Special Issue "Environmental Remediation of Soils and Groundwater"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Claudio Cameselle
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n. Edificio Fundicion, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Tel. (+34) 986 812 318
Interests: (a) environmental remediation of soils, sediments, and groundwater; and (b) engineering applications for waste/recycled materials. His research is leading to practical solutions to the real-world problems
Dr. Susana Gouveia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
BiotecnIA group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo,Rua Maxwell s/n, Building Fundicion, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Tel. (+34) 986 812 318

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Soils and groundwater are necessary resources for the development of human societies. The quality of the soil–groundwater system is threatened by many human activities, including mining exploitations, oil extraction, the chemical industry, transportation, and intensive agriculture practices. The improper management of wastes has historically been responsible for many legacy contaminated sites. The contamination of soil and groundwater is an important environmental problem that affects ecosystems and threatens public health through the risk of contaminants entering the food chain. Thus, soil and groundwater remediation have been an important issue in the agendas of researchers, practitioners, companies, and politicians worldwide. Many efforts have been spent on soil/groundwater remediation studies at lab and field scale. As a result, there is a significant amount of literature on the environmental problems associated with soil and groundwater pollution and their remediation. However, the problem of site contamination is far from being solved, considering the limited applicability and cost of many of the present technologies and the difficulty of restoring contaminated sites. Thus, there is still a large interest in the scientific community for developing methods, technologies, and applications for the effective and sustainable remediation of contaminated sites.

This Special Issue focuses on the new technologies and applications for the effective removal of contaminants from soils and groundwater in a context of sustainability. We aim to provide, in this Special Issue, fundamental studies about contaminants in soils, the development of new remediation technologies and coupled technologies, applications at lab, pilot, and field scale, and studies using a sustainability approach for the design of site remediation applications. We encourage the submission of multidisciplinary studies including fundamental research, technological applications, legal issues, and sustainability assessment. The main topics for the Special Issue are presented below. Other research works in site remediation are also welcome.

Topic for the special issue:

  • Source and fate of contaminants in soil and groundwater;
  • Remediation of sites contaminated with heavy metal and other inorganic contaminants;
  • Remediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic organics;
  • Remediation of sites contaminated with complex organics: Pesticides, etc.;
  • Innovative technologies for soil remediation;
  • Coupled technologies for soil and groundwater remediation;
  • Technologies for the remediation of soils/groundwater: Lab studies, model studies;
  • Site remediation: Field scale applications;
  • Sustainable assessment of site remediation.

Dr. Claudio Cameselle
Dr. Susana Gouveia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • soil remediation
  • groundwater remediation
  • coupled technologies
  • heavy metal
  • hydrophobic organic contaminants
  • persistent organic pollutants
  • pesticides
  • sustainable engineering

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Chemical Reduction of Nitrate by Zero-Valent Iron: Shrinking-Core versus Surface Kinetics Models
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041241 - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
Zero valent iron (ZVI) is being used in permeable reactive barriers (PRB) for the removal of oxidant contaminants, from nitrate to chlorinated organics. A sound design of these barriers requires a good understanding of kinetics. Here we present a study of the kinetics [...] Read more.
Zero valent iron (ZVI) is being used in permeable reactive barriers (PRB) for the removal of oxidant contaminants, from nitrate to chlorinated organics. A sound design of these barriers requires a good understanding of kinetics. Here we present a study of the kinetics of nitrate reduction under relatively low values of pH, from 2 to 4.5. We use a particle size of 0.42 mm, which is within the recommended size for PRBs (0.2 mm to 2.0 mm). In order to avoid possible mass-transfer limitations, a well-stirred reactor coupled with a fluidized bed reactor was used. The experiments were performed at constant pH values using a pH controller that allows to accurately track the amount of acid added. Since the reduction of H + to H 2 by the oxidation of ZVI will always be present for these pH values, blank experiments (without nitrate) were performed and the rate of this H + reduction obtained. This rate of reduction was studied using three kinetic models: a regular empirical one, the Shrinking-Core Model (SCM), and the Surface Kinetics Model (SKM). The best performance was obtained from the SKM model. Therefore, this model was also used to study the results for the nitrate reduction, also with satisfactory results. In both cases, some assumptions are introduced to maintain a moderate number of fitting parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Remediation of Soils and Groundwater)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Freeze–Thaw Cycles and Binder Dosage on the Engineering Properties of Compound Solidified/Stabilized Lead-Contaminated Soils
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031077 - 08 Feb 2020
Abstract
The solidification/stabilization (S/S) method is the usual technique for the remediation of soils polluted by heavy metal in recent years. However, freeze–thaw cycles, an important physical process producing weathering of materials, will affect the long-term stability of engineering characteristics in solidified contaminated soil. [...] Read more.
The solidification/stabilization (S/S) method is the usual technique for the remediation of soils polluted by heavy metal in recent years. However, freeze–thaw cycles, an important physical process producing weathering of materials, will affect the long-term stability of engineering characteristics in solidified contaminated soil. In addition, it is still questionable whether using large dosages of binders can enhance the engineering properties of solidified/stabilized contaminated soils. In this study, the three most commonly used binders (i.e., cement, quicklime, and fly ash), alone and mixed in different ratios, were thus added to lead-contaminated soil in various dosages, making a series of cured lead-contaminated soils with different dosages of binders. Afterward, unconfined compression strength tests, direct shear tests, and permeability tests were employed on the resulting samples to find the unconfined compressive strength (UCS), secant modulus ( E 50 ), internal friction angle ( φ ), cohesion ( c ), and permeability coefficient ( k ) of each solidified/stabilized lead-contaminated soil after 0, 3, 7, and 14 days of freeze–thaw cycles. This procedure was aimed at evaluating the influence of freeze–thaw cycle and binder dosage on engineering properties of solidified/stabilized lead-contaminated soils. Results of our experiments showed that cement/quicklime/fly ash could remediate lead-contaminated soils. However, it did not mean that the more the dosage of binder, the better the curing effect. There was a critical dosage. Excessive cementation of contaminated soils caused by too much binder would result in loss of strength and an increase in permeability. Furthermore, it was found that UCS,   E 50 , φ , c , and k values generally decreased with the increase in freeze–thaw cycle time—a deterioration effect on the engineering characteristics of solidified lead-contaminated soils. Avoiding excessive cementation, 2.5% cement or quicklime was favorable for the value of E 50 while a 2.5% fly ash additive was beneficial for the k value. It is also suggested that if the freeze–thaw cycle continues beyond the period supported by excessive cementation, such a cycle will rapidly destroy the original structure of the soil and create large cracks, leading to an increase in permeability. The results also showed that the contaminated soils with a larger dosage of binders exhibited more significant deterioration during freeze–thaw cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Remediation of Soils and Groundwater)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Use of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron for Remediation of Clayey Soil Contaminated with Hexavalent Chromium: Batch and Column Tests
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031001 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
This study investigated the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a clayey residual soil using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). Five different ratios between nZVI and Cr(VI) were tested in batch tests (1000/11; 1000/23; 1000/35; 1000/70, and 1000/140 mg/mg) with the soil. With the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a clayey residual soil using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). Five different ratios between nZVI and Cr(VI) were tested in batch tests (1000/11; 1000/23; 1000/35; 1000/70, and 1000/140 mg/mg) with the soil. With the selected proportion resulting best efficiency, the column tests were conducted, with molded specimens of 5 cm in diameter and 5 cm in height, with different nZVI injection pressures (10, 30, and 100 kPa). The soil was contaminated with 800 mg/kg of Cr(VI). The Cr(VI) and Cr(III) analyses were performed following the USEPA 3060A and USEPA 7196A standards. The results show that the reduction of Cr(VI) is dependent on the ratio between nZVI and Cr(VI), reaching 98% of efficiency. In column tests, the pressure of 30 kPa was the most efficient. As pressure increased, contaminant leaching increased. The permeability decreased over time due to the gradual increase in filtration and formation of oxyhydroxides, limiting nZVI mobility. Overall, nZVI is efficient for soil remediation with Cr(VI), but the injection process can spread the contaminated if not properly controlled during in situ application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Remediation of Soils and Groundwater)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
SHMP-Amended Ca-Bentonite/Sand Backfill Barrier for Containment of Lead Contamination in Groundwater
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010370 - 06 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study investigated the feasibility of using sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP)- amended calcium (Ca) bentonite in backfills for slurry trench cutoff walls for the containment of lead (Pb) contamination in groundwater. Backfills composed of 80 wt% sand and 20 wt% either Ca-bentonite or SHMP-amended [...] Read more.
This study investigated the feasibility of using sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP)- amended calcium (Ca) bentonite in backfills for slurry trench cutoff walls for the containment of lead (Pb) contamination in groundwater. Backfills composed of 80 wt% sand and 20 wt% either Ca-bentonite or SHMP-amended Ca-bentonite were tested for hydraulic conductivity and sorption properties by conducting laboratory flexible-wall hydraulic conductivity tests and batch isothermal sorption experiments, respectively. The results showed that the SHMP amendment causes a one order of magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity of the backfill using tap water (1.9 to 3.0 × 10−10 m/s). Testing using 1000 mg/L Pb solution resulted insignificant variation in hydraulic conductivity of the amended backfill. Moreover, SHMP-amendment induced favorable conditions for increased sorption capacity of the backfill, with 1.5 times higher retardation factor relative to the unamended backfill. The Pb transport modeling through an hypothetical 1-m-thick slurry wall composed of amended backfill revealed 12 to 24 times of longer breakthrough time for Pb migration as compared to results obtained for the same thickness slurry wall with unamended backfill, which is attributed to decrease in seepage velocity combined with increase in retardation factor of the backfill with SHMP amendment. Overall, SHMP is shown to be a promising Ca-bentontie modifier for use in backfill for slurry trench cutoff wall for effective containment of Pb-contaminated groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Remediation of Soils and Groundwater)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop