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Article

Tuberculosis Death Epidemiology and Its Associated Risk Factors in Sabah, Malaysia

1
Department of Community and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Malaysia
2
TB/Leprosy Unit, Sabah State Health Department, Ministry of Health, Putrajaya 62590, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kow-Tong Chen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189740
Received: 30 May 2021 / Revised: 28 August 2021 / Accepted: 10 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis Program Implementation)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading killer from a single infectious agent globally. In 2019, Malaysia’s TB incidence rate was 92 per 100,000 population, and the TB mortality rate was estimated at 4 cases per 100,000 population per year. However, the state of Sabah had a higher burden of TB with a notification rate of 128 per 100,000 population and a TB case fatality rate of 8% compared to the national figure. This study aims to provide a comprehensive report on TB deaths epidemiology and its associated factors at a sub-national level. This nested case-control study used Sabah State Health Department TB surveillance data from the Malaysia national case-based TB registry (MyTB) between 2014 and 2018. Cases were defined as all-cause TB deaths that occurred before anti-TB treatment completion from the time of TB diagnosis. Controls were randomly selected from TB patients who completed anti-TB treatment. The TB mortality rate had increased significantly from 9.0/100,000 population in 2014 to 11.4/100,000 population in 2018. The majority of TB deaths occurred in the first two months of treatment. TB-related deaths were primarily due to advanced disease or disseminated TB, whereas non-TB-related deaths were primarily due to existing comorbidities. Many important independent risk factors for TB deaths were identified which are useful to address the increasing TB mortality rate. View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; case fatality; mortality; Sabah; Malaysia tuberculosis; case fatality; mortality; Sabah; Malaysia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Avoi, R.; Liaw, Y.C. Tuberculosis Death Epidemiology and Its Associated Risk Factors in Sabah, Malaysia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9740. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189740

AMA Style

Avoi R, Liaw YC. Tuberculosis Death Epidemiology and Its Associated Risk Factors in Sabah, Malaysia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9740. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189740

Chicago/Turabian Style

Avoi, Richard, and Yau Chun Liaw. 2021. "Tuberculosis Death Epidemiology and Its Associated Risk Factors in Sabah, Malaysia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9740. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189740

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