Special Issue "Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Professor dr hab. Anna Lubkowska
Website
Guest Editor
Chair and Department of Functional Diagnostic and Physical Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, ul. Żołnierska 54, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: thermoregulation; adaptive physiology; physical activity; rehabilitation; sports medicine; aging
Professor US dr hab. Monika Chudecka
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Physical Culture Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Szczecin, al. Piastów 40 b blok 6, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: thermoregulation; sports anthropology; physical activity; somatic features and body composition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The human body surface is a complex map of isotherms, with a very wide range of temperatures, changing in response to endogenous and exogenous factors. Body surface temperatures can be evaluated using thermoemission (i.e., recording the heat emitted by human skin using infrared cameras). The use of thermal imaging techniques enables a quantitative (therefore, objective) analysis of biothermokinetic—and, consequently, bioenergetic—processes occurring in the human body. The imaging of human body surface temperature distribution (thermography) can reflect the processes occurring inside the body, as a change in temperature is often the first sign of pathological processes in body tissues, noticeable before functional or structural changes develop. Thus, the use of thermal imaging methods to assess body surface temperature may be of significant diagnostic value in medical science, health science, rehabilitation, physical therapy, and sports. However, the available scientific applications are mainly focused on the use of thermography in medicine, mainly for detecting potentially pathological thermal changes by comparing surface temperatures between adjacent tissues or symmetrical body areas.

However, it seems that the potential of thermal imaging techniques as an alternative to other, often invasive and limited, methods has not yet been fully exploited, and a search for new applications is still warranted. The greatest advantage of thermal imaging is that it is a non-invasive, contactless technique, which enables its safe utilization as a research instrument.

This Special Issue is open to the subject area of Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation. The keywords listed below provide an outline of some of the possible areas of interest.

Professor dr hab. Anna Lubkowska
Professor US dr hab. Monika Chudecka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • thermography
  • IR camera
  • thermoregulation
  • body and surface temperature
  • thermal conductivity
  • medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • sport
  • diagnostic and treatment outcomes

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Isotherms and Isodoses in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy—First Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020619 - 13 Jan 2021
Abstract
The study is focused on correlation of isotherms derived from thermal images with an isodoses describing treatment plan for patients with breast cancer treated by radiotherapy. The irradiated area covered the part of the body after mastectomy. The study included patients diagnosed with [...] Read more.
The study is focused on correlation of isotherms derived from thermal images with an isodoses describing treatment plan for patients with breast cancer treated by radiotherapy. The irradiated area covered the part of the body after mastectomy. The study included patients diagnosed with breast cancer who were qualified for radiotherapy treatment. All patients were monitored during each treatment week during the entire radiotherapy process. The measurements were made under strictly defined conditions. In the treatment planning system (TPS), the specific plan was created for each patient. Spatial dose distribution in the patient’s body was obtained and presented by the isodoses (lines connecting points with the same dose values). The following areas from the treatment planning system were plotted on the thermograms: target (tumor area) and isodose: 45 Gy, 40 Gy, 30 Gy, 20 Gy and 10 Gy. The obtained results indicated a high correlation between magnitude of the dose represented as the isodose and the temperature of the treated skin. Moreover, preliminary analysis showed a repeatable increase of the mean temperature in the irradiated area during the treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle
Local and Contralateral Effects after the Application of Neuromuscular Electrostimulation in Lower Limbs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239028 - 03 Dec 2020
Abstract
Neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) has been used mainly as a method to promote muscle strength, but its effects on improving blood flow are less well known. The aim of this study is to deepen the knowledge about the local and contralateral effects of the [...] Read more.
Neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) has been used mainly as a method to promote muscle strength, but its effects on improving blood flow are less well known. The aim of this study is to deepen the knowledge about the local and contralateral effects of the application of symmetric biphasic square currents on skin temperature (Tsk). An experimental pilot study was developed with a single study group consisting of 45 healthy subjects. Thermographic evaluations were recorded following the application of NMES to the anterior region of the thigh. The results showed an increase in the maximal Tsk of 0.67% in the anterior region of the thigh where the NMES was applied (p < 0.001) and an increase of 0.54% (p < 0.01) due to cross-education effects, which was higher when the NMES was applied on the dominant side (0.79%; p < 0.01). The duration of the effect was 20 min in the dominant leg and 10 min in the nondominant one. The application of a symmetrical biphasic current (8 Hz and 400 μs) creates an increase in the maximal Tsk at the local level. A temperature cross-education effect is produced, which is greater when the NMES is applied on the dominant side. This could be a useful noninvasive measurement tool in NMES treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Temperature Distribution of Selected Body Surfaces in Scoliosis Based on Static Infrared Thermography
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238913 - 30 Nov 2020
Abstract
The purpose of the research was to assess the usefulness of thermography as a complementary method in musculoskeletal dysfunction, with particular emphasis on scoliosis. The children, aged 7–16, were classified into one of two groups: the study group—children with scoliosis (n = [...] Read more.
The purpose of the research was to assess the usefulness of thermography as a complementary method in musculoskeletal dysfunction, with particular emphasis on scoliosis. The children, aged 7–16, were classified into one of two groups: the study group—children with scoliosis (n = 20), and the reference group—healthy children (n = 20). All children underwent anthropometric tests, body mass index determination, four pictures each with a FLIR T1030sc HD thermal imaging camera, and measurement of spinal rotation with a scoliometer (Gima, Italy). There is a temperature differential (about 4 °C) within the upper and lower body in children. In healthy children, differences in temperature of contralateral areas of the body do not exceed 0.5 °C. Thermography is a useful and noninvasive method of assessing muscular tension disbalance in the course of scoliosis. In the case of scoliosis, the areas of the body with a significant thermal asymmetry of the surface are the upper back, thighs, and back of the lower legs. Due to the high positive correlation of the spinal rotation angle with the amount of thermal asymmetry, the areas that should be subjected to a detailed thermal assessment in the supplementary diagnosis of scoliosis using thermovision are the upper back, chest, thighs, and back of the lower legs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle
Inexpensive Home Infrared Living/Environment Sensor with Regional Thermal Information for Infant Physical and Psychological Development
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186844 - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
The use of home-based image sensors for biological and environmental monitoring provides novel insight into health and development but it is difficult to evaluate people during their normal activities in their home. Therefore, we developed a low-cost infrared (IR) technology-based motion, location, temperature [...] Read more.
The use of home-based image sensors for biological and environmental monitoring provides novel insight into health and development but it is difficult to evaluate people during their normal activities in their home. Therefore, we developed a low-cost infrared (IR) technology-based motion, location, temperature and thermal environment detection system that can be used non-invasively for long-term studies in the home environment. We tested this technology along with the associated analysis algorithm to visualize the effects of parental care and thermal environment on developmental state change in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). To validate this system, we first compared it to a manual analysis technique and we then assessed the development of circadian rhythms in common marmosets from postnatal day 15–45. The semi-automatically tracked biological indices of locomotion velocity (BV) and body surface temperature (BT) and the potential psychological index of place preference toward the door (BD), showed age-dependent shifts in circadian phase patterns. Although environmental variables appeared to affect circadian rhythm development, principal component analysis and signal superimposing imaging methods revealed a novel phasic pattern of BD-BT correlation day/night switching in animals older than postnatal day 38 (approximately equivalent to one year of age in humans). The origin of this switch was related to earlier development of body temperature (BT) rhythms and alteration of psychological behavior rhythms (BD) around earlier feeding times. We propose that this cost-effective, inclusive sensing and analytic technique has value for understanding developmental care conditions for which continual home non-invasive monitoring would be beneficial and further suggest the potential to adapt this technique for use in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Skin Temperature, Electrical Manifestations of Muscle Fatigue, and Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness for Dynamic Contractions: A Preliminary Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186817 - 18 Sep 2020
Abstract
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) indicates the presence of muscle damage and impairs force production and control. Monitorization of DOMS is useful to improving recovery intervention plans. The magnitude of DOMS may relate to muscle fatigue, which can be monitored by surface electromyography [...] Read more.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) indicates the presence of muscle damage and impairs force production and control. Monitorization of DOMS is useful to improving recovery intervention plans. The magnitude of DOMS may relate to muscle fatigue, which can be monitored by surface electromyography (EMG). Additionally, growing interest has been expressed in determining whether the skin temperature over a muscle group during exercise to fatigue could be a non-invasive marker for DOMS. Here we determine whether skin temperature and manifestations of muscle fatigue during exercise are correlated and can predict DOMS after concentric–eccentric bicep curl exercises. We tested 10 young adults who performed concentric–eccentric bicep curl exercises to induce muscle damage in the biceps brachialis to investigate the relationship between skin temperature and fatigue during exercise and DOMS after exercise. Muscle activation and skin temperature were recorded during exercise. DOMS was evaluated 24 h after exercise. Data analysis was performed using Bayesian regression models with regularizing priors. We found significant muscle fatigue and an increase in skin temperature during exercise. DOMS was observed 24 h after exercise. The regression models showed no correlation of changes in skin temperature and muscle fatigue during exercise with DOMS 24 h after exercise. In conclusion, our preliminary results do not support a relationship between skin temperature measured during exercise and either muscle fatigue during exercise or the ability to predict DOMS 24 h after exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Open AccessArticle
Usefulness in Developing an Optimal Training Program and Distinguishing between Performance Levels of the Athlete’s Body by Using of Thermal Imaging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165698 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
The goal of the training is to enable the body to perform prolonged physical effort without reducing its effectiveness while maintaining the body’s homeostasis. Homeostasis is the ability of the system to maintain, in dynamic balance, the stability of the internal environment. Equally [...] Read more.
The goal of the training is to enable the body to perform prolonged physical effort without reducing its effectiveness while maintaining the body’s homeostasis. Homeostasis is the ability of the system to maintain, in dynamic balance, the stability of the internal environment. Equally as important as monitoring the body’s thermoregulation phenomena during exercise seems to be the evaluation of these mechanisms after physical effort, when the athlete’s body returns to physiological homeostasis. Restoring homeostasis is an important factor in body regeneration and has a significant impact on preventing overtraining. In this work we present a training protocol using a rowing ergometer, which was planned to be carried out in a short time and which involves working the majority of the athlete’s muscles, allowing a full assessment of the body’s thermal parameters after stopping exercise and during the body’s return to thermal equilibrium and homeostasis. The significant differences between normalized mean body surface temperature obtained for the cyclist before the training period and strength group as well as before and 10 min after training were obtained. Such observation seems to bring indirectly some information about the sportsperson’s efficiency due to differences in body temperature in the first 10 min of training when sweat does not play a main role in surface temperature. Nearly 1 °C drop of mean body temperature has been measured due to the period of training. It is concluded that thermovision not only allows you to monitor changes in body temperature due to sports activity, but also allows you to determine which of the athletes has a high level of body efficiency. The average maximum body temperature of such an athlete is higher (32.5 °C) than that of an athlete who has not trained regularly (30.9 °C) and whose body probably requires further training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Imaging in Body and Skin Temperature Changes Evaluation)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The influence of cryostimulation on thermal body map of sportsman.
Authors: Teresa Kasprzyk; Cholewka Armand; Sieroń Karolina; Stanek Agata
Affiliation: 1 Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2 Department of Physical Medicine, Chair of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków Street 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland; 3 Medical University of Silesia, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Department of Internal Medicine, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland

Title: Can we evaluate brachytherapy effects in BCC by using thermovision diagnostics?
Authors: Kapek Łukasz; Cholewka Agnieszka; Ślosarek Krzysztof; Szlag Marta; Stanek Agata; Sieroń Karolina; Cholewka Armand
Affiliation: 1 Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2 Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Wybrzeże Armii Krajowej 15, Gliwice, Poland; 3 Medical University of Silesia, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Department of Internal Medicine, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland; 4 Department of Physical Medicine, Chair of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków Street 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland

Title: Characteristics of temperature distribution of selected body surfaces in scoliosis based on static infrared thermography
Authors: Anna Lubkowska; Ewa Gajewska
Affiliation: 1Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland; 2Poznan University of Medical SciencesDepartment of Developmental Neurology

Title: Proposal of thermal imaging in rowing ergometer sportsman’ efficiency evaluation.
Authors: Teresa Kasprzyk; Cholewka Armand; Agnieszka Szurko; Sieroń Karolina; Tadeusz Morawiec; Stanek Agata; Agata Stanek
Affiliation: 1 Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 2 Department of Physical Medicine, Chair of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków Street 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland; 3Chair and Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Surgery Department, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze; 4 Medical University of Silesia, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Department of Internal Medicine, Angiology and Physical Medicine, Batorego 15 St., 41-902 Bytom, Poland

Title: Relationship between skin temperature, electrical manifestations of muscle fatigue and exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness for dynamic contractions
Authors: Jose Ignacio Priego Quesada; Carlos De la Fuente; Marcos R. Kunzler; Pedro Perez-Soriano; David Hervás-Marín; Felipe P. Carpes
Affiliation: Research Group in Sport Biomechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Biophysics and Medical Physics Group, Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Abstract: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a matter of concern in both clinical and sport context. There is a continuous interest in determining whether skin temperature can be a non-invasive marker for DOMS. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between skin temperature, myoelectrical manifestations of muscle fatigue and DOMS after a concentric-eccentric biceps curls exercise. We tested 10 young adults who performed concentric-eccentric biceps curls exercise to induce muscle damage in biceps brachialis to investigate the relationship between skin temperature and fatigue during exercise, and DOMS after exercise. Muscle activation and skin temperature were recorded during exercise. DOMS was evaluated 24 h after exercise. Data analysis was performed using Bayesian regression models with regularizing priors. We found significant muscle fatigue during exercise and DOMS after exercise. Skin temperature increased during the exercise. However, regression models showed no correlation between changes in skin temperature and muscle fatigue during exercise with DOMS 24 h after exercise. In conclusion, our results do not support relationship of skin temperature during exercise with muscle fatigue, and no relationship was found between skin temperature and muscle fatigue with DOMS 24 h after dynamics contractions.

Title: Thermal imaging of breast surface temperature in healthy women.
Authors: Anna Lubkowska; Monika Chudecka
Affiliation: 1Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland; 2 Institute of Physical Culture Sciences, Faculty of Physical Education and Health , University of Szczecin, Poland

Title: Symmetry assessment of muscle activity during swimming cycloergometer test.
Authors: Anna Knyszyńska; Aleksandra Radecka; Patryk kołodziejczyk; Anna Lubkowska
Affiliation: Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland

Title: Thermovision assessment of the effects of therapeutic use of dry CO2 baths in peripheral artery disease
Authors: Hanna Juchniewicz; Kowalski Mateusz; Anna Lubkowska
Affiliation: Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland

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