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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030495

The Effect of Cross-Level Interaction between Community Factors and Social Capital among Individuals on Physical Activity: Considering Gender Difference

Department of Public Administration and Graduate School of Governance, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 03063, Korea
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Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neighborhood Environmental Influences on Health and Well-Being)
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Abstract

This study examines the effect of cross-level interaction between community physical environment and social capital among individuals on physical activity by considering gender difference. In this regard, we ask two research questions: (1) What is the effect of cross-level interaction between community factors and social capital among individuals on physical activity? (2) Is there gender difference in the effect of the cross-level interaction? To examine the research questions, this study used the 2015 Korea Community Health Survey and used multi-level analyses. The empirical analyses show that while there are both positive and negative cross-level interaction effects between physical activity-supportive community environment and social capital among individuals on physical activity, the positive cross-level interaction effect is more pronounced for women than for men. These findings suggest that local efforts to improve public health should take into account the cross-level interaction effect between community physical environment and social capital among individuals as well as gender difference. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; social capital; community factor; cross-level interaction; gender difference physical activity; social capital; community factor; cross-level interaction; gender difference
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jun, H.-J.; Park, S. The Effect of Cross-Level Interaction between Community Factors and Social Capital among Individuals on Physical Activity: Considering Gender Difference. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 495.

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