard water temperature on the ORC energy indicators does not exceed ±1%; however, it influences the thermodynamic saturation parameters of the working fluid condensation and, in connection with that, the fluid selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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20 pages, 7884 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Port Tugs on Improving the Navigational Safety of the Port
by Vytautas Paulauskas, Martynas Simutis, Birute Plačiene, Raimondas Barzdžiukas, Martynas Jonkus and Donatas Paulauskas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(3), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9030342 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4075
Abstract
Port tugs are an important element in port activity and navigational safety issues. Port tugs ensure the safety of big ships while they are entering, manoeuvring, mooring and unmooring, and are of huge importance during other port operations. At the same time, optimizing [...] Read more.
Port tugs are an important element in port activity and navigational safety issues. Port tugs ensure the safety of big ships while they are entering, manoeuvring, mooring and unmooring, and are of huge importance during other port operations. At the same time, optimizing the number of port tugs and tug bollard pull is also important from a port navigational safety and economic point of view. Calculation and evaluation methods of the optimal request for tugs bollard pull, in particular, port operations, are very important in order to guarantee the navigational safety of the port and ships during the main ship operations in the port. This article provides the number of requested port tugs and bollard pull calculation and evaluation methods on the basis of forces and moments acting on ships. On the basis of real ship voyages and manoeuvring at ports data as well as high accuracy simulators, theoretical methods were used, which were followed by our conclusions and recommendations, which can be used by port harbour masters and tug companies. Modern tugs have become an important element and integral part of modern port navigational safety. Such modern port tugs are also used for navigational safety and other important port functions and activities, such as fire protection and search and rescue operations. The optimal number and capacity evaluation of port tugs depending on port capacity and conditions are studied in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decarbonization of Ship Power Plants)
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