Special Issue "Modern Grinding Technology and Systems"

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and innovation in Advanced Manufacturing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Brian Rowe
Website
Guest Editor
Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Interests: grinding innovations; abrasive processes; abrasive tools; grinding machines; grinding systems; high removal rates; precision; grinding sensors; micro-grinding; flexible grinding systems; coolants and lubricants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will feature key innovations in the science and engineering of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems for a range of important industrial topics. Topics will, not only feature well-known grinding processes and tools, but also innovations to solve new areas of application. Innovations may range from high-precision kinematics for grinding very large lenses and reflectors, through to medium-sized grinding machine processes, down to grinding very small components used in MEMS. Materials to be ground may include conventional engineering steels to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. Papers may also deal with novel topics, such as finishing of parts produced by 3D printing. Innovations may also include new features introduced into control systems to improve process efficiency or to integrate the grinding process more effectively into a wider manufacturing system. Papers will be considered that show significant improvements to any aspect of grinding processes, machines, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, and lubricants.

Prof. Dr. W. Brian Rowe
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inventions is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • grinding innovations
  • abrasive processes
  • abrasive tools and wheel preparation
  • grinding new materials
  • grinding machines
  • grinding systems and controls
  • high removal rates
  • high precision
  • grinding sensors
  • micro-grinding
  • flexible grinding systems
  • coolants and lubricants

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry
Inventions 2017, 2(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2040036 - 13 Dec 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF) of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such [...] Read more.
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF) of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF) processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa) on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets) under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE) centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE). The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Grinding Wheel Topography on the Thermo-Mechanical Stress Collective in Grinding
Inventions 2017, 2(4), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2040034 - 04 Dec 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
The grinding process is used for both high-performance machining and surface finishing of hardened steel. In addition to the grinding parameters and the grinding fluid supply, the topography of the grinding wheel mainly determines the grinding process behavior and the grinding process result. [...] Read more.
The grinding process is used for both high-performance machining and surface finishing of hardened steel. In addition to the grinding parameters and the grinding fluid supply, the topography of the grinding wheel mainly determines the grinding process behavior and the grinding process result. An alteration of the topography by a variation of the volumetric composition of the grinding wheel, by a variation of the grinding wheel conditioning, or by wear causes a change in the contact conditions. The state of the art shows a substantial knowledge deficit about the influence of the volumetric grinding wheel composition and the resulting grinding wheel topography on the thermo-mechanical stress collective acting on the workpiece external zone. Thus, it is not possible to make a quantitative statement about the influence of the volumetric grinding wheel composition on the external zone properties of a component after grinding. Therefore, the aim of the current research is an empirical-analytical model for the prediction of the thermo-mechanical stress collective as a function of the grinding wheel topography. For this purpose, a methodology is developed, which enables the prediction of the topography-dependent thermo-mechanical load in a grinding process. Therefore, the topography is characterized by means of quantitative parameters and the main influencing variables on the grinding process behavior are investigated. The findings are used to analyze the influence of a change in the topography on the grinding temperature and the grinding force. The obtained results are summarized and are used to explain the thermo-mechanical stress collective as a function of the grinding wheel topography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Stochastic Kinematic Process Model with an Implemented Wear Model for High Feed Dry Grinding
Inventions 2017, 2(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2040031 - 16 Nov 2017
Abstract
This paper considers heavy duty grinding with resin bonded corundum grinding wheels and without lubrication and cooling. A vertical turning machine redesigned to a grinding machine test bench with a power controlled grinding spindle is used in all of the experiments, allowing high [...] Read more.
This paper considers heavy duty grinding with resin bonded corundum grinding wheels and without lubrication and cooling. A vertical turning machine redesigned to a grinding machine test bench with a power controlled grinding spindle is used in all of the experiments, allowing high tangential table feed rates up to 480 m/min. This special test-rig emulates the railway grinding usually done by a railway grinding train. The main test-rig components are presented and the resulting kinematics of the experimental set-up is described. A stochastic kinematic grinding model is presented. A wear model that is based on the kinematic description of the grinding process is set up. Grain breakage is identified as the main wear phenomenon, initiated by grain flattening and micro-splintering. The wear model is implemented into the stochastic kinematic modelling. The workpiece material side flow and spring back are considered. The simulation results are validated experimentally. The workpiece surface roughness is compared and a good agreement between simulation and experiment can be found, where the deviation between the experiment and the simulation is less than 15% for single-sided contact between the grinding wheel and the workpiece. Higher deviations between simulation and experiment, up to 24%, for double-sided contact is observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Analysis for the Use of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate as a Soluble Metal Cutting Fluid for Micromachining with Electroless-Plated Micropencil Grinding Tools
Inventions 2017, 2(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2040029 - 10 Nov 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Microgrinding with micropencil grinding tools (MPGTs) is a flexible and economic process to machine microstructures in hard and brittle materials. In macrogrinding, cooling and lubrication are done with metal cutting fluids; their application and influence is well researched. Although it can be expected [...] Read more.
Microgrinding with micropencil grinding tools (MPGTs) is a flexible and economic process to machine microstructures in hard and brittle materials. In macrogrinding, cooling and lubrication are done with metal cutting fluids; their application and influence is well researched. Although it can be expected that metal cutting fluids also play a decisive role in microgrinding, systematic investigations can hardly be found. A metal cutting fluid capable of wetting the machining process, containing quantities as small as 0.02% of the water-soluble fluid sodium dodecyl sulfate was tested in microgrinding experiments with MPGTs (diameter ~50 µm; abrasive grit size 2–4 µm). The workpiece material was hardened 16MnCr5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Grinding Fluid Jet Characteristics and Their Effect on a Gear Profile Grinding Process
Inventions 2017, 2(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2040027 - 25 Oct 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Profile gear grinding is characterized by a high level of achievable process performance and workpiece quality. However, the wide contact length between the workpiece and the grinding wheel is disadvantageous for the fluid supply to the contact zone and leads to the risk [...] Read more.
Profile gear grinding is characterized by a high level of achievable process performance and workpiece quality. However, the wide contact length between the workpiece and the grinding wheel is disadvantageous for the fluid supply to the contact zone and leads to the risk of locally burning the workpiece surface. For the reduction of both the thermal load and the risk of thermo-mechanical damage, the usage of a grinding fluid needs to be investigated and optimized. For this purpose, different kinds of grinding fluid nozzles were tested, which provide different grinding fluid jet characteristics. Through a specific design of the nozzles, it is possible to control the fluid flow inside the nozzle. It was found that this internal fluid flow directly influences the breakup of the coolant fluid jet. There are three groups of jet breakup (“droplet”, “wave & droplet”, and “atomization”). The first experimental results show that the influence of the jet breakup on the process performance is significant. The “wave & droplet” jet breakup can achieve a high process performance, in contrast to the “atomization” jet breakup. It can therefore be assumed that the wetting of the grinding wheel by the grinding fluid jet is significantly influenced by the jet breakup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Model Development for Optimum Setup Conditions that Satisfy Three Stability Criteria of Centerless Grinding Systems
Inventions 2017, 2(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2040026 - 21 Sep 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The centerless grinding process demonstrates superior grinding accuracy with extremely high productivity, but only if the setup conditions are properly set up. Otherwise, various unfavorable phenomena manifest during the grinding processes and become serious obstacles to achieving that high quality and productivity. These [...] Read more.
The centerless grinding process demonstrates superior grinding accuracy with extremely high productivity, but only if the setup conditions are properly set up. Otherwise, various unfavorable phenomena manifest during the grinding processes and become serious obstacles to achieving that high quality and productivity. These phenomena are associated with the fundamental stabilities of the centerless grinding system, so it is essential to keep the system stable by setting up the appropriate grinding conditions. This paper describes the development of a model for finding the setup conditions that simultaneously satisfy the three stability criteria of centerless grinding systems: (1) work rotation stability for safe operations; (2) geometrical rounding stability for better roundness; and (3) dynamic system stability for chatter-free grinding. The objective of the model development is to produce combinations of optimal setup conditions as the outputs of the model, and to rank the priority of the outputs using PI (performance index) functions based on the process aims (productivity or accuracy). The paper demonstrates that the developed model, named Opt-Setup Master, can generate the optimum setup conditions to ensure safe operations, better roundness and chatter-free grinding. It provides practical setup conditions as well as scientific parameters and fundamental grinding parameters. Finally, the paper verifies that the Opt-Setup Master provides the setup conditions that simultaneously satisfy all three stability criteria of the centerless grinding system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Direct Photonic Fusion of Vitrified Bonding Materials
Inventions 2017, 2(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2030019 - 18 Aug 2017
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to show the effects of the direct fusion of raw materials used for vitrified grinding wheels by photonic interactions. The paper describes the construction of a sintering apparatus that employs a pulsed neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to show the effects of the direct fusion of raw materials used for vitrified grinding wheels by photonic interactions. The paper describes the construction of a sintering apparatus that employs a pulsed neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to fuse a combination of raw materials such as ball clay, feldspar, and borax to form a partially-crystalline glass material. The experimental results show that lasers can replace traditional methods of glass frit formation by fusing raw materials used in the manufacture of glass bonds for vitrified grinding wheels. X-ray diffraction data shows that a glass with short range order has formed using the new method. The work described herein provides a new avenue for glass frit formation applied to grinding wheel manufacture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Cutting Speed on Subsurface Damage Morphology and Distribution in Ground Fused Silica
Inventions 2017, 2(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2030015 - 10 Aug 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
In optical fabrication, brittle-hard materials are used for numerous applications. Especially for high-performance optics for laser or lithography applications, a complex and consistent production chain is necessary to account for the material properties. Particularly in pre-processing, e.g., for shaping optical components, brittle material [...] Read more.
In optical fabrication, brittle-hard materials are used for numerous applications. Especially for high-performance optics for laser or lithography applications, a complex and consistent production chain is necessary to account for the material properties. Particularly in pre-processing, e.g., for shaping optical components, brittle material behavior is dominant which leads to a rough surface layer with cracks that reach far below the surface. This so called subsurface damage (SSD) needs to be removed in subsequent processes like polishing. Therefore, it is essential to know the extent of the SSD induced by shaping for an efficient design of precise corrective processes and for process improvement. Within this work the influence of cutting speed on SSD, in fused silica, induced by grinding has been investigated. To analyze the subsurface crack distribution and the maximum crack depth magnetorheological finishing has been appointed to polish a wedge into the ground surface. The depth profile of SSD was analyzed by image processing. For this purpose a coherent area of the polished wedge has been recorded by stitching microscopy. Taking the form deviation of the ground surface in to account to determine the actual depth beneath surface, the accuracy of the SSD-evaluation could be improved significantly. The experiments reveal a clear influence of the cutting speed on SSD, higher cutting speeds generate less SSD. Besides the influence on the maximum crack depth an influence on the crack length itself could be verified. Based on image analysis it was possible, to predict the maximum depth of cracks by means of crack length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Analysis of Contact Conditions during NC-Form Grinding of Cutting Edges
Inventions 2017, 2(3), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2030013 - 05 Jul 2017
Abstract
Due to increasing demands on cutting tools, cutting edge preparation is of high priority because of its influence on the tool life. Current cutting edge preparation processes are mostly limited to generating simple roundings on the cutting edge. Multi-axis high precision form grinding [...] Read more.
Due to increasing demands on cutting tools, cutting edge preparation is of high priority because of its influence on the tool life. Current cutting edge preparation processes are mostly limited to generating simple roundings on the cutting edge. Multi-axis high precision form grinding processes offer great potential to generate defined cutting edge microgeometries. Knowledge about the relation between grinding strategy and material removal rate can achieve improved work results with regard to higher precision of shape and dimensional accuracy as well as enhanced cutting edge quality. Therefore, a kinematic-geometric model was developed in order to analyze the complex contact conditions during grinding cutting edge microgeometries by using a simulation approach based on the intersection of geometric bodies. The subsequent grinding tests largely validated the utilized simulation approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Towards High Productivity in Precision Grinding
Inventions 2018, 3(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions3020024 - 12 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Over the last century, substantial advances have been made, based on improved understanding of the requirements of grinding processes, machines, control systems, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and coolant delivery. This paper reviews a selection of areas in which the application of [...] Read more.
Over the last century, substantial advances have been made, based on improved understanding of the requirements of grinding processes, machines, control systems, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and coolant delivery. This paper reviews a selection of areas in which the application of scientific principles and engineering ingenuity has led to the development of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems. Topics feature a selection of areas where relationships between scientific principles and new techniques are yielding improved productivity and better quality. These examples point towards further advances that can fruitfully be pursued. Applications in modern grinding technology range from high-precision kinematics for grinding very large lenses and reflectors through to medium size grinding machine processes and further down to grinding very small components used in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices. The importance of material issues is emphasized for the range of conventional engineering steels, through to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. It is suggested that future advances in productivity will include the wider application of artificial intelligence and robotics to improve precision, process efficiency, and features required to integrate grinding processes into wider manufacturing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Grinding Technology and Systems) Printed Edition available
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