Special Issue "Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gerasimos Theotokatos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Maritime Safety Research Centre, Department of Naval Architecture Ocean and Marine Engineeting, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
Interests: marine systems safety; marine engines and propulsion systems; cyber-physical and autonomous systems; advanced model-based methods; life cycle energy; and risk management
Dr. Andrea Coraddu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Strathclyde, Department of Naval Architecture Ocean and Marine Engineeting, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
Interests: modelling; optimisation; data-driven methods; real-time monitoring; condition-based maintenance; marine engines; and propulsion systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stringent environmental regulations, the volatility of fuel prices, alternative fuels, the development of emerging technologies, artificial intelligence methods, big data analytics, advances on ship systems autonomy/automation, and fourth industrial revolution concepts provide ship energy system designers and operators with both challenges and opportunities, which, if appropriately addressed, will result in step changes in the way the ships energy systems are perceived today.

This Special Issue provides a platform for academics, scientists and professionals from the industry to exchange the most contemporary ideas, techniques, methods and experience in the area of ship energy systems including modelling, optimisation, control, maintenance, safety, autonomy/automation, environmental friendliness, regulatory framework and sustainability.

This Special Issue mainly intends to accommodate studies and papers presented in the 2nd International Conference on Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems (MOSES2019) held in the period 8–10 May 2019 in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. However, taking into account the importance and impact of topics as well as the variety of academic and industial groups working worldwide in the discipline of the ship energy systems, we invite all interested authors to submit novel/original studies and reviews that advance the scientific/technical understanding of the addressed topics.

Dr. Gerasimos Theotokatos
Dr. Andrea Coraddu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ship energy systems—modelling, optimisation, control, design, and operations
  • big data analytics
  • maintenance
  • safety
  • automation/autonomy
  • environmental friendliness
  • and sustainability

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Selected Papers from the Second International Conference on Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems (MOSES2019)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100779 - 04 Oct 2020
Viewed by 308
Abstract
This Special Issue presents a collection of articles addressing the contemporary challenges in the areas of the ship energy systems modelling and optimisation [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Parametric Knocking Performance Investigation of Spark Ignition Natural Gas Engines and Dual Fuel Engines
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060459 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Both spark ignition (SI) natural gas engines and compression ignition (CI) dual fuel (DF) engines suffer from knocking when the unburnt mixture ignites spontaneously prior to the flame front arrival. In this study, a parametric investigation is performed on the knocking performance of [...] Read more.
Both spark ignition (SI) natural gas engines and compression ignition (CI) dual fuel (DF) engines suffer from knocking when the unburnt mixture ignites spontaneously prior to the flame front arrival. In this study, a parametric investigation is performed on the knocking performance of these two engine types by using the GT-Power software. An SI natural gas engine and a DF engine are modelled by employing a two-zone zero-dimensional combustion model, which uses Wiebe function to determine the combustion rate and provides adequate prediction of the unburnt zone temperature, which is crucial for the knocking prediction. The developed models are validated against experimentally measured parameters and are subsequently used for performing parametric investigations. The derived results are analysed to quantify the effect of the compression ratio, air-fuel equivalence ratio and ignition timing on both engines as well as the effect of pilot fuel energy proportion on the DF engine. The results demonstrate that the compression ratio of the investigated SI and DF engines must be limited to 11 and 16.5, respectively, for avoiding knocking occurrence. The ignition timing for the SI and the DF engines must be controlled after −38°CA and 3°CA, respectively. A higher pilot fuel energy proportion between 5% and 15% results in increasing the knocking tendency and intensity for the DF Engine at high loads. This study results in better insights on the impacts of the investigated engine design and operating settings for natural gas (NG)-fuelled engines, thus it can provide useful support for obtaining the optimal settings targeting a desired combustion behaviour and engine performance while attenuating the knocking tendency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Variable-Speed Engines on Wind Farm Support Vessels
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030229 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
We examine the fuel savings of Edda Passat, a newly constructed wind farm support vessel that utilizes a common direct current (DC) grid. This enables its diesel engines to operate at variable speeds by using frequency converter technology. A detailed investigation of these [...] Read more.
We examine the fuel savings of Edda Passat, a newly constructed wind farm support vessel that utilizes a common direct current (DC) grid. This enables its diesel engines to operate at variable speeds by using frequency converter technology. A detailed investigation of these benefits has been performed based on real-life measurements from three months of operations in the Race Bank wind farm off the east coast of England. The calculated fuel savings of Edda Passat achieved via its variable-speed engines are 21% lower compared to using a conventional alternating current (AC) grid with a fixed frequency. This paper will explain the technology, measurements, and results in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Towards Marine Dual Fuel Engines Digital Twins—Integrated Modelling of Thermodynamic Processes and Control System Functions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030200 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
This study aims at developing an integrated model that combines detailed engine thermodynamic modelling and the control system functional modelling paving the way towards the development of high-fidelity digital twins. To sufficiently represent the combustion process, a multi-Wiebe function approach was employed, whereas [...] Read more.
This study aims at developing an integrated model that combines detailed engine thermodynamic modelling and the control system functional modelling paving the way towards the development of high-fidelity digital twins. To sufficiently represent the combustion process, a multi-Wiebe function approach was employed, whereas a database for storing the combustion model parameters was developed. The developed model was employed for the systematic investigation of a marine four-stroke dual fuel engine response during demanding transient operation with mode switching and load changes. The derived results were analysed to identify the critical engine components and their effect on the engine operational limitations. The results demonstrate that the developed model can sufficiently represent the engine and its subsystems/components behaviour and effectively capture the engine control system’s functionality. The appropriate turbocharger matching along with the sufficient design of the exhaust gas waste gate valve and fuel control systems are crucial for ensuring the smooth engine operation of dual fuel engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Comparative Analysis of EEDI Versus Lifetime CO2 Emissions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010061 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) was introduced as a regulatory tool employed at the ship design phase to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and increase the vessel’s operational efficiency. Although it stimulated the greening of the shipping operations, its [...] Read more.
The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) was introduced as a regulatory tool employed at the ship design phase to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and increase the vessel’s operational efficiency. Although it stimulated the greening of the shipping operations, its effectiveness is considerably criticised from various shipping industry stakeholders. The aim of this study is to investigate the EEDI effectiveness on accurately representing the environmental performance of the next-generation ships power plants for two representative ship types, in specific, an ocean-going tanker and a cruise ship. The performance of the optimal power plant solutions identified in previous studies is analysed according to the existing EEDI regulatory framework and compared with the lifetime CO2 emissions estimated based on an actual operating profile for each ship. The results indicate that the EEDI underestimates the effect of technologies for reducing carbon emissions in all the investigated cases. In this respect, it is concluded that EEDI is classified as a conservative metric, which however can be used as an approximation to compare alternative solutions early in the design phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Programming Techniques for the Optimization of Ship Machinery Systems
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(11), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7110403 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
The selection of a proper machinery system is one of the primary decisions to be taken during the ship design phase. Nonetheless, this selection is made challenging by the presence of a variety of alternatives, and by the limited data availability at the [...] Read more.
The selection of a proper machinery system is one of the primary decisions to be taken during the ship design phase. Nonetheless, this selection is made challenging by the presence of a variety of alternatives, and by the limited data availability at the early stages of the design phase. An optimization framework is presented in this paper, supporting decision making at the earliest stages of the ship design process. The framework is suitable to perform the screening and the selection of optimal machinery configurations for a predefined ship operational profile, and it includes both linear and non-linear optimization routines. The results of the linear and the non-linear approaches are compared, and indications on what conditions are the most suitable for the application of one or the other approach are provided. Both approaches are tested for two case studies, a bulk carrier and a small cruise ship. The results indicate that both optimization approaches lead to the same layout of the machinery system, but to slightly different unit scheduling. This suggests that the use of the linear approach is suitable for design purposes, but less appropriate for operational optimization. In addition, the findings of the work suggest that the trade-off between fuel consumption and volume of the engines should be considered when selecting the machinery system for a ship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study on Fuel Gas Supply Systems for LNG Bunkering Using Carbon Dioxide and Glycol Water
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060184 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Liquified natural gas (LNG) fuel has received significant attention as an affordable and highly efficient fuel option due to strengthened regulations on the sulfur content of bunker oil put in place by the International Maritime Organization. The main component of the LNG fuel [...] Read more.
Liquified natural gas (LNG) fuel has received significant attention as an affordable and highly efficient fuel option due to strengthened regulations on the sulfur content of bunker oil put in place by the International Maritime Organization. The main component of the LNG fuel gas supply system (FGSS) is the heat exchanger that provides adequate gas temperatures and pressures required by the engine, which also has a large machinery volume compared with other equipment. Due to the volume limitation, most FGSS have been applied to new shipbuilding only. To reduce the volume of the FGSS, CO2 was considered to serve as the replacement heat medium for conventionally used glycol water during LNG gasification. The specific power consumption (SPC) in the CO2 and glycol water system was optimized using the Aspen HYSYS thermodynamic modeler toward adjusting the temperature and pressure, and the resulting sizes were compared. This study demonstrated that the CO2 heat medium resulted in a 14% improvement in efficiency and a 7% reduction in heat exchanger size concluding that it was the most advantageous heat medium for the LNG regasification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Optimisation of Ship Energy Systems)
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