Special Issue "Advances in Synthesis, Structure and Properties of Wood and Non-Wood Composites"

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Salim Hiziroglu

Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-6013, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Wood products, composites, Wood composites, wood-moisture relation, mechanical processes of wood products. Value-added composite panels from under-utilized species of Oklahoma. Evaluation of surface characteristics of wood composites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Value-added composite panels manufactured from wood and non-wood based lignocellulosic materials have been used for many applications including furniture and cabinet manufacture, flooring, paneling, as well as structural purposes. Using waste and underutilized species as raw material is one of the most attractive properties of such panels. Typical process includes producing of raw materials in the form of fibers, particles or strands and mixing them with different types of adhesives and construct an unpressed mat prior the its compression under heat for certain period of time.

The objective of this Special Issue is to introduce fundamentals and structure of value-added lignocellulosic based composite products from the perspective of environmentally friendly approach. Results of various investigations related to different procedures and techniques for manufacturing of value-added composites including raw material selection, adhesives, and manufacturing parameters in addition to physical and mechanical properties of the panels will be included in the session. Using traditional and non-toxic green adhesives in manufacture of composite products will also be covered. Research projects related but not limited to using organic and plastic waste, green processes and materials in production of lignocellulosic structural and non-structural composite panels within the context of sustainable environment are welcome in this Special Issue.

Prof. Salim Hiziroglu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Composites
  • Value-added
  • Lignocellulosic materials
  • Mechanics
  • Underutilized species

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Binderless Particleboard Made from Steam-Pretreated Oil Palm Trunk Particles
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3020046
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
Formaldehyde emissions from conventional particleboards raise issues of health and safety. One of the potential solutions is binderless particleboards made without using synthetic adhesives. However, the physical and mechanical properties of untreated binderless particleboards are relatively poor compared to conventional particleboards. This research [...] Read more.
Formaldehyde emissions from conventional particleboards raise issues of health and safety. One of the potential solutions is binderless particleboards made without using synthetic adhesives. However, the physical and mechanical properties of untreated binderless particleboards are relatively poor compared to conventional particleboards. This research aims to reveal the potential of using steam pretreatment to improve binderless particleboard properties made from oil palm trunk. The oil palm trunk particles were treated with steam pretreatment for different durations of time (20, 40, 60 min). The chemical constituents of the treated and untreated particles were evaluated. The binderless particleboards were made from treated and untreated particles. In addition, panels using untreated oil palm trunk particles with 10% urea–formaldehyde resin were made and used as a comparison. The boards were evaluated according to European Standards. The results indicated that the hemicellulose and starch content gradually reduced with the progression of steam pretreatment. The physical and mechanical properties were improved by increasing steam pretreatment duration. The steam pretreatment was able to improve the properties of binderless particleboards made from oil palm trunk. However, the performance of steam-pretreated binderless particleboard in this study is not compatible with the particleboards made using 10% urea–formaldehyde. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Biocomposites Produced from Hardwood Particles by Equal Channel Angular Pressing Without Additives
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3020036
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been shown to be a promising method for producing biocomposites from wood particles. However, severe plastic deformation during ECAP would cause considerable cracking when consolidation is carried out without a binder. In this study, the processing conditions [...] Read more.
Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been shown to be a promising method for producing biocomposites from wood particles. However, severe plastic deformation during ECAP would cause considerable cracking when consolidation is carried out without a binder. In this study, the processing conditions were investigated for ECAP of hardwood particles into bulk biocomposites without any additives. Crack formation and wood cell deformation were examined in conjunction with thermal stability and crystallinity of the biocomposites. In comparison with hot pressing without severe shearing, a decrease in crystallinity and severe deformation of wood cells occurred during ECAP. Improved processability and homogeneous deformation would occur at high ECAP temperature (e.g., 210 °C) or low ECAP speed (e.g., 10 mm/min), leading to reduced crack formation in the ECAP-produced biocomposites. Despite its tendency to cause periodic cracking, effective plastic deformation in the regions between cracks was shown to improve interparticle binding. Ongoing research points to the potential achievement of crack-free hardwood (HW) consolidated without a binder, leading to significantly enhanced strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deterioration of Wood Plastics Composites by the White-Rot Fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010024
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
Wood plastic composites (WPC) are characterized by the mixing of wood fibers with plastics, allowing the production of new products whose characteristics are in several aspects superior to those of the original products and represent an expanding class of durable and low-cost materials [...] Read more.
Wood plastic composites (WPC) are characterized by the mixing of wood fibers with plastics, allowing the production of new products whose characteristics are in several aspects superior to those of the original products and represent an expanding class of durable and low-cost materials in which their uses can reduce the environmental footprint and the dependence on petroleum products. Nevertheless, WPC has some setbacks, including biodegradation, which shortens its life span. In this study, the wood composite was exposed to the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus in order to evaluate its resistance to biodegradation. The WPC was prepared with a 1:1 ratio of Eucalyptus spp. bark as reinforcement agent and polypropylene as matrix. Mechanical and rheological properties and mass loss were evaluated from 15 to 120 days of fungus exposure. After 15 days, a mass loss was detected, which transmitted a negligible effect on the impact resistance of the composite. For the 120-day fungus-exposed composite, the fungus produced a biofilm under the WPC that create a special environment for lignocellulosic consuming led to deterioration of the mechanical properties and minor changes on the thermal–chemical stability of the WPC. Finally, the study gave a great indication of the susceptibility of a Eucalyptus-based composite to biodegradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulations of Azobé/Urea Formaldehyde Wood Plastic Composite Behaviors under Charpy Impact and Low-Velocity Drop Weight Tests
J. Compos. Sci. 2018, 2(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs2040060
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
This work is concerned with the study of the influence of impactor’s velocity parameters, impactor’s geometry, the target plate properties, and thickness, on the response of a tropical wood plastic composite (WPC) Azobé/urea formaldehyde (Az/UF) plate under impact loading. Variations of the impact [...] Read more.
This work is concerned with the study of the influence of impactor’s velocity parameters, impactor’s geometry, the target plate properties, and thickness, on the response of a tropical wood plastic composite (WPC) Azobé/urea formaldehyde (Az/UF) plate under impact loading. Variations of the impact force, displacement, deformation, and impact energy of the specimens with weight fractions of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% have been considered in finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. The simulations of the Charpy and of a drop weight impact test on the WPC were carried out using the explicit dynamics module of ANSYS Workbench, which handles problems of dynamic loading of a short duration for 2D and 3D analyses. Contact laws that account for the compressibility of the interacting bodies (the standard steel impactor and the WPC target plate), have been used. The results show that the displacements decrease in contrast to the increase of the wood filler content, and vary in the 6.8–9.0 mm interval. From an energetic point of view, it is observed that the maximum absorbed energy is between 40 and 50% for the Azobe flour wt.%, with energy absorption rates of 28% and 26% of the total energy. These results are in agreement with those reported in previous experimental investigations on hybrid WPCs filled with wood flour and glass fibers, which produce an energy absorption rate of 24–26%. These results promote the applicability of Azobé tropical wood in fabricating WPCs for impact loading situations. Full article
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