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Special Issue "Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2022 | Viewed by 18503

Special Issue Editors

Professor dr hab. Anna Lubkowska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chair and Department of Functional Diagnostic and Physical Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, ul. Żołnierska 54, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: thermoregulation; adaptive physiology; physical activity; rehabilitation; sports medicine; aging
Professor US dr hab. Monika Chudecka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Physical Culture Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Szczecin, al. Piastów 40 b blok 6, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: thermoregulation; sports anthropology; physical activity; somatic features and body composition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human body surface is a complex map of isotherms, with a very wide range of temperatures, changing in response to endogenous and exogenous factors. Body surface temperatures can be evaluated using thermoemission (i.e., recording the heat emitted by human skin using infrared cameras). The use of thermal imaging techniques enables a quantitative (therefore, objective) analysis of biothermokinetic—and, consequently, bioenergetic—processes occurring in the human body. The imaging of human body surface temperature distribution (thermography) can reflect the processes occurring inside the body, as a change in temperature is often the first sign of pathological processes in body tissues, noticeable before functional or structural changes develop. Thus, the use of thermal imaging methods to assess body surface temperature may be of significant diagnostic value in medical science, health science, rehabilitation, physical therapy, and sports. However, the available scientific applications are mainly focused on the use of thermography in medicine, mainly for detecting potentially pathological thermal changes by comparing surface temperatures between adjacent tissues or symmetrical body areas.

However, it seems that the potential of thermal imaging techniques as an alternative to other, often invasive and limited, methods has not yet been fully exploited, and a search for new applications is still warranted. The greatest advantage of thermal imaging is that it is a non-invasive, contactless technique, which enables its safe utilization as a research instrument.

This Special Issue is open to the subject area of Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation. The keywords listed below provide an outline of some of the possible areas of interest.

Professor dr hab. Anna Lubkowska
Professor US dr hab. Monika Chudecka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • thermography
  • IR camera
  • thermoregulation
  • body and surface temperature
  • thermal conductivity
  • medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • sport
  • diagnostic and treatment outcomes

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Article
Twelve-Month Evaluation of Temperature Effects of Radiotherapy in Patients after Mastectomy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052834 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 682
Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify the changes in the temperature distribution within the breast at twelve months after the end of radiotherapy for breast cancer. The study included twenty-four women. The first test group consisted of twelve women who underwent [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to verify the changes in the temperature distribution within the breast at twelve months after the end of radiotherapy for breast cancer. The study included twenty-four women. The first test group consisted of twelve women who underwent breast mastectomy and qualified for radiotherapy according to standard medical treatment procedures. The second group included twelve healthy women. The tests were conducted before treatment with radiation therapy and two months, six months, nine months, and one year after the end of treatment. The mean temperature values changed depending on the time that had elapsed since the end of treatment. The highest temperature increase in all patients was observed six months after the end of radiotherapy. This research has confirmed that the assessment of temperature changes in the breast area after radiotherapy can evaluate the severity and lesions in the time course of the radiation reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Reproducibility of Skin Temperature Response after Cold Stress Test Using the Game Ready System: Preliminary Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168295 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the reproducibility of lower limbs skin temperature after cold stress test using the Game Ready system. Skin temperature of fourteen participants was measured before and after cold stress test using the Game Ready system [...] Read more.
The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the reproducibility of lower limbs skin temperature after cold stress test using the Game Ready system. Skin temperature of fourteen participants was measured before and after cold stress test using the Game Ready system and it was repeated the protocol in four times: at 9:00, at 11:00, at 19:00, and at 9:00 h of the posterior day. To assess skin temperature recovery after cold stress test, a logarithmic equation for each region was calculated, and constant (β0) and slope (β1) coefficients were obtained. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error (SE), and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. No differences were observed between measurement times in any of the regions for the logarithmic coefficients (p > 0.38). Anterior thigh (β0 ICC 0.33–0.47; β1 ICC 0.31–0.43) and posterior knee (β0 ICC 0.42–0.58; β1 ICC 0.28–0.57) were the regions with the lower ICCs, and the other regions presented values with a fair and good reproducibility (ICC > 0.41). Posterior leg was the region with the better reproducibility (β0 ICC 0.68–0.78; β1 ICC 0.59–0.74; SE 3–4%; within-subject CV 7–12%). In conclusion, cold stress test using Game Ready system showed a fair and good reproducibility, especially when the posterior leg was the region assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Thermal Effects of Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Hard-to-Heal Wounds—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136737 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Clinical studies have been performed to evaluate the thermal response of topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy (THBOT) in patients suffering from hard-to-heal wounds diagnosed as venous leg ulcers located on their lower extremities. It was found that this therapy leads to a temperature decrease [...] Read more.
Clinical studies have been performed to evaluate the thermal response of topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy (THBOT) in patients suffering from hard-to-heal wounds diagnosed as venous leg ulcers located on their lower extremities. It was found that this therapy leads to a temperature decrease in areas around the wound. Moreover, a minor temperature differentiation between all areas was seen in the third period of topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy (THBOT) that may suggest that microcirculation and thermoregulation improvement start the healing process. On the other hand, the results of the conducted studies seem to prove that thermal imaging may provide a safe and effective method of analyzing wound healing of hard-to-heal wounds being treated with THBOT. This is the first study that tries to show the possibilities of a very new method by evaluating treatment of hard-to-heal wounds using thermal imaging, similar to the hyperbaric oxygen therapy effects evaluated by thermal imaging and described previously. However, the first clinical results showed a decrease in temperature due to the THBOT session and some qualitative similarities in the decrease in temperature differentiation between the studied areas and the temperature effects obtained due to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Thermal Imaging of Exercise-Associated Skin Temperature Changes in Swimmers Subjected to 2-min Intensive Exercise on a VASA Swim Bench Ergometer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126493 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
An important element of swimming training is the improvement of muscle strength and the technique of swimming movements on dry land. The heat generated by the muscles involved in the effort contributes to a change in the temperature of the skin surface, which [...] Read more.
An important element of swimming training is the improvement of muscle strength and the technique of swimming movements on dry land. The heat generated by the muscles involved in the effort contributes to a change in the temperature of the skin surface, which can be assessed by the IRT method. The aim of the study was to assess the symmetry and dynamics of changes in surface temperatures of selected areas of the body in swimmers after exercise on a swimming ergometer with the use of IRT. A total of 12 swimmers (aged 19 ± 1.3 years) completed a two-minute stress test (front crawl swimming movements) using a VASA Swim Ergometer, with a load of 5. Using an IRT camera (FLIR E60), postexercise changes in back and upper limbs surface temperature in relation to the resting values were observed. After exercise, the temperature value of all assessed areas decreased, apparently in the area of the back and the back of the arms, returning to the baseline values after 12 min of observation. There was no asymmetry in mean temperature values between the right and left upper limbs. IRT is a noninvasive and sensitive tool for the individual analysis of changes in body surface temperature in swimmers after training on dry land. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Assessment of the Dynamics of Temperature Changes in the Knee Joint Area in Response to Selected Cooling Agents in Thermographic Tests
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105326 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Although local cryotherapy (LC) is performed with various cooling agents (CAg) such as ice, water, and gasses, in clinical practice, it is mostly performed with cooling gasses. Presently, LC with cooling gasses is very popular but the inference about the thermal [...] Read more.
Although local cryotherapy (LC) is performed with various cooling agents (CAg) such as ice, water, and gasses, in clinical practice, it is mostly performed with cooling gasses. Presently, LC with cooling gasses is very popular but the inference about the thermal (stimulus) effect on the tissues is mainly based on research carried out using ice packs. The proposed objective of the study was to evaluate the dynamics of temperature changes in the knee joint area in response to a 3-min exposure to liquid nitrogen vapors (LNVs), cold air (CA) and ice bag (IB). The study group included 23 healthy volunteers with an average age of 26.67 ± 4.56. The exposed (ROIE) and contralateral (ROINE) areas of the knee joint after exposure to CAg were observed. Immediately after 3 min of LC, the ROIE temperature dropped by 10.11 ± 0.91 °C after LNV, 7.59 ± 0.14 °C after IB and 6.76 ± 1.3 °C after CA. Significant tissue cooling was maintained up to 15 min after LNV (p < 0.01), 10 min after IB (p < 0.05) and 5 min after CA (p < 0.05). LC causes significant temperature changes both in ROIE and ROINE. The greatest cooling potential was demonstrated for LNV and the lowest for CA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Face Alignment in Thermal Infrared Images Using Cascaded Shape Regression
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041776 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
The evaluation of physiological and psychological states using thermal infrared images is based on the skin temperature of specific regions of interest, such as the nose, mouth, and cheeks. To extract the skin temperature of the region of interest, face alignment in thermal [...] Read more.
The evaluation of physiological and psychological states using thermal infrared images is based on the skin temperature of specific regions of interest, such as the nose, mouth, and cheeks. To extract the skin temperature of the region of interest, face alignment in thermal infrared images is necessary. To date, the Active Appearance Model (AAM) has been used for face alignment in thermal infrared images. However, computation using this method is costly, and it has a low real-time performance. Conversely, face alignment of visible images using Cascaded Shape Regression (CSR) has been reported to have high real-time performance. However, no studies have been reported on face alignment in thermal infrared images using CSR. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the speed and robustness of face alignment in thermal infrared images using CSR. The results suggest that face alignment using CSR is more robust and computationally faster than AAM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
The Effect of Dry Carbon Dioxide Bathing on Peripheral Blood Circulation Measured by Thermal Imaging among Patients with Risk Factors of PAD
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041490 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is becoming a serious health problem of present times. It appears crucial to explore therapies that might help to restore blood flow or increase tissue oxygenation. The most effective methods of detecting early-stage changes in blood circulation in the [...] Read more.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is becoming a serious health problem of present times. It appears crucial to explore therapies that might help to restore blood flow or increase tissue oxygenation. The most effective methods of detecting early-stage changes in blood circulation in the extremities need to be identified. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) bathing on peripheral blood circulation measured by thermal imaging among patients with risk factors of PAD and ankle–brachial index (ABI) in the normal range or ABI indicating some or moderate arterial disease (ABI > 0.5). The correlation between surface temperature change and PAD-relevant characteristics was also examined. Forty-six patients who were over 65 years old who had a minimum of two additional PAD risk factors were recruited. A series of ten dry CO2 baths was performed. Thermal images were taken before and after the intervention. The CO2 therapy caused a significant change in the body surface temperature of many body areas. Numerous moderate correlations between temperature change and health-related characteristics were identified. Therefore, patients with PAD risk factors could benefit from CO2 therapy. Improvements in blood flow change the body surface temperature, and these changes could be successfully detected by thermal imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Thermal Characteristics of Breast Surface Temperature in Healthy Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031097 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Thermography is widely used in the medical field, including in the detection of breast disorders. The aim of the research was to characterize the range of breast surface temperature values, taking into account the entire area of the mammary gland and, independently, the [...] Read more.
Thermography is widely used in the medical field, including in the detection of breast disorders. The aim of the research was to characterize the range of breast surface temperature values, taking into account the entire area of the mammary gland and, independently, the nipple, in healthy women. An additional aim was to assess the symmetry of the breast temperature distribution (using an IR camera) and the correlation of temperatures with the content of adipose tissue. Thermograms were made for the right and left breasts, each time delineating the area of the entire breast and a separate area of the nipple, chest, and abdomen. Analyzing the intergroup differences in temperature of selected body areas (Tmean), it was shown that, in all cases, they were significantly higher in younger women. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between breast and nipple temperatures in relation to the body sides. The highest temperatures within the mammary gland were recorded for the nipple area. The use of the high-resolution digital infrared thermal imaging method in early and screening preventive diagnoses of changes in the mammary gland requires individual interpretation of the results, taking into account the assessment of the physiological pattern of temperature distribution in both breasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Correlation between Isotherms and Isodoses in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy—First Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020619 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
The study is focused on correlation of isotherms derived from thermal images with an isodoses describing treatment plan for patients with breast cancer treated by radiotherapy. The irradiated area covered the part of the body after mastectomy. The study included patients diagnosed with [...] Read more.
The study is focused on correlation of isotherms derived from thermal images with an isodoses describing treatment plan for patients with breast cancer treated by radiotherapy. The irradiated area covered the part of the body after mastectomy. The study included patients diagnosed with breast cancer who were qualified for radiotherapy treatment. All patients were monitored during each treatment week during the entire radiotherapy process. The measurements were made under strictly defined conditions. In the treatment planning system (TPS), the specific plan was created for each patient. Spatial dose distribution in the patient’s body was obtained and presented by the isodoses (lines connecting points with the same dose values). The following areas from the treatment planning system were plotted on the thermograms: target (tumor area) and isodose: 45 Gy, 40 Gy, 30 Gy, 20 Gy and 10 Gy. The obtained results indicated a high correlation between magnitude of the dose represented as the isodose and the temperature of the treated skin. Moreover, preliminary analysis showed a repeatable increase of the mean temperature in the irradiated area during the treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Local and Contralateral Effects after the Application of Neuromuscular Electrostimulation in Lower Limbs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239028 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) has been used mainly as a method to promote muscle strength, but its effects on improving blood flow are less well known. The aim of this study is to deepen the knowledge about the local and contralateral effects of the [...] Read more.
Neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) has been used mainly as a method to promote muscle strength, but its effects on improving blood flow are less well known. The aim of this study is to deepen the knowledge about the local and contralateral effects of the application of symmetric biphasic square currents on skin temperature (Tsk). An experimental pilot study was developed with a single study group consisting of 45 healthy subjects. Thermographic evaluations were recorded following the application of NMES to the anterior region of the thigh. The results showed an increase in the maximal Tsk of 0.67% in the anterior region of the thigh where the NMES was applied (p < 0.001) and an increase of 0.54% (p < 0.01) due to cross-education effects, which was higher when the NMES was applied on the dominant side (0.79%; p < 0.01). The duration of the effect was 20 min in the dominant leg and 10 min in the nondominant one. The application of a symmetrical biphasic current (8 Hz and 400 μs) creates an increase in the maximal Tsk at the local level. A temperature cross-education effect is produced, which is greater when the NMES is applied on the dominant side. This could be a useful noninvasive measurement tool in NMES treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Temperature Distribution of Selected Body Surfaces in Scoliosis Based on Static Infrared Thermography
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238913 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
The purpose of the research was to assess the usefulness of thermography as a complementary method in musculoskeletal dysfunction, with particular emphasis on scoliosis. The children, aged 7–16, were classified into one of two groups: the study group—children with scoliosis (n = [...] Read more.
The purpose of the research was to assess the usefulness of thermography as a complementary method in musculoskeletal dysfunction, with particular emphasis on scoliosis. The children, aged 7–16, were classified into one of two groups: the study group—children with scoliosis (n = 20), and the reference group—healthy children (n = 20). All children underwent anthropometric tests, body mass index determination, four pictures each with a FLIR T1030sc HD thermal imaging camera, and measurement of spinal rotation with a scoliometer (Gima, Italy). There is a temperature differential (about 4 °C) within the upper and lower body in children. In healthy children, differences in temperature of contralateral areas of the body do not exceed 0.5 °C. Thermography is a useful and noninvasive method of assessing muscular tension disbalance in the course of scoliosis. In the case of scoliosis, the areas of the body with a significant thermal asymmetry of the surface are the upper back, thighs, and back of the lower legs. Due to the high positive correlation of the spinal rotation angle with the amount of thermal asymmetry, the areas that should be subjected to a detailed thermal assessment in the supplementary diagnosis of scoliosis using thermovision are the upper back, chest, thighs, and back of the lower legs. Full article
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Article
Inexpensive Home Infrared Living/Environment Sensor with Regional Thermal Information for Infant Physical and Psychological Development
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186844 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
The use of home-based image sensors for biological and environmental monitoring provides novel insight into health and development but it is difficult to evaluate people during their normal activities in their home. Therefore, we developed a low-cost infrared (IR) technology-based motion, location, temperature [...] Read more.
The use of home-based image sensors for biological and environmental monitoring provides novel insight into health and development but it is difficult to evaluate people during their normal activities in their home. Therefore, we developed a low-cost infrared (IR) technology-based motion, location, temperature and thermal environment detection system that can be used non-invasively for long-term studies in the home environment. We tested this technology along with the associated analysis algorithm to visualize the effects of parental care and thermal environment on developmental state change in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). To validate this system, we first compared it to a manual analysis technique and we then assessed the development of circadian rhythms in common marmosets from postnatal day 15–45. The semi-automatically tracked biological indices of locomotion velocity (BV) and body surface temperature (BT) and the potential psychological index of place preference toward the door (BD), showed age-dependent shifts in circadian phase patterns. Although environmental variables appeared to affect circadian rhythm development, principal component analysis and signal superimposing imaging methods revealed a novel phasic pattern of BD-BT correlation day/night switching in animals older than postnatal day 38 (approximately equivalent to one year of age in humans). The origin of this switch was related to earlier development of body temperature (BT) rhythms and alteration of psychological behavior rhythms (BD) around earlier feeding times. We propose that this cost-effective, inclusive sensing and analytic technique has value for understanding developmental care conditions for which continual home non-invasive monitoring would be beneficial and further suggest the potential to adapt this technique for use in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Article
Relationship between Skin Temperature, Electrical Manifestations of Muscle Fatigue, and Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness for Dynamic Contractions: A Preliminary Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186817 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) indicates the presence of muscle damage and impairs force production and control. Monitorization of DOMS is useful to improving recovery intervention plans. The magnitude of DOMS may relate to muscle fatigue, which can be monitored by surface electromyography [...] Read more.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) indicates the presence of muscle damage and impairs force production and control. Monitorization of DOMS is useful to improving recovery intervention plans. The magnitude of DOMS may relate to muscle fatigue, which can be monitored by surface electromyography (EMG). Additionally, growing interest has been expressed in determining whether the skin temperature over a muscle group during exercise to fatigue could be a non-invasive marker for DOMS. Here we determine whether skin temperature and manifestations of muscle fatigue during exercise are correlated and can predict DOMS after concentric–eccentric bicep curl exercises. We tested 10 young adults who performed concentric–eccentric bicep curl exercises to induce muscle damage in the biceps brachialis to investigate the relationship between skin temperature and fatigue during exercise and DOMS after exercise. Muscle activation and skin temperature were recorded during exercise. DOMS was evaluated 24 h after exercise. Data analysis was performed using Bayesian regression models with regularizing priors. We found significant muscle fatigue and an increase in skin temperature during exercise. DOMS was observed 24 h after exercise. The regression models showed no correlation of changes in skin temperature and muscle fatigue during exercise with DOMS 24 h after exercise. In conclusion, our preliminary results do not support a relationship between skin temperature measured during exercise and either muscle fatigue during exercise or the ability to predict DOMS 24 h after exercise. Full article
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Article
Usefulness in Developing an Optimal Training Program and Distinguishing between Performance Levels of the Athlete’s Body by Using of Thermal Imaging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165698 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
The goal of the training is to enable the body to perform prolonged physical effort without reducing its effectiveness while maintaining the body’s homeostasis. Homeostasis is the ability of the system to maintain, in dynamic balance, the stability of the internal environment. Equally [...] Read more.
The goal of the training is to enable the body to perform prolonged physical effort without reducing its effectiveness while maintaining the body’s homeostasis. Homeostasis is the ability of the system to maintain, in dynamic balance, the stability of the internal environment. Equally as important as monitoring the body’s thermoregulation phenomena during exercise seems to be the evaluation of these mechanisms after physical effort, when the athlete’s body returns to physiological homeostasis. Restoring homeostasis is an important factor in body regeneration and has a significant impact on preventing overtraining. In this work we present a training protocol using a rowing ergometer, which was planned to be carried out in a short time and which involves working the majority of the athlete’s muscles, allowing a full assessment of the body’s thermal parameters after stopping exercise and during the body’s return to thermal equilibrium and homeostasis. The significant differences between normalized mean body surface temperature obtained for the cyclist before the training period and strength group as well as before and 10 min after training were obtained. Such observation seems to bring indirectly some information about the sportsperson’s efficiency due to differences in body temperature in the first 10 min of training when sweat does not play a main role in surface temperature. Nearly 1 °C drop of mean body temperature has been measured due to the period of training. It is concluded that thermovision not only allows you to monitor changes in body temperature due to sports activity, but also allows you to determine which of the athletes has a high level of body efficiency. The average maximum body temperature of such an athlete is higher (32.5 °C) than that of an athlete who has not trained regularly (30.9 °C) and whose body probably requires further training. Full article
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Case Report
The Use of Thermography as an Auxiliary Method for Monitoring Convalescence after Facelift Surgery: A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063687 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Although IR thermography is widely used in medical diagnostics, there are no reports that describe the use of IR thermography in the evaluation of post-plastic-surgery regeneration processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of thermography as a method which, [...] Read more.
Although IR thermography is widely used in medical diagnostics, there are no reports that describe the use of IR thermography in the evaluation of post-plastic-surgery regeneration processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of thermography as a method which, among others, allows us to determine the location and extent of the inflammatory process, supporting the clinical evaluation of the patient’s convalescence after a facelift surgery using the SMAS technique. During the study and in order to monitor the convalescence process, the patient had a series of face thermograms performed before surgery and up to the 6th week after it. The healing process after surgery was multidirectional for the contralateral areas of the face, leading to thermal asymmetry lasting up to the 3rd week of convalescence. The lowest Tmean values for ROIs were recorded in week 3 of the study and then they gradually increased, in week 6 after surgery, to the following values: chin = 33.1 ± 0.72 °C; cheek left = 33.0 ± 0.26 °C; cheek right = 33.2 ± 0.51 °C; ZFL = 33.8 ± 0.45 °C; ZFR = 33.6 ± 0.74 °C; ZLL = 32.6 ±0.55 °C; ZLR = 32.3 ± 0.32 °C. The temperatures of these areas were still lower than the baseline values obtained before surgery by 0.5–1.4 °C. The usefulness of thermography in the evaluation of post-operative convalescence in facial plastic surgery procedures shows potential in the context of diagnostic assessment of the dynamics of changes in the healing process. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The influence of cryostimulation on thermal body map of sportsman.
Authors: Teresa Kasprzyk; Cholewka Armand; Sieroń Karolina; Stanek Agata
Affiliation: 1 Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2 Department of Physical Medicine, Chair of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków Street 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland; 3 Medical University of Silesia, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Department of Internal Medicine, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland

Title: Can we evaluate brachytherapy effects in BCC by using thermovision diagnostics?
Authors: Kapek Łukasz; Cholewka Agnieszka; Ślosarek Krzysztof; Szlag Marta; Stanek Agata; Sieroń Karolina; Cholewka Armand
Affiliation: 1 Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2 Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Wybrzeże Armii Krajowej 15, Gliwice, Poland; 3 Medical University of Silesia, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Department of Internal Medicine, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland; 4 Department of Physical Medicine, Chair of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków Street 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland

Title: Characteristics of temperature distribution of selected body surfaces in scoliosis based on static infrared thermography
Authors: Anna Lubkowska; Ewa Gajewska
Affiliation: 1Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland; 2Poznan University of Medical SciencesDepartment of Developmental Neurology

Title: Proposal of thermal imaging in rowing ergometer sportsman’ efficiency evaluation.
Authors: Teresa Kasprzyk; Cholewka Armand; Agnieszka Szurko; Sieroń Karolina; Tadeusz Morawiec; Stanek Agata; Agata Stanek
Affiliation: 1 Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2 Department of Physical Medicine, Chair of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków Street 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland; 3Chair and Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Surgery Department, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze; 4 Medical University of Silesia, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Department of Internal Medicine, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland

Title: Relationship between skin temperature, electrical manifestations of muscle fatigue and exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness for dynamic contractions
Authors: Jose Ignacio Priego Quesada; Carlos De la Fuente; Marcos R. Kunzler; Pedro Perez-Soriano; David Hervás-Marín; Felipe P. Carpes
Affiliation: Research Group in Sport Biomechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Biophysics and Medical Physics Group, Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Abstract: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a matter of concern in both clinical and sport context. There is a continuous interest in determining whether skin temperature can be a non-invasive marker for DOMS. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between skin temperature, myoelectrical manifestations of muscle fatigue and DOMS after a concentric-eccentric biceps curls exercise. We tested 10 young adults who performed concentric-eccentric biceps curls exercise to induce muscle damage in biceps brachialis to investigate the relationship between skin temperature and fatigue during exercise, and DOMS after exercise. Muscle activation and skin temperature were recorded during exercise. DOMS was evaluated 24 h after exercise. Data analysis was performed using Bayesian regression models with regularizing priors. We found significant muscle fatigue during exercise and DOMS after exercise. Skin temperature increased during the exercise. However, regression models showed no correlation between changes in skin temperature and muscle fatigue during exercise with DOMS 24 h after exercise. In conclusion, our results do not support relationship of skin temperature during exercise with muscle fatigue, and no relationship was found between skin temperature and muscle fatigue with DOMS 24 h after dynamics contractions.

Title: Thermal imaging of breast surface temperature in healthy women.
Authors: Anna Lubkowska; Monika Chudecka
Affiliation: 1Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland; 2 Institute of Physical Culture Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Health , University of Szczecin, Poland

Title: Symmetry assessment of muscle activity during swimming cycloergometer test.
Authors: Anna Knyszyńska; Aleksandra Radecka; Patryk kołodziejczyk; Anna Lubkowska
Affiliation: Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland

Title: Thermovision assessment of the effects of therapeutic use of dry CO2 baths in peripheral artery disease
Authors: Hanna Juchniewicz; Kowalski Mateusz; Anna Lubkowska
Affiliation: Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland

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