Special Issue "Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents"

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daheia J. Barr-Anderson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Assistant Professor, Director, Behavioral Physical Activity Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota, 209 Cooke Hall, 1900 University Ave. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Interests: overweight and obesity; youth; physical activity; diet; environment; social factors; interventions; health promotion; parental influence; Health disparities, Policy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) welcomes submissions for a Special Issue focusing on “Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents”. IJERPH is a peer-reviewed scientific journal with a current impact factor of 2.101 (5-year impact factor of 2.54) that publishes research articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. More details about the journal can be found at https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Obesity is a critical public health threat and a global issue that significantly affects our young people. Despite the decades of efforts made to prevent and treat this epidemic, all boys and girls across all socioeconomic classes among all ethnic groups continue to be disproportionately impacted by childhood obesity. The current literature exploring obesity in children and adolescents is both broad and deep, and we know that both physical and social environments are key in addressing this health crisis. This Special Issue will focus on emerging environmental factors that influence childhood obesity and innovative, environmental strategies to prevent and treat this epidemic. We are interested in topics such as, though not limited to:

  • multi-level, influencing factors
  • innovative, environmental interventions
  • the role of key stakeholders (i.e., children, peers, parents, teachers, community members)
  • various settings (i.e., home, school, neighborhood, churches, communities)
  • environmental, organizational and/or policy changes

Researchers are invited to contribute novel work to be considered for publication in this Special Issue. Submissions should include original articles, critical reviews (systematic reviews or meta-analyses), brief reports, or short communications. There are no restrictions on study design and methodology (i.e., secondary analyses, cross-sectional or longitudinal design, intervention studies, observational studies, case study, etc.). Articles that focus on either preventing childhood obesity or decreasing the increase in childhood obesity are welcomed. Additionally, articles that focus on underrepresented or disadvantaged communities are encouraged.

Dr. Daheia J. Barr-Anderson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Overweight and obesity
  • Youth
  • Physical activity
  • Diet
  • Environment
  • Social factors
  • Interventions
  • Health promotion
  • Parental influence
  • Health disparities
  • Policy

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Wearable Technology-Based Physical Activity Intervention in Preschoolers: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091821 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of an intervention that employed a technology-based physical activity (PA) monitoring system and teacher-regulated strategies to promote PA in preschoolers. A total of 93 preschoolers (53% girls, 4.7 years) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of an intervention that employed a technology-based physical activity (PA) monitoring system and teacher-regulated strategies to promote PA in preschoolers. A total of 93 preschoolers (53% girls, 4.7 years) from 5 child care centers were recruited for a one-week intervention and randomly assigned into control (2 centers, n = 45) or intervention (3 centers, n = 48) group. Key intervention components included: (1) wearable device-based, real-time monitoring of children’s PA by classroom teachers and (2) teacher-regulated strategies for providing more opportunities for PA. Sedentary behavior (SED) and PA were measured using accelerometers. Overall, children in the intervention group showed significantly lower level of SED (31.6 vs. 33.6 min/h) and higher level of total PA (28.4 vs. 26.4 min/h) than children in the control group, after adjusting for age, sex, race, parent education level, parent perception of their child’s PA, BMI, and childcare centers. Teachers in the intervention group reported that the intervention was highly feasible to be implemented in their current classroom settings. In conclusion, we observed high acceptability and initial effectiveness of the current intervention. Subsequent research at larger-scale is warranted to fully evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention strategies tested in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Weight-Dependent Disparities in Adolescent Girls: The Impact of a Brief Pilot Intervention on Exercise and Healthy Eater Identity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071411 - 04 Jul 2018
Abstract
Adolescent girls report low participation in healthy behaviors (e.g., nutritious eating and exercise), and are disproportionately affected by obesity. Short-term interventions, such as behavioral summer camps, may positively influence psychological underpinnings of healthy behavior, particularly exercise identity (EI) and healthy eater identity (HEI). [...] Read more.
Adolescent girls report low participation in healthy behaviors (e.g., nutritious eating and exercise), and are disproportionately affected by obesity. Short-term interventions, such as behavioral summer camps, may positively influence psychological underpinnings of healthy behavior, particularly exercise identity (EI) and healthy eater identity (HEI). The present study investigates disparities and changes in identity and subsequent health behavior in two cohorts of adolescent girls following a brief, multicomponent intervention. A sample of normal-weight adolescent girls from a health promotion camp and an elevated body mass index (BMI) sample from an obesity treatment camp participated in the study. Both camps ran one-week in duration and delivered comparable intervention components. All families were given access to the same eight-week eHealth program post-camp. Significant EI and HEI role-identity disparities between the health promotion and obesity treatment cohorts were apparent at baseline. Following the one-week camp intervention, EI and HEI scores increased in both groups. At follow-up, the treatment group had increased EI and HEI role-identities in such that the groups no longer significantly differed. Positive changes in health behaviors were experienced in each group. This pilot study demonstrates that EI and HEI differ between normal-weight and obese adolescent girls and weight-dependent identity disparities may be mitigated following brief, multicomponent interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Socio-Cultural and Environmental Factors that Influence Weight-Related Behaviors: Focus Group Results from African-American Girls and Their Mothers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071354 - 28 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
African-American girls experience higher rates of obesity than other youth and are more likely to live in environments that may inhibit healthy lifestyles. Focus groups with African-American girls (14.2 ± 2.36 years) and their mothers were conducted to explore socio-cultural and physical factors [...] Read more.
African-American girls experience higher rates of obesity than other youth and are more likely to live in environments that may inhibit healthy lifestyles. Focus groups with African-American girls (14.2 ± 2.36 years) and their mothers were conducted to explore socio-cultural and physical factors within the home, neighborhood, and school environments that influence physical activity (PA) and food choices (i.e., availability and accessibility). Being active at home was dependent on availability of unstructured PA, possibility of activity with family/friends/pet, structured sports in the community, and perceived safety of neighborhood. Girls reported unhealthy foods and excessive snacking as issues at home while citing choice of school meals vs. vending machine items and easy accessibility to fast food restaurants as concerns at school. Learning more about the PA and food environments is a fundamental step to develop effective and innovative, environmental strategies to address unhealthy weight-related behaviors in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Perception of Physical Fitness and Exercise Self-Efficacy and Its Contribution to the Relationship between Body Dissatisfaction and Physical Fitness in Female Minority Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061187 - 06 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and low physical self-concept and exercise efficacy have been linked to poor physical fitness levels and adverse health outcomes in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between BD, physical fitness, exercise self-efficacy, and self-Perception of [...] Read more.
Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and low physical self-concept and exercise efficacy have been linked to poor physical fitness levels and adverse health outcomes in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between BD, physical fitness, exercise self-efficacy, and self-Perception of Physical Fitness (PFP) in Latina and Black female children. Twenty-eight Latina and Black children enrolled in an elementary afterschool program, aged 8–12, completed surveys evaluating body dissatisfaction, exercise efficacy, PFP, and measures of physical fitness. Subjects exhibited moderate but significant inverse relationships between BD and PFP in strength (r = −0.459), agility (r = −0.382), aerobic fitness (r = −0.354), and flexibility (r = −0.461) (p < 0.05 for all). There was a significant negative correlation between exercise efficacy and BD (r = −4.2; p < 0.05). Power (r = 0.51) and flexibility (r = 0.42) were the only physical fitness measures significantly and positively related to children’s PFP (p < 0.05). A significant medium inverse relationship was also found between BD and aerobic fitness scores (r = −0.381; p < 0.05). However, after controlling for exercise efficacy or perception of physical fitness, the relationship between BD and aerobic fitness was not significant (p > 0.05). Findings suggest that positive PFP and positive performance in several physical fitness measures are associated with lower levels of BD in minority female children. Furthermore, evidence suggests exercise efficacy and PFP can mediate the relationship body image and aerobic fitness. These findings suggest that PFP, more so than measured physical fitness, was associated with lower levels of BD in minority female children. These results have important implications for programs designed to improve physical fitness and mental health in minority children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring How the Home Environment Influences Eating and Physical Activity Habits of Low-Income, Latino Children of Predominantly Immigrant Families: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050978 - 14 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority population group in the United States, and children in low-income Latino families are at elevated risk of becoming overweight or having obesity. A child’s home is an important social environment in which he/she develops and [...] Read more.
Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority population group in the United States, and children in low-income Latino families are at elevated risk of becoming overweight or having obesity. A child’s home is an important social environment in which he/she develops and maintains dietary and physical activity (PA) habits that ultimately impact weight status. Previous research suggests the parents are central to creating a home environment that facilitates or hinders the development of children’s early healthy eating and PA habits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore low-income Latino parents’ beliefs, parenting styles, and parenting practices related to their children’s eating and PA behaviors while at home. Methods: Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) with 33 low-income Latino parents of preschool children 2 to 5 years of age. FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Data analyses revealed that most parents recognize the importance of healthy eating and PA for their children and themselves. However, daily life demands including conflicting schedules, long working hours, financial constraints, and neighborhood safety concerns, etc., impact parents’ ability to create a home environment supportive of these behaviors. Conclusions: This study provides information about how the home environment may influence low-income Latino preschool children’s eating and PA habits, which may be useful for health promotion and disease prevention efforts targeting low-income Latino families with young children, and for developing home-based and parenting interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity among this population group. Pediatric healthcare providers can play an important role in facilitating communication, providing education, and offering guidance to low-income Latino parents that support their children’s development of early healthy eating and PA habits, while taking into account daily life barriers faced by families. Moreover, pediatric healthcare providers also can play an important role in the integration and coordination of home-visitations to complement office-based visits and provide a continuum of care to low-income Latino families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle
Teens Implementing a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in the Community: Feasibility and Perceptions of a Partnership with HSTA and iCook 4-H
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050934 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA), under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP) program (iCook 4-H). The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement [...] Read more.
High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA), under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP) program (iCook 4-H). The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement a COP program for dyads of youth (9–10 years old) and their primary adult food preparer. Behavior change and perceptions were assessed through surveys and open-ended interviews. Across eight HSTA organizations, 43 teen leaders participated in teaching the iCook 4-H program to 24 dyads. Increased frequency of culinary skills, physical activity and mealtime behavior were reported by youth. Almost all adults (93%) reported that their youth had learned kitchen skills and that the program provided youth-adult quality time and developed culinary skills. Youth echoed adult perceptions with additional themes of food safety and physical activity. HSTA teen leaders perceived the program to be successful and reported the training they received to implement the program was adequate 98% of the time. HSTA teachers found the program to be beneficial for HSTA students in improving leadership, confidence and responsibility. iCook 4-H was feasible to be disseminated through teen leaders in the HSTA program. This teen-led approach could serve as a model for youth health-related programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050915 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline). SB and [...] Read more.
Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline). SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049), but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056). Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033). Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle
Weight Shame, Social Connection, and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050891 - 01 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly the focus of interventions, because it predicts serious disease morbidity later in life. However, social environments that permit weight-related stigma and body shame may make weight control and loss more difficult. Rarely do youth obesity interventions address [...] Read more.
Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly the focus of interventions, because it predicts serious disease morbidity later in life. However, social environments that permit weight-related stigma and body shame may make weight control and loss more difficult. Rarely do youth obesity interventions address these complexities. Drawing on repeated measures in a large sample (N = 1443) of first-year (freshman), campus-resident university students across a nine-month period, we model how weight-related shame predicts depressive symptom levels, how being overweight (assessed by anthropometric measures) shapes that risk, and how social connection (openness to friendship) might mediate/moderate. Body shame directly, clearly, and repeatedly predicts depression symptom levels across the whole school year for all students, but overweight youth have significantly elevated risk. Social connections mediate earlier in the school year, and in all phases moderate, body shame effects on depression. Youth obesity interventions would be well-served recognizing and incorporating the influential roles of social-environmental factors like weight stigma and friendship in program design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity at Age 7–18 in Shenyang, China in 2010 and 2014
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050854 - 25 Apr 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study was designed to examine the association between sleep duration and being overweight/obese in primary, middle, and high school students. This was a multiple cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 and 2014 National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). A [...] Read more.
This study was designed to examine the association between sleep duration and being overweight/obese in primary, middle, and high school students. This was a multiple cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 and 2014 National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). A total of 23,602 students aged 7–18 years were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of being overweight and obese—stratified by age, gender, and sleep duration—in 2010 and 2014 were compared. Sleep duration was categorized as <7 h, ≥7 to 8 h, ≥8 to 9 h, and ≥9 h. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut-point criteria in China. Multivariable logistic regression results in 2010 and 2014 revealed that students sleeping <7 h and aged 7–12 years had an increased risk of becoming overweight/obese. In 2010, the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight for 7–12-year-old students sleeping <9 h was 1.196 (95%CI: 1.004–1.424) and 13–15-year-old students sleeping <8 h was 1.265 (95%CI: 1.023–1.565). In 2014, the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity for 7–12-year-old students sleeping <9 h were 1.295 (95%CI: 1.091–1.537) and 1.231 (95%CI: 1.045–1.449); 16–18-year-old students sleeping <7 h were 1.530 (95%CI: 1.239–1.888) and 1.585 (95%CI: 1.270–2.081). Our study revealed that different levels of sleep curtailment increased the risk of becoming overweight/obesity in different age groups of students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle
Gender and Body-Fat Status as Predictors of Parental Feeding Styles and Children’s Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Habits and Behaviours
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050852 - 25 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and [...] Read more.
The home food environment is critically important for the development of children’s health-related practices. By managing dietary restrictions, providing nutritional knowledge and demonstrating eating behaviours, parents contribute to children’s food preferences and eating patterns. The present study examined nutritional knowledge, eating habits and appetite traits among 387 Polish five-year-old healthy and overfat boys and girls in the context of parental feeding styles and body-fat status. We observed that girls presented healthier eating habits than boys; however, overfat boys had better nutritional knowledge. Children’s body-fat percentage (%BF) was found to be linked with eating behaviours such as low satiety responsiveness and increased food responsiveness in girls as well as low emotional undereating and increased emotional overeating in boys. Our results revealed that overfat mothers, who were more prone to use the encouragement feeding style, rarely had daughters with increased %BF. Parents of overfat girls, however, were less likely to apply encouragement and instrumental feeding styles. Contrary to popular belief and previous studies, overfat women do not necessarily transmit unhealthy eating patterns to their children. Parents’ greater emphasis on managing the weight and eating habits of daughters (rather than sons) probably results from their awareness of standards of female physical attractiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health during Childhood: A Longitudinal Examination of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Parental Socioeconomic Timing and Child Obesity Risk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040728 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Prior research suggests that socioeconomic standing during the early years of life, particularly in utero, is associated with child health. However, it is unclear whether socioeconomic benefits are only maximized at very young ages. Moreover, given the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and [...] Read more.
Prior research suggests that socioeconomic standing during the early years of life, particularly in utero, is associated with child health. However, it is unclear whether socioeconomic benefits are only maximized at very young ages. Moreover, given the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and race, research is inconclusive whether any SES benefits during those younger ages would uniformly benefit all racial and ethnic groups. Using 1986–2014 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79), this study examines the impact of socioeconomic timing on child weight outcomes by race. Specifically, this research investigates whether specific points exist where socioeconomic investment would have higher returns on child health. Findings suggest that both the timing and the type of socioeconomic exposure is important to understanding child weight status. SES, particularly mother’s employment and father’s education, is important in determining child health, and each measure is linked to weight gain differently for White, Black, and Hispanic children at specific ages. Policies such as granting more educational access for men and work-family balance for women are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Fat Mass Index and Body Mass Index Affect Peak Metabolic Equivalent Negatively during Exercise Test among Children and Adolescents in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020263 - 04 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Peak metabolic equivalent (MET) is the most reliable indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The aim of this study was to examine the association between CRF indicated by peak MET and body mass index (BMI) or fat mass index (FMI) in Taiwanese children and [...] Read more.
Peak metabolic equivalent (MET) is the most reliable indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The aim of this study was to examine the association between CRF indicated by peak MET and body mass index (BMI) or fat mass index (FMI) in Taiwanese children and adolescents (C-A). Data of 638 C-A aged 10–18 that received symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing was analyzed. Anthropometry-body composition was measured by vector bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI was defined as body weight (kg)/body height (m)2 and FMI was defined as fat mass (kg)/body height (m)2. BMI was grouped by Taiwanese obesity cut-off points. FMI Class-I was categorized by percentage of body fat. FMI Class-II used the reference values from Korean C-A. Excess adiposity was defined as (1) “overweight” and “obesity” by BMI, (2) greater than the sex- and age-specific 75th percentile of whole subjects by FMI Class-I, and (3) greater than 95th percentiles of reference value by FMI Class-II. Boys had significantly higher fat mass and FMI, and had more excess adiposity than girls (all p < 0.05). Both boys and girls with excess adiposity (by any definition) had lower MET at anaerobic threshold (AT MET) and peak MET (all p < 0.001). BMI and FMI were significantly negatively associated with both AT MET and peak MET significantly (all p < 0.001). FMI (95% CI: −0.411~−0.548) correlated with peak MET more than BMI (95% CI: −0.134~ −0.372) did. Excess adiposity affected CRF negatively. It is concluded that weight management should start early in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity Prevention in Children and Adolescents)
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