Special Issue "Tuberculosis Program Implementation"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ibou Thior
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
PATH, Washington, DC 20001, USA
Interests: HIV; AIDS; infectious disease epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A Special Issue entitled “Addressing gaps in tuberculosis program implementation" in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is being planned. For detailed information on the journal, please use the following link https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.  

According to the World Health Organization, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries were experiencing a reduction in tuberculosis incidence and mortality. However, the latest global tuberculosis report shows that there was still a large gap in TB notifications, bacteriologically confirmed cases, detection and treatment of MDR/RR-TB. A substantial scale-up of TB preventive services is needed to reduce the risk of TB infection progressing to active disease. Although funding has doubled since 2006, it has fallen far short of what is needed.

Program managers, public health specialists and researchers in the tuberculosis field have been looking at innovative tools or interventions to address the different programmatic gaps and to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19.

The keywords listed below provide an outline of some of the possible areas of interest.

Dr. Ibou Thior
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • case finding
  • pediatric TB
  • diagnostic test
  • latent TB infection
  • laboratory monitoring
  • MDR-TB
  • treatment
  • program implementation
  • program management
  • COVID-19
  • cost effectiveness
  • financing
  • treatment adherence
  • gaps
  • capacity building
  • public private partnership
  • monitoring and evaluation
  • operational research

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Impact of Protracted Displacement on Delay in the Diagnosis Associated with Treatment Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study in Internally Displaced Tuberculosis Patients of Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211984 - 15 Nov 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Human displacement is on the rise globally, and the increase in the burden of tuberculosis (TB) is also attributed to migrations worldwide. A significant number of such displacements occur in regions with considerably higher areas of TB burden. Displacements may delay TB diagnosis [...] Read more.
Human displacement is on the rise globally, and the increase in the burden of tuberculosis (TB) is also attributed to migrations worldwide. A significant number of such displacements occur in regions with considerably higher areas of TB burden. Displacements may delay TB diagnosis and treatment, which will possibly lead to TB transmission among healthy individuals. In this study, we assessed the association of existing determinants after a protracted internal displacement of people with delay in TB diagnosis and treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on internally displaced TB patients (IDPs), registered at selected health facilities in three urban districts of Pakistan from March 2019 to February 2020. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the delay in diagnosis and treatment outcomes. IDPs with delay in initiation of treatment beyond 30 days were at high possibility of unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes (adjusted odds ratio AOR, 2.60; 95% CI 1.06–6.40). Furthermore, the multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant association (p > 0.05) between TB patients who were aged 55 to 65 years (AOR, 2.66; 95% CI 1.00–7.07), female patients (AOR, 2.42; 95% CI 1.21–4.81), visited non-formal health provider (AOR, 8.81; 95% CI 3.99–19.46), self-medication (AOR, 2.72; 95 % CI 1.37–5.37), poor knowledge of TB (AOR, 11.39; 95% CI 3.31–39.1), and perceived stigma (AOR, 8.81; 95% CI 3.99–19.4). Prolonged delay in treatment was associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among IDPs. Migrants and IDPs are more likely to experience an interruption in care due to overall exclusion from social and health care services. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the barriers to providing public health care services, particularly in preventing and treating TB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
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Article
Engaging Private Health Care Providers to Identify Individuals with TB in Nepal
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211762 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
In Nepal, 47% of individuals who fell ill with TB were not reported to the National TB Program in 2018. Approximately 60% of persons with TB initially seek care in the private sector. From November 2018 to January 2020, we implemented an active [...] Read more.
In Nepal, 47% of individuals who fell ill with TB were not reported to the National TB Program in 2018. Approximately 60% of persons with TB initially seek care in the private sector. From November 2018 to January 2020, we implemented an active case finding intervention in the Parsa and Dhanusha districts targeting private provider facilities. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, we reported on crude intervention results. We further compared case notification during the implementation to baseline and control population (Bara and Siraha) notifications. We screened 203,332 individuals; 11,266 (5.5%) were identified as presumptive for TB and 8077 (71.7%) were tested for TB. Approximately 8% had a TB diagnosis, of whom 383 (56.2%) were bacteriologically confirmed (Bac+). In total, 653 (95.7%) individuals were initiated on treatment at DOTS facilities. For the intervention districts, there was a 17%increase for bacteriologically positive TB and 10% for all forms TB compared to baseline. In comparison, the change in notifications in the control population were 4% for bacteriologically positive, and −2% all forms. Through engagement of private sector facilities, our intervention was able to increase the number of individuals identified with TB by over 10% in the Parsa and Dhanusha districts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
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Article
Barriers to Access of Healthcare Services for Rural Women—Applying Gender Lens on TB in a Rural District of Sindh, Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910102 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 571
Abstract
Background: Women in the rural districts of Pakistan face numerous barriers to healthcare, rendering gender-responsive health programming important, including for the disease of tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted to assess the general understanding of TB and for women’s access to healthcare, as [...] Read more.
Background: Women in the rural districts of Pakistan face numerous barriers to healthcare, rendering gender-responsive health programming important, including for the disease of tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted to assess the general understanding of TB and for women’s access to healthcare, as a first step towards implementation of a gender responsive TB program in Tando Allahyar, a rural district of Pakistan. Methods: A total of 36 participants were interviewed for the study. The focus group discussion guide comprised of questions on: (1) family/household dynamics, (2) community norms, (3) healthcare systems, (4) women’s access to healthcare, (5) TB Awareness, and (6) women’s access to TB Care. Results: Limited autonomy in household financial decision-making, disapproval of unassisted travel, long travel time, lack of prioritization of spending on women’s health and inadequate presence of female health providers, were identified as barriers to access healthcare for women, which is even higher in younger women. Facilitators to access of TB care included a reported lack of TB-related stigma, moderate knowledge about TB disease, and broad understanding of tuberculosis as a curable disease. Other suggested facilitators include health facilities closer to the villages and the availability of higher quality services. Conclusion: Significant barriers are faced by women in accessing TB care in rural districts of Pakistan. Program implementers in high burden countries should shift towards improved gender-responsive TB programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
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Article
Improving Treatment Adherence with Integrated Patient Management for TB Patients in Morocco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 9991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18199991 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
In Morocco, there are challenges in the management of high-risk tuberculosis (TB) patients, including paper-based management and a shortage of healthcare workers related to TB. Additionally, TB management has not been accounted for in various patient types, which affects treatment adherence. This study [...] Read more.
In Morocco, there are challenges in the management of high-risk tuberculosis (TB) patients, including paper-based management and a shortage of healthcare workers related to TB. Additionally, TB management has not been accounted for in various patient types, which affects treatment adherence. This study aims to examine the delivery model of TB management and the outcomes of an integrated patient management system that uses a patient-centered and community-based approach, along with mobile health technology. A total of 3605 TB patients were enrolled in this program in Morocco’s five prefectures (Rabat, Salé, Kénitra, Khemisset, Skhirat–Témara) from January 2018 to December 2019. Patients were managed based on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, areas (rural or urban), health literacy levels, and distance to primary health centers. Our mobile health intervention “smart pillbox” was interposed with high-risk TB patients, along with patient education. The rate of successful treatment was 92.2%, which was higher than the national rate (88%). The “lost to follow-up” rate was 4.1%, which was significantly lower than the existing non-adherence rate of 7.9%. Therefore, integrated patient management for TB patients in Morocco is more effective than the existing conventional programs. This comprehensive approach provides an alternative method for countries with limited resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
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Article
Tuberculosis Death Epidemiology and Its Associated Risk Factors in Sabah, Malaysia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189740 - 16 Sep 2021
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading killer from a single infectious agent globally. In 2019, Malaysia’s TB incidence rate was 92 per 100,000 population, and the TB mortality rate was estimated at 4 cases per 100,000 population per year. However, the state of Sabah [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading killer from a single infectious agent globally. In 2019, Malaysia’s TB incidence rate was 92 per 100,000 population, and the TB mortality rate was estimated at 4 cases per 100,000 population per year. However, the state of Sabah had a higher burden of TB with a notification rate of 128 per 100,000 population and a TB case fatality rate of 8% compared to the national figure. This study aims to provide a comprehensive report on TB deaths epidemiology and its associated factors at a sub-national level. This nested case-control study used Sabah State Health Department TB surveillance data from the Malaysia national case-based TB registry (MyTB) between 2014 and 2018. Cases were defined as all-cause TB deaths that occurred before anti-TB treatment completion from the time of TB diagnosis. Controls were randomly selected from TB patients who completed anti-TB treatment. The TB mortality rate had increased significantly from 9.0/100,000 population in 2014 to 11.4/100,000 population in 2018. The majority of TB deaths occurred in the first two months of treatment. TB-related deaths were primarily due to advanced disease or disseminated TB, whereas non-TB-related deaths were primarily due to existing comorbidities. Many important independent risk factors for TB deaths were identified which are useful to address the increasing TB mortality rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
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Article
Factors Affecting Motivation among Key Populations to Engage with Tuberculosis Screening and Testing Services in Northwest Tanzania: A Mixed-Methods Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189654 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 907
Abstract
In northwest Tanzania, many artisanal small-scale miners (ASMs) and female sex workers (FSWs) live in informal communities surrounding mines where tuberculosis (TB) is highly prevalent. An active case finding (ACF) intervention to increase TB case notification was undertaken in two districts. Alongside this, [...] Read more.
In northwest Tanzania, many artisanal small-scale miners (ASMs) and female sex workers (FSWs) live in informal communities surrounding mines where tuberculosis (TB) is highly prevalent. An active case finding (ACF) intervention to increase TB case notification was undertaken in two districts. Alongside this, a study was implemented to understand engagement with the intervention through: (1) quantitative questionnaires to 128 ASMs and FSWs, who either engaged or did not engage in the ACF intervention, to assess their views on TB; (2) qualitative interviews with 41 ASMs and FSWs, 36 community health workers (CHWs) and 30 community stakeholders. The mean perceived severity of TB score was higher in the engaged than in the non-engaged group (p = 0.01). Thematic analysis showed that health-seeking behaviour was similar across both groups but that individuals in the non-engaged group were more reluctant to give sputum samples, often because they did not understand the purpose. CHWs feared contracting TB on the job, and many noted that mining areas were difficult to access without transportation. Community stakeholders provided various recommendations to increase engagement. This study highlights reasons for engagement with a large-scale ACF intervention targeting key populations and presents insights from implementers and stakeholders on the implementation of the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
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Article
A Multi-Faceted Approach to Tuberculosis Active Case Finding among Remote Riverine Communities in Southern Nigeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189424 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Nigeria accounts for 11% of the worldwide gap between estimated and reported individuals with tuberculosis (TB). Hard-to-reach communities on the Southern Nigeria coast experience many difficulties accessing TB services. We implemented an active case finding (ACF) intervention in Akwa Ibom and Cross River [...] Read more.
Nigeria accounts for 11% of the worldwide gap between estimated and reported individuals with tuberculosis (TB). Hard-to-reach communities on the Southern Nigeria coast experience many difficulties accessing TB services. We implemented an active case finding (ACF) intervention in Akwa Ibom and Cross River states utilizing three approaches: house-to-house/tent-to-tent screening, community outreach and contact investigation. To evaluate the impact, we compared TB notifications in intervention areas to baseline and control population notifications, as well as to expected notifications based on historical trends. We also gathered field notes from discussions with community volunteers who provided insights on their perspectives of the intervention. A total of 509,768 individuals were screened of which 12,247 (2.4%) had TB symptoms and 11,824 (96.5%) were tested. In total, 1015 (8.6%) of those identified as presumptive had confirmed TB—98.2% initiated treatment. Following implementation, TB notifications in intervention areas increased by 112.9% compared to baseline and increased by 138.3% when compared to expected notifications based on historical trends. In contrast, control population notifications increased by 101% and 49.1%, respectively. Community volunteers indicated a preference for community outreach activities. Multi-faceted, community-based interventions in Nigeria’s coastal areas successfully increase TB detection for communities with poor access to health services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
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