Special Issue "Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Irene H. Yen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health, School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343, USA
Interests: economic and racial segregation; public housing; gentrification/displacement
Prof. Dr. Cindy Leung
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Interests: diet-related disparities; food security; food environment; policy influences on health behavior

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue featuring original research and systematic reviews investigating neighborhood environmental influences on health and well-being in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes different types of papers including articles, reviews and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Globally, there are a number of trends relevant to neighborhood characteristics which can influence health and wellness. These include urbanization, inequality, gentrification and displacement, aging, and migration. Neighborhoods can change as people migrate to them due to economic opportunities or because they are fleeing unrest. We are interested in research that explore the health and wellness effects of these processes, policies, or other contemporary developments which provoke an examination of place and health. Featured studies could highlight an unconventional method or dataset, could be a case study or longitudinal analyses of natural experiments, interventions, or large cohort studies.

Prof. Dr. Irene H. Yen
Prof. Dr. Cindy Leung
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • neighborhood
  • built environment
  • physical environment
  • social environment
  • gentrification
  • displacement
  • economic segregation
  • migration

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Neighborhood, Social, and Genetic Influences on Precursors of Alcohol Use Risk Behavior in African American Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173078 - 24 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background: Using a socioecological framework, we examined neighborhood and social stressors in concert with genetic risk for alcohol dependence in relation to externalizing behaviors, important precursors to alcohol-related problems. Methods: We used data from African American adolescents and their caregivers in [...] Read more.
Background: Using a socioecological framework, we examined neighborhood and social stressors in concert with genetic risk for alcohol dependence in relation to externalizing behaviors, important precursors to alcohol-related problems. Methods: We used data from African American adolescents and their caregivers in the Gene, Environment, and Neighborhood Initiative, a subsample of the Mobile Youth and Poverty Study. Participants for the current analyses included 112 adolescents who reported ever having at least one full drink of alcohol. Empirical Bayes scores were used to estimate neighborhood-level violence and transitions. Multivariate models tested main effects and then interactions of family stressors, discrimination, and genetic risk with the neighborhood variables. Results: In the main effects model, adolescent externalizing behaviors were positively associated with greater family stressors, more racial discrimination experiences, and genetic liability, while neighborhood variables were nonsignificant. We found three significant interactions. Specifically, the joint effects of neighborhood violence and transitions and between these neighborhood variables and family stressors were significantly associated with externalizing behaviors. Conclusions: Our findings suggest genetic liability and complex interactions between neighborhood context and social stressors are important contributors that should be considered in the development of early prevention programs for adolescents who live in economically disadvantaged areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Role of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics on Mental Health after a Period of Economic Crisis in the Lisbon Region (Portugal): A Multilevel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152647 - 24 Jul 2019
Abstract
Mental health is an intrinsic dimension of health influenced by individual and contextual factors. This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between the individual, neighborhood characteristics, and one’s self-assessed mental health status in the Lisbon region after an economic crisis. Via the application of [...] Read more.
Mental health is an intrinsic dimension of health influenced by individual and contextual factors. This cross-sectional study analyzes the association between the individual, neighborhood characteristics, and one’s self-assessed mental health status in the Lisbon region after an economic crisis. Via the application of multilevel regression models, the study assesses the link between one’s neighborhood environment—deprivation, low self-assessed social capital, and low self-assessed satisfaction with the area of residence—and mental health regardless of one’s individual characteristics. Constraints related to the economic crisis play an important role in the explanation of poor mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Healthy Food Access in Low-Income High-Minority Communities: A Longitudinal Assessment—2009–2017
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132354 - 03 Jul 2019
Abstract
Disparities in healthy food access are well documented in cross-sectional studies in communities across the United States. However, longitudinal studies examining changes in food environments within various neighborhood contexts are scarce. In a sample of 142 census tracts in four low-income, high-minority cities [...] Read more.
Disparities in healthy food access are well documented in cross-sectional studies in communities across the United States. However, longitudinal studies examining changes in food environments within various neighborhood contexts are scarce. In a sample of 142 census tracts in four low-income, high-minority cities in New Jersey, United States, we examined the availability of different types of food stores by census tract characteristics over time (2009–2017). Outlets were classified as supermarkets, small grocery stores, convenience stores, and pharmacies using multiple sources of data and a rigorous protocol. Census tracts were categorized by median household income and race/ethnicity of the population each year. Significant declines were observed in convenience store prevalence in lower- and medium-income and majority black tracts (p for trend: 0.004, 0.031, and 0.006 respectively), while a slight increase was observed in the prevalence of supermarkets in medium-income tracts (p for trend: 0.059). The decline in prevalence of convenience stores in lower-income and minority neighborhoods is likely attributable to declining incomes in these already poor communities. Compared to non-Hispanic neighborhoods, Hispanic communities had a higher prevalence of small groceries and convenience stores. This higher prevalence of smaller stores, coupled with shopping practices of Hispanic consumers, suggests that efforts to upgrade smaller stores in Hispanic communities may be more sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Gentrification and Displacement in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Comparison of Measurement Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122246 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Gentrification may play an important role in influencing health outcomes, but few studies have examined these associations. One major barrier to producing empirical evidence to establish this link is that there is little consensus on how to measure gentrification. To address this barrier, [...] Read more.
Gentrification may play an important role in influencing health outcomes, but few studies have examined these associations. One major barrier to producing empirical evidence to establish this link is that there is little consensus on how to measure gentrification. To address this barrier, we compared three gentrification classification methodologies in relation to their ability to identify neighborhood gentrification in nine San Francisco Bay Area counties: the Freeman method, the Landis method, and the Urban Displacement Project (UDP) Regional Early Warning System. In the 1580 census tracts, 43% of the population had a bachelor’s degree or higher. The average median household income was $79,671 in 2013. A comparison of gentrification methodologies revealed that the Landis and Freeman methodologies characterized the vast majority of census tracts as stable, and only 5.2% and 6.1% of tracts as gentrifying. UDP characterized 46.7% of tracts at risk, undergoing, or experiencing advanced stages of gentrification and displacement. There was substantial variation in the geographic location of tracts identified as gentrifying across methods. Given the variation in characterizations of gentrification across measures, studies evaluating associations between gentrification and health should consider using multiple measures of gentrification to examine the robustness of the study findings across measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Understanding Where We Are Well: Neighborhood-Level Social and Environmental Correlates of Well-Being in the Stanford Well for Life Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101786 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Individual well-being is a complex concept that varies among and between individuals and is impacted by individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, policy and environmental factors. This research explored associations between select environmental characteristics measured at the ZIP code level and individual well-being. Participants ( [...] Read more.
Individual well-being is a complex concept that varies among and between individuals and is impacted by individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, policy and environmental factors. This research explored associations between select environmental characteristics measured at the ZIP code level and individual well-being. Participants (n = 3288, mean age = 41.4 years, 71.0% female, 57.9% white) were drawn from a registry of individuals who completed the Stanford WELL for Life Scale (SWLS), a 76-question online survey that asks about 10 domains of well-being: social connectedness, lifestyle and daily practices, physical health, stress and resilience, emotional and mental health, purpose and meaning, sense of self, financial security and satisfaction, spirituality and religiosity, and exploration and creativity. Based on a nationally-representative 2018 study of associations between an independent well-being measure and county-level characteristics, we selected twelve identical or analogous neighborhood (ZIP-code level) indicators to test against the SWLS measure and its ten constituent domains. Data were collected from secondary sources to describe socio-economic (median household income, percent unemployment, percent child poverty), demographic (race/ethnicity), and physical environment (commute by bicycle and public transit), and healthcare (number of healthcare facilities, percent mammogram screenings, percent preventable hospital stays). All continuous neighborhood factors were re-classified into quantile groups. Linear mixed models were fit to assess relationships between each neighborhood measure and each of the ten domains of well-being, as well as the overall SWLS well-being measure, and were adjusted for spatial autocorrelation and individual-level covariates. In models exploring associations between the overall SWLS score and neighborhood characteristics, six of the twelve neighborhood factors exhibited significant differences between quantile groups (p < 0.05). All of the ten SWLS domains had at least one instance of significant (p < 0.05) variation across quantile groups for a neighborhood factor; stress and resilience, emotional and mental health, and financial security had the greatest number of significant associations (6/12 factors), followed by physical health (5/12 factors) and social connectedness (4/12 factors). All but one of the neighborhood factors (number of Federally Qualified Health Centers) showed at least one significant association with a well-being domain. Among the neighborhood factors with the most associations with well-being domains were rate of preventable hospital stays (7/10 domains), percent holding bachelor’s degrees (6/10 domains), and median income and percent with less than high school completion (5/10 domains). These observational insights suggest that neighborhood factors are associated with individuals’ overall self-rated well-being, though variation exists among its constituent domains. Further research that employs such multi-dimensional measures of well-being is needed to determine targets for intervention at the neighborhood level that may improve well-being at both the individual and, ultimately, neighborhood levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Urban Green Space and Facility Accessibility on Exercise and Healthy Diet in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091514 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background A cross-sectional study using a convenience sampling method was conducted to understand how green space and accessibility of common public open spaces in compact urban areas affect physical activity and healthy diets of residents. Methods A total of 554 residents completed a [...] Read more.
Background A cross-sectional study using a convenience sampling method was conducted to understand how green space and accessibility of common public open spaces in compact urban areas affect physical activity and healthy diets of residents. Methods A total of 554 residents completed a structured questionnaire on quality of life, physical activity level and healthy eating practice. Particularly, categories of physical activity and durations were obtained by using the short form Chinese International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-C), then the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-minutes/week was calculated using the formulae (walking minutes × walking days × 3.3) + (moderate-intensity activity minutes × moderate days × 4.0) + (vigorous-intensity activity minutes × vigorous-intensity days × 8.0). The percentage of green space was calculated based on a spatial buffer with a 500 m radius from participants’ geocoded addresses using a SPOT (‘Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre’ in French) satellite image-derived vegetation dataset. Parks, promenade and sports facilities were examples of open spaces. Results The sampled population who lived with green space averaged 10.11% ± 7.95% (ranged 1.56–32.90%), with the majority (90%) performing physical activities at medium and high levels. MET-minutes/week was significantly associated (Pearson r = 0.092; p < 0.05) with the green space percentage. Relatively active residents commonly used open spaces within the district for performing exercise, in particular, parks and promenades were mostly used by older residents, while sports facilities by the younger groups at age 25–44 and <25 years. Conclusions Current findings suggested promotion of exercise could be achieved by the design or redesign of built environment to include more parks accessible to the residents with the increase of vegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Neighborhood Discrimination Towards Mainland Immigrants on Mental Health in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061025 - 20 Mar 2019
Abstract
Using data from a representative sample of Chinese adults who were surveyed in the Hong Kong Panel Study of Social Dynamics (HKPSSD), we estimate the effects of neighborhood discrimination towards immigrants from Mainland China on the mental health of Chinese residents in Hong [...] Read more.
Using data from a representative sample of Chinese adults who were surveyed in the Hong Kong Panel Study of Social Dynamics (HKPSSD), we estimate the effects of neighborhood discrimination towards immigrants from Mainland China on the mental health of Chinese residents in Hong Kong. Contrary to our expectations, discrimination towards immigrants from Mainland China measured at the neighborhood level is not associated with the poor mental health of post-1997 immigrants; instead, a higher level of immigrant discrimination is associated with a lower level of psychological distress for both post-1997 Mainland immigrants and other Chinese residents in Hong Kong. A functional family also appears to be a consistent predictor of better mental health for both groups. Our findings, therefore, suggest that immigrant discrimination can signify a prejudice that leads to social distance or avoidance and that the post-1997 Mainland immigrants do not have extensive contact with other local residents in Hong Kong. Although local residents’ discriminatory attitudes may not result in aggressive behaviors that have a negative impact on newcomers’ mental health, the social distance between the immigrants and the local residents is still an issue that requires further research and practical attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Open AccessArticle
Objectively-Measured Neighbourhood Attributes as Correlates and Moderators of Quality of Life in Older Adults with Different Living Arrangements: The ALECS Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050876 - 10 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
With an ageing world population, preservation of older adults’ health and quality of life (QoL) is paramount. Due to lower levels of physical functionality, older adults are particularly susceptible to local environment influences, especially those living alone and lacking family support. Using generalised [...] Read more.
With an ageing world population, preservation of older adults’ health and quality of life (QoL) is paramount. Due to lower levels of physical functionality, older adults are particularly susceptible to local environment influences, especially those living alone and lacking family support. Using generalised additive mixed models, we examined associations and confounder-adjusted associations between objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes and QoL domains in 909 Hong Kong Chinese elderly community dwellers. Most examined neighbourhood attributes were not associated with QoL in the whole sample. Neighbourhood residential and entertainment density was curvilinearly and/or linearly related to specific QoL domains. Number of parks was negatively associated with social QoL and having well-treed parks with higher levels of social QoL. Older adults living alone in neighbourhoods with poor access to destinations and few activities in parks showed lower environmental and/or social QoL than their counterparts. Neighbourhood built environment characteristics do not seem to impact Hong Kong older adults’ physical and psychological QoL. Medium-to-high density, well-ordered neighbourhoods with optimal mixes of well-treed public open spaces and services meeting their daily needs may significantly contribute to social and environmental QoL in this population and appear particularly important to those living alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Cross-Level Interaction between Community Factors and Social Capital among Individuals on Physical Activity: Considering Gender Difference
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030495 - 11 Feb 2019
Abstract
This study examines the effect of cross-level interaction between community physical environment and social capital among individuals on physical activity by considering gender difference. In this regard, we ask two research questions: (1) What is the effect of cross-level interaction between community factors [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of cross-level interaction between community physical environment and social capital among individuals on physical activity by considering gender difference. In this regard, we ask two research questions: (1) What is the effect of cross-level interaction between community factors and social capital among individuals on physical activity? (2) Is there gender difference in the effect of the cross-level interaction? To examine the research questions, this study used the 2015 Korea Community Health Survey and used multi-level analyses. The empirical analyses show that while there are both positive and negative cross-level interaction effects between physical activity-supportive community environment and social capital among individuals on physical activity, the positive cross-level interaction effect is more pronounced for women than for men. These findings suggest that local efforts to improve public health should take into account the cross-level interaction effect between community physical environment and social capital among individuals as well as gender difference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Open AccessArticle
Patterns of Cyclist and Pedestrian Street Crossing Behavior and Safety on an Urban Greenway
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020201 - 12 Jan 2019
Abstract
Greenways are linear open spaces, which are often used as trails for pedestrians and cyclists, but junctions with roads are a safety concern and act as a potential impediment to active transportation. This study evaluated crossing behavior patterns and safety at greenway–road junctions [...] Read more.
Greenways are linear open spaces, which are often used as trails for pedestrians and cyclists, but junctions with roads are a safety concern and act as a potential impediment to active transportation. This study evaluated crossing behavior patterns and safety at greenway–road junctions in New Orleans, LA. Crossing behaviors, safety and motor vehicle behavior were collected using direct observation methods. Intercept surveys were conducted to assess greenway use and safety perceptions. Logistic and negative binomial regression were used to assess the relationships between crossing signal (rectangular rapid flash beacon) activation and motor vehicle behavior. Fewer unsafe crossings occurred when the crossing signals were activated for cyclists and pedestrians (p-values of 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). There was no association between pedestrian use of crossing signals and motor vehicle stopping behavior but cyclists had significantly higher odds of motor vehicles failing to stop when the signal was activated (OR 5.12, 95% CI 2.86–9.16). The activation of rectangular rapid flash beacons at urban greenway junctions with roads did not influence motor vehicle behavior. Differences in crossing safety by signal use cannot be attributed to the signal’s influence on motor vehicle stopping behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Association between Urban Greenness and Depressive Symptoms: Evaluation of Greenness Using Various Indicators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020173 - 09 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
An increasing number of studies have suggested benefits of greenness exposure on mental health. We examined the association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms in adults in the general population living in the seven major cities in Korea (N = 65,128). Using [...] Read more.
An increasing number of studies have suggested benefits of greenness exposure on mental health. We examined the association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms in adults in the general population living in the seven major cities in Korea (N = 65,128). Using data from the Korean Community Health Survey 2009, depressive symptoms were measured on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Greenness was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land-use data (forest area and forest volume). Logistic regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. Individuals in regions with the highest NDVI (quartile 4) had the lowest odds for depressive symptoms compared to quartile 1, after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 0.813; 95% CI: 0.747, 0.884). For all greenness indicators except for forest area per district area (%), the highest rate of depressive symptoms was found for the individuals in the lowest quartile of greenness (quartile 1) and the lowest rate of depressive symptoms for those in the highest quartile of greenness (quartile 4). We found an inverse association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms, which was consistent across a variety of greenness indicators. Our study suggests health benefits of greenness and could provide a scientific basis for policy making and urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Built Environment, Psychosocial Factors and Active Commuting to School in Adolescents: Clustering a Self-Organizing Map Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010083 - 29 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Although the built environment and certain psychosocial factors are related to adolescents’ active commuting to and from school (ACS), their interrelationships have not been explored in depth. This study describes these interrelationships and behavioral profiles via a self-organizing map (SOM) analysis. The sample [...] Read more.
Although the built environment and certain psychosocial factors are related to adolescents’ active commuting to and from school (ACS), their interrelationships have not been explored in depth. This study describes these interrelationships and behavioral profiles via a self-organizing map (SOM) analysis. The sample comprised 465 adolescents from the IPEN (International Physical Activity and the Environment Network) Adolescent study in Valencia, Spain. ACS, barriers to ACS, physical self-efficacy, social support and sociodemographics were measured by questionnaire. Street-network distance to school, net residential density and street intersection density were calculated from the Geographic Information System. The clustering of the SOM outcomes resulted in eight areas or clusters. The clusters which correspond to the lowest and highest ACS levels were then explored in depth. The lowest ACS levels presented interactions between the less supportive built environments (i.e., low levels of residential density and street connectivity in the neighborhood and greater distances to school) and unfavorable psychosocial variables (i.e., low values of physical self-efficacy and medium social support for ACS) and good access to private motorized transport at home. The adolescents with the lowest ACS values exhibited high ACS environment/safety and planning/psychosocial barrier values. Future interventions should be designed to encourage ACS and change multiple levels of influence, such as individual, psychosocial and environmental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEssay
The Search for Environmental Justice: The Story of North Birmingham
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122117 - 14 Jun 2019
Abstract
Environmental justice is a rising social movement throughout the world. Research is beginning to define the movement and address the disparities that exist among communities exposed to pollution. North Birmingham, a community made up of six neighborhoods in Jefferson County, Alabama, in the [...] Read more.
Environmental justice is a rising social movement throughout the world. Research is beginning to define the movement and address the disparities that exist among communities exposed to pollution. North Birmingham, a community made up of six neighborhoods in Jefferson County, Alabama, in the United States, is a story of environmental injustice. Heavy industry, including the 35th Avenue Superfund Site, has caused significant environmental pollution over time, leaving residents concerned that their health and well-being are at risk from continued exposure. For years, pollution has impacted the community, and residents have fought and challenged industry and government. The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the Jefferson County Department of Health (JCDH) in Alabama have historically played a role in working with the community regarding their health concerns. In this manuscript, we describe a city entrenched in environmental injustice. We provide the history of the community, the responsible parties named for the contamination, the government’s involvement, and the community’s response to this injustice. Through this manuscript, we offer insight into a global concern that challenges local communities on a daily basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop