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Special Issue "Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019) | Viewed by 48955

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Victor M. Reis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sports Sciences, Exercise & Health, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: bioenergetics of physical activity; physical fitness and health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health conditions associated with sedentary lifestyles continue to grow. Indeed, growing epidemics such as obesity and Diabetes have been devastating human populations. Despite the improvements in medical care and new drugs, in neither case there seems to be signs that this tendency can be stopped. More active lifestyles, namely those including guided or non-guided physical activity, have been pointed out as strategies that are able to help this battle.

Past research has focused on the effects of exercise on health-related markers, though constant changes in demographics of major diseases, new treatment and therapeutics, and innovative proposals of exercise interventions, all lead me to believe that research on the overall contribute of exercise to public health has yet to peak.

This Special Issue in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is devoted to recent findings on “Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics”. I expect valuable contributions that will help to enlarge the body of knowledge that fosters effective practical interventions.

Wide range of topics will be included in this issue, related to, but not limited to, acute and chronic effects of exercise programs on health-related markers (both in health and disease); bioenergetics of physical activity in populations at risk of non-communicable diseases; relations between physical fitness, quality of life and health markers.

Dr. Victor M. Reis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • exercise
  • physical fitness
  • health
  • lifestyles
  • quality of life
  • wellbeing

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Effects of Exercise on Biomarkers in Health and Disease: Some New Insights with Special Focus on Extreme Exercise and Healthy Ageing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061986 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Health conditions associated with sedentary lifestyles continue to grow [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)

Research

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Article
A Qualitative Analysis of an Aerobic Interval Training Programme for Obese Outpatients Carried Out in a Hospital Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010312 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Purpose: To describe the experience of obese adults following participation in an indoor aerobic interval training (AIT) intervention. Methodology: Qualitative, in-depth semi-structured individual interviews, using phenomenology, with 24 obese adults (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2) from the Endocrinology [...] Read more.
Purpose: To describe the experience of obese adults following participation in an indoor aerobic interval training (AIT) intervention. Methodology: Qualitative, in-depth semi-structured individual interviews, using phenomenology, with 24 obese adults (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2) from the Endocrinology Department, at the Severo Ochoa Hospital in Leganés (Madrid). Questions were related to: (a) The physical activity (PA) programme, (b) their perspectives of the activity and exercise environment and (c) the perceived benefits from participation. Data were analysed with a constant comparison approach. Results: The main patients’ reasons for beginning the programme were motivations to take part including weight loss, health improvement and doctors’ recommendation. Also, patients showed doubts and feelings of apprehension at the beginning of the intervention. Patients highlighted the role of the instructor, feelings of exercising in a safe environment, a good intervention and accessibility of the facility. They reported an improvement in their quality of life and recommended continuing the program. Conclusions: (1) Common themes in the qualitative analysis included enjoyment of the activity and a desire to maintain physical fitness, (2) AIT was perceived as a suitable exercise programme for this population and (3) recommendations for further investigation to understand the role of PA programmes for people with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Simple Prediction of Metabolic Equivalents of Daily Activities Using Heart Rate Monitor without Calibration of Individuals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010216 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Background: Heart rate (HR) during physical activity is strongly affected by the level of physical fitness. Therefore, to assess the effects of fitness, we developed predictive equations to estimate the metabolic equivalent (MET) of daily activities, which includes low intensity activities, by % [...] Read more.
Background: Heart rate (HR) during physical activity is strongly affected by the level of physical fitness. Therefore, to assess the effects of fitness, we developed predictive equations to estimate the metabolic equivalent (MET) of daily activities, which includes low intensity activities, by % HR reserve (%HRR), resting HR, and multiple physical characteristics. Methods: Forty volunteers between the ages of 21 and 55 performed 20 types of daily activities while recording HR and sampling expired gas to evaluate METs values. Multiple regression analysis was performed to develop prediction models of METs with seven potential predictors, such as %HRR, resting HR, and sex. The contributing parameters were selected based on the brute force method. Additionally, leave-one-out method was performed to validate the prediction models. Results: %HRR, resting HR, sex, and height were selected as the independent variables. %HRR showed the highest contribution in the model, while the other variables exhibited small variances. METs were estimated within a 17.3% difference for each activity, with large differences in document arrangement while sitting (+17%), ascending stairs (−8%), and descending stairs (+8%). Conclusions: The results showed that %HRR is a strong predictor for estimating the METs of daily activities. Resting HR and other variables were mild contributors. (201 words) Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Ischemic Preconditioning Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in a Session of Resistance Exercise in Normotensive Trained Individuals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010078 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a method that has been used prior to resistance exercise to improve performance. However, little is known about its effect before a resistance exercise training session on hemodynamic responses. Thus, the aim of the study was to verify the [...] Read more.
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a method that has been used prior to resistance exercise to improve performance. However, little is known about its effect before a resistance exercise training session on hemodynamic responses. Thus, the aim of the study was to verify the acute effect of IPC before a session of resistance exercises on the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) of trained normotensive trained individuals. Sixteen men (25.3 ± 1.7 years; 78.4 ± 6.2 kg; 176.9 ± 5.4 cm, 25.1 ± 1.5 m2.kg−1) trained in resistance exercise (RE) (5.0 ± 1.7 years) were evaluated in five sessions on non-consecutive days. The first two sessions’ subjects performed one repetition maximum (RM) test and retest, and for the next three sessions, they performed the experimental protocols: (a) IPC + RE; (b) SHAM + RE; (c) RE. The RE protocol consisted of six multi-joint exercises, three sets at 80% of 1RM until concentric failure. Blood pressure was monitored pre-session, immediately after and every 10 min for 60 min after RE. IPC consisted of 4 × 5 min of vascular occlusion/reperfusion at 220 mmHg. SHAM (fake protocol) consisted of 20 mmHg of vascular occlusion/reperfusion. The IPC + RE protocol showed significant reductions on SBP, DBP, and MBP compared with SHAM + RE (p < 0.05) and with RE (p < 0.05). The IPC + RE protocol presented a greater magnitude and duration of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) from 20 to 60 min after exercise in SBP (−11 to 14 mmHg), DBP (−5 to 14 mmHg), and MBP (−7 to 13 mmHg). Therefore, we can conclude that the application of IPC before an RE session potentiated the PEH in normotensive individuals trained in resistance exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Can High-Intensity Functional Suspension Training over Eight Weeks Improve Resting Blood Pressure and Quality of Life in Young Adults? A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245062 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
The present study examined the effects of a functional high-intensity suspension training (FunctionalHIIT) on resting blood pressure, psychological well-being as well as on upper body and core strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in moderately trained participants. Twenty healthy, moderately trained adults (10 [...] Read more.
The present study examined the effects of a functional high-intensity suspension training (FunctionalHIIT) on resting blood pressure, psychological well-being as well as on upper body and core strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in moderately trained participants. Twenty healthy, moderately trained adults (10 males and 10 females; age: 36.2 ± 11.1 years, BMI: 23.9 ± 3.7) were randomly assigned to a FunctionalHIIT training group or passive control group (CON). FunctionalHIIT performed 16 sessions (2× week for eight weeks, 30 min per session), whereas CON maintained their habitual lifestyle using a physical activity log. Before and after FunctionalHIIT intervention, resting blood pressure and quality of life (short version of the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF)) were assessed. Furthermore, maximum-repetition (leg press, chest press, pulldown, back extension) and trunk muscle strength (Bourban test) as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (Vameval test), were measured before and after the intervention. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and WHOQOL-BREF did not change significantly but both showed moderate training-induced effects (0.62 < standardized mean difference (SMD) < 0.82). Significant improvements in the FunctionalHIIT group were evident on leg press (p < 0.01), chest press (p < 0.05), and left side Bourban test (p < 0.05). Cardiorespiratory fitness did not reveal any time effects or time × group interactions. The present study revealed that eight weeks of FunctionalHIIT represents a potent stimulus to improve health-related parameters in young adults, whereas FunctionalHIIT was not sufficient to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
Article
A Retrospective Study about the Differences in Cardiometabolic Risk Indicators and Level of Physical Activity in Bariatric Surgery Patients from Private vs. Public Units
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4751; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234751 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Background: Obesity is a pathology with a growing incidence in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the evolution of cardiometabolic, anthropometrics, and physical activity parameters in individuals undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) in the public healthcare system (PUS) and private healthcare system (PHS). [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is a pathology with a growing incidence in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the evolution of cardiometabolic, anthropometrics, and physical activity parameters in individuals undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) in the public healthcare system (PUS) and private healthcare system (PHS). Methods: A longitudinal, observational, and retrospective study was conducted with 111 bariatric patients on two different health systems, with 60 patients from the PUS and 51 from the PHS. Cardiometabolic risk (CR) was analyzed by the assessment of obesity-related comorbidities (AORC) on admission and 3, 6, and 12 months after BS, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was surveyed before and 12 months after BS. In addition, cardiometabolic risk was also assessed by biochemical (fasting glucose and complete lipidogram) and anthropometric (weight, weight loss, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) parameters. Results: On admission, the parameters of severe obesity, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), Diabetes mellitus (DM), and waiting time to BS were higher in the PUS. Additionally, in the PUS, AORC was reduced only in the SAH parameter. However, in the post-surgery moment, AORC reduced, and there was no difference between the two groups after BS. Regarding physical activity, the IPAQ showed a higher level of activity in the PHS before and one year after BS. Conclusion: At the PUS, BS is performed in patients with a higher degree of comorbidities, but BS improved the reduction of the CR at a similar level to those observed in the PHS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Does Croton Argyrophyllus Extract Has an Effect on Muscle Damage and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Submitted to High Intensity Strength Exercise?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214237 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Many species of the genus Croton have been used for anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and antitumor purposes. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a hydroethanolic extract (HEE) from the inner bark of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on muscle damage and oxidative stress in [...] Read more.
Many species of the genus Croton have been used for anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and antitumor purposes. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a hydroethanolic extract (HEE) from the inner bark of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on muscle damage and oxidative stress in rats after high intensity exercise. The animals were divided into four groups: (i) the sedentary group (SV; n = 7), (ii) the exercise vehicle group (EV, n = 7), (iii) the sedentary group HEE (SHG; n = 7) composed of sedentary animals and treated with the hydroethanolic extract of C. argyrophyllus (200 mg/kg, v.o.), and (iv) the HEE exercise group (HEE; n = 7) composed of animals submitted to resistance exercise (RE) and treated with the hydroethanolic extract of C. argyrophyllus (200 mg/kg, v.o.). In the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the HEE showed lower values of inhibition potential (IP%) at 39.79% compared to gallic acid, 87.61%, and lipoperoxidation inhibition at 27.4% (100 µg/mL) or 28.6% (200 µg/mL) (p < 0.001). There was inhibition in free radicals in vivo. The HEE of C. argyrophyllus partially reduced the biomarkers of oxidative stress in muscle tissue and muscular damage (creatine kinase (CK) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)) (p < 0.05) in rats, and in this sense it can be an aid to the recovery process after exhaustive efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
The Effects of 12 Weeks of a Combined Exercise Program on Physical Function and Hormonal Status in Elderly Korean Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214196 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Aging causes a decline in physical function and hormonal balance. Exercise can improve these parameters. However, the beneficial effects of a combined exercise program (Korean dance and yoga) on physical function and hormonal status in elderly women remain unknown. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Aging causes a decline in physical function and hormonal balance. Exercise can improve these parameters. However, the beneficial effects of a combined exercise program (Korean dance and yoga) on physical function and hormonal status in elderly women remain unknown. This study aims to investigate the effects of a 12-week combined exercise program on balance, flexibility, muscle strength, and hormonal status in elderly Korean women. Twenty-five healthy elderly women were recruited and randomly divided into the control (CON) and exercise (EXE) groups. The EXE group underwent the combined exercise program (60 min/day and 3 times/week) for 12 weeks. The two groups did not differ in body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, body fat percentage, or body mass index at baseline or in the changes following the experimental conditions. A significant time × group interaction was detected for anterior and posterior dynamic balance, static balance, and growth hormone (GH). After the combined exercise program, anterior dynamic balance, posterior dynamic balance, static balance, flexibility, muscle strength, GH, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, and estrogen significantly increased in the EXE group compared to the CON group. In conclusion, the combined exercise program contributed to improvements in overall health, including physical function and hormonal status, in elderly Korean women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial of the Acute Effects of Treadmill Walking on Glycemic Control
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214163 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5133
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on glycemic control in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), using treadmill walking as aerobic exercise mode. Methods: Fifteen patients with [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to compare the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on glycemic control in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), using treadmill walking as aerobic exercise mode. Methods: Fifteen patients with T2D (60.25 ± 3.14 years; glycated hemoglobin 7.03 ± 0.33%; medicated with metformin and/or gliptins), participated in a randomized controlled crossover trial. They underwent three experimental conditions (treadmill walking HIIT session (5 × (3 min at 70% of heart rate reserve (HRR) + 3 min at 30% HRR)); treadmill walking MICT session (30 min at 50% HRR); and a control session of rest (CON)) in random order and in the postprandial state. Measurements of capillary blood glucose (BG) were taken immediately before, during, and until 50 min after the experimental conditions. Results: Both HIIT and MICT treadmill walking sessions reduced BG levels during exercise and laboratory 50 min recovery period compared to CON (time*condition interaction effect; p < 0.001). The effect of HIIT was greater compared with MICT (p = 0.017). Conclusions: Treadmill walking HIIT seems a safe and more effective exercise strategy on immediate acute glycemic control compared with MICT in middle-aged and older patients with T2D under therapy with metformin and/or gliptins. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN09240628. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Changes in Water Soluble Uremic Toxins and Urinary Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers After 10- and 100-km Runs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214153 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is described as a relatively common complication of exercise. In clinical practice the diagnosis of AKI is based on serum creatinine, the level of which is dependent not only on glomerular filtration rate but also on muscle mass and [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is described as a relatively common complication of exercise. In clinical practice the diagnosis of AKI is based on serum creatinine, the level of which is dependent not only on glomerular filtration rate but also on muscle mass and injury. Therefore, the diagnosis of AKI is overestimated after physical exercise. The aim of this study was to determine changes in uremic toxins: creatinine, urea, uric acid, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and urinary makers of AKI: albumin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 and cystatin-C (uCyst-C) after long runs. Sixteen runners, mean age 36.7 ± 8.2 years, (2 women, 14 men) participating in 10- and 100-km races were studied. Blood and urine were taken before and after the races to assess markers of AKI. A statistically significant increase in creatinine, urea, uric acid, SDMA and all studied urinary AKI markers was observed. TMAO and ADMA levels did not change. The changes in studied markers seem to be a physiological reaction, because they were observed almost in every runner. The diagnosis of kidney failure after exercise is challenging. The most valuable novel markers which can help in post-exercise AKI diagnosis are uCyst-C and uNGAL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Effects of Three Months of Detraining on the Health Profile of Older Women after a Multicomponent Exercise Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203881 - 13 Oct 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
Physical exercise results in very important benefits including preventing disease and promoting the quality of life of older individuals. Common interruptions and training cessation are associated with the loss of total health profile, and specifically cardiorespiratory fitness. Would detraining (DT) promote different effects [...] Read more.
Physical exercise results in very important benefits including preventing disease and promoting the quality of life of older individuals. Common interruptions and training cessation are associated with the loss of total health profile, and specifically cardiorespiratory fitness. Would detraining (DT) promote different effects in the cardiorespiratory and health profiles of trained and sedentary older women? Forty-seven older women were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG) (EG: n = 28, 70.3 ± 2.3 years; CG: n = 19, 70.1 ± 5.6 years). Oxygen uptake (VO2) and health profile assessments were conducted after the exercise program and after three months of detraining. The EG followed a nine-month multicomponent exercise program before a three-month detraining period. The CG maintained their normal activities. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant increases in total heath and VO2 (p < 0.01) profile over a nine-month exercise period in the EG and no significant increases in the CG. DT led to greater negative effects on total cholesterol (4.35%, p < 0.01), triglycerides (3.89%, p < 0.01), glucose (4.96%, p < 0.01), resting heart rate (5.15%, p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (4.13%, p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (3.38%, p < 0.01), the six-minute walk test (7.57%, p < 0.01), Pulmonary Ventilation (VE) (10.16%, p < 0.01), the Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (9.78, p < 0.05), and VO2/heart rate (HR) (16.08%, p < 0.01) in the EG. DT may induce greater declines in total health profile and in VO2, mediated, in part, by the effectiveness of multicomponent training particularly developed for older women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
Article
Sauna Yoga Superiorly Improves Flexibility, Strength, and Balance: A Two-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193721 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3349
Abstract
Besides strength and balance, flexibility is an important indicator of health-related physical fitness. Thus, the aim of this two-armed randomized controlled pilot trial was to investigate whether sauna yoga at a moderate temperature (50 °C) beneficially affects flexibility, strength, balance, and quality of [...] Read more.
Besides strength and balance, flexibility is an important indicator of health-related physical fitness. Thus, the aim of this two-armed randomized controlled pilot trial was to investigate whether sauna yoga at a moderate temperature (50 °C) beneficially affects flexibility, strength, balance, and quality of life (QOL) in healthy elderly community dwellers. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT, n = 11, age: 68.7 ± 5.9) or control group (CON, n = 12, age: 69.3 ± 4.9), using the minimization method. Age, physical activity, gender, and the primary outcome flexibility were used as strata for group allocation. Both groups completed similar exercises in the sauna over eight weeks. Only the INT group was exposed to moderate temperatures of 50 °C. Large and statistically significant improvement in favor of the sauna group (INT) was observed for the chair sit-and-reach test (INT: +83%, CON +3%, p = 0.028, np2 = 0.24). The shoulder and lateral spine flexibility were not relevantly affected. Strength in the lower extremities merely showed a tendency to significant changes (INT: 16%, CON: 3%, p = 0.061, np2 = 0.181). Additionally, balance abilities, with eyes closed, improved (INT: 187%, CON +58%, p = 0.056, np2 = 0.189) in favor of the INT group. QOL only improved in favor of the INT for environmental dimension (INT: +7%, CON: 0%, p = 0.034, np2 = 0.227). These first but preliminary findings indicate that sauna yoga may serve as a promising and feasible means to improve flexibility in elderly people. Strength and balance do not meaningfully benefit from a sauna environment, although strength improved to a slightly higher extent in the sauna group. Future large-scale research is needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms and corroborate these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Blood Biomarkers of Recovery Efficiency in Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183279 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
Physical exercise strongly affects human metabolism and causes biochemical changes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between routine plasma biomarker levels and recovery efficiency in soccer players during an entire competitive match season. The players participating in the study were divided into [...] Read more.
Physical exercise strongly affects human metabolism and causes biochemical changes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between routine plasma biomarker levels and recovery efficiency in soccer players during an entire competitive match season. The players participating in the study were divided into a midfielder/defender group (seven midfielders and seven defenders) and a goalie/substitute group (six persons—goalkeepers and players with a short cumulative match-time). The fasting capillary blood samples were taken 17–24 h after each competitive match. The blood plasma was used to determine the creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, iron and magnesium levels of the athletes. The levels of (AST) (aspartate aminotransferase), (ALT) (alanine aminotransferase) and (Cr) creatinine were higher in the midfielder/defender group than in the control group, but only AST and Cr significantly varied over time (AST decreased, and Cr increased with time). The (LDH) (lactate dehydrogenase) activity and urea level were significantly lower in the midfielder/defender group than in the goalie/substitute group, and it significantly varied over time (LDH decreased, and urea increased with time). No differences in the (CK) creatine kinase and (ALP) alkaline phosphatase activities between the groups was found, although CK increased significantly with time in the midfielder/defender group (particularly midfielders in the spring round). In midfielders, the AST activity and the iron level were significantly lower in the spring than in the autumn round. On the contrary, ALT, CK, urea and magnesium levels were significantly higher in the spring than in autumn round. A long-term measurement of biochemical parameters in elite soccer players indicated that AST, CK, LDH and creatinine levels, when analyzed together, could constitute a useful set of markers for monitoring recovery periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Gender Differences in Chronic Hormonal and Immunological Responses to CrossFit®
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142577 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
This study was designed to analyze the chronical responses of the hormonal and immune systems after a CrossFit® training period of six months as well as to compare these results between genders. Twenty-nine CrossFit® practitioners (35.3 ± 10.4 years, 175.0 ± [...] Read more.
This study was designed to analyze the chronical responses of the hormonal and immune systems after a CrossFit® training period of six months as well as to compare these results between genders. Twenty-nine CrossFit® practitioners (35.3 ± 10.4 years, 175.0 ± 9.2 cm, 79.5 ± 16.4 kg) with a minimum CrossFit® experience of six months were recruited, and hormonal and immune responses were verified every two months during training. The training was conducted in five consecutive days during the week, followed by two resting days. Testosterone (T) values were significantly higher at the last measurement time (T6 = 346.0 ± 299.7 pg·mL−1) than at all the other times (p < 0.002) and were higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). Cortisol (C) levels were lower at all times compared to the initial level before training, and differences were observed between men and women, with men having a lower value (T0: p = 0.028; T2: p = 0.013; T4: p = 0.002; and T6: p = 0.002). The TC ratio in women was lower at all times (p < 0.0001) than in men. Significant effects on CD8 levels at different times (F(3.81) = 7.287; p = 0.002; ηp2 = 0.213) and between genders (F(1.27) = 4.282; p = 0.048; ηp2 = 0.137), and no differences in CD4 levels were observed. CrossFit® training changed the serum and basal levels of testosterone and cortisol in men (with an increase in testosterone and a decrease in cortisol). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
Article
Oxygen Uptake On-Kinetics during Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise: Effect of Exercise Mode and Load
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142524 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1949
Abstract
Oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics has been analyzed through mathematical modeling of constant work-rate exercise, however, the exponential nature of the VO2 response in resistance exercise is currently unknown. The present work assessed the VO2 on-kinetics during two different sub [...] Read more.
Oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics has been analyzed through mathematical modeling of constant work-rate exercise, however, the exponential nature of the VO2 response in resistance exercise is currently unknown. The present work assessed the VO2 on-kinetics during two different sub maximal intensities in the inclined bench press and in the seated leg extension exercise. Twelve males (age: 27.2 ± 4.3 years, height: 177 ± 5 cm, body mass: 79.0 ± 10.6 kg and estimated body fat: 11.4 ± 4.1%) involved in recreational resistance exercise randomly performed 4-min transitions from rest to 12% and 24% of 1 repetition maximum each, of inclined bench press (45°) and leg extension exercises. During all testing, expired gases were collected breath-by-breath with a portable gas analyzer (K4b2, Cosmed, Italy) and VO2 on-kinetics were identified using a multi-exponential mathematical model. Leg extension exercise exhibited a higher R-square, compared with inclined bench press, but no differences were found in-between exercises for the VO2 kinetics parameters. VO2 on-kinetics seems to be more sensitive to muscle related parameters (upper vs. lower body exercise) and less to small load variations in the resistance exercise. The absence of a true slow component indicates that is possible to calculate low-intensity resistance exercise energy cost based solely on VO2 measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Personalized Moderate-Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High-Intensity Interval Training Enhances Training Responsiveness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122088 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3919
Abstract
This study sought to determine if personalized moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) was more effective at improving comprehensive training responsiveness than MICT alone. Apparently healthy, but physically inactive men and women (n = 54) were randomized [...] Read more.
This study sought to determine if personalized moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) was more effective at improving comprehensive training responsiveness than MICT alone. Apparently healthy, but physically inactive men and women (n = 54) were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of two 13-week exercise training groups: (1) a personalized MICT + HIIT aerobic and resistance training program based on the American Council on Exercise guidelines, or (2) a standardized MICT aerobic and resistance training program designed according to current American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. Mean changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Metabolic (MetS) z-score in the personalized MICT + HIIT group were more favorable (p < 0.05) when compared to both the standardized MICT and control groups. Additionally, on the individual level, there were positive improvements in VO2max (Δ > 4.9%) and MetS z-score (Δ ≤ −0.48) in 100% (16/16) of participants in the personalized MICT + HIIT group. In the present study, a personalized exercise prescription combining MICT + HIIT in conjunction with resistance training elicited greater improvements in VO2max, MetS z-score reductions, and diminished inter-individual variation in VO2max and cardiometabolic training responses when compared to standardized MICT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Assessment of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Physical Activity Levels, and Quality of Life in Stratified Groups up to 10 Years after Bariatric Surgery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111975 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Obesity is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disease, with an increasing incidence, and is currently approaching epidemic proportions in developing countries. Ouraim was to evaluate the activity levels, quality of life (QoL), clinical parameters, laboratory parameters, and cardiometabolic risk factors afterbariatric surgery (BS). [...] Read more.
Obesity is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disease, with an increasing incidence, and is currently approaching epidemic proportions in developing countries. Ouraim was to evaluate the activity levels, quality of life (QoL), clinical parameters, laboratory parameters, and cardiometabolic risk factors afterbariatric surgery (BS). We classified78 patients who underwentBS into four groups, as follows: Those evaluated 1–2 years after BS (BS2), 2–4 years after BS (BS4), 4–6 years after BS (BS6), and 6–10 years after BS (BS+6). Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), comorbidities associated with obesity (ACRO), physical activity level, and QoL were evaluated. Patients exhibited improvements in BW, BMI, cardiometabolic risk, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes and significant changes in lipid profiles in the first postoperative yearafter BS.The physical activity level inthe BS2, BS4, and BS6 groups was increased, compared with that in the first postoperative year, with a decrease in International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores at 1 year in the BS2 (207.50 ± 30.79), BS4 (210.67 ± 33.69), and BS6 (220.00 ± 42.78) groups. The QoL of patients in theBS2 and BS4 groups was excellent and that of patients in the BS4 and BS+6 groupswas very good. These findings suggest that BS promoted improved physical activity levels and QoL and reduced comorbidities in patients with morbid obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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Article
Influence of the Mass Media and Body Dissatisfaction on the Risk in Adolescents of Developing Eating Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091508 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 10133
Abstract
Media influence may lead adolescents to internalize patterns of physical beauty, resulting in dissatisfaction with their own bodies when they are unable to match up to these patterns. In the constant search for an ‘ideal body’, adolescents may begin to develop risk behaviors [...] Read more.
Media influence may lead adolescents to internalize patterns of physical beauty, resulting in dissatisfaction with their own bodies when they are unable to match up to these patterns. In the constant search for an ‘ideal body’, adolescents may begin to develop risk behaviors for the development of eating disorders (ED). The object of this study was to analyze the influence of the mass media on body dissatisfaction (BD) and on ED in adolescents, comparing genders. We also analyzed the influence of BD on the risk of developing unsuitable eating behaviors, with risk of ED, comparing genders. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1011 adolescents: 527 girls and 484 boys. The BMI of each adolescent was determined, and the instruments EAT-26, Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), and body shape questionnaire (BSQ), were applied. For statistical analysis, we used Student’s t-test, the chi-square test, Pearson’s correlation test, the odds ratio, and hierarchical multiple linear regression. The influence of the mass media is associated with a greater probability of adolescents presenting BD. An increase in BD is associated with an increased risk of developing ED in adolescents of both genders but is greater in girls than in boys. Furthermore, the influence of the MM and BMI are predictors of BD in both genders; and BD is a predictor of ED risk in both girls and boys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)

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Case Report
Training and Body Composition during Preparation for a 48-Hour Ultra-Marathon Race: A Case Study of a Master Athlete
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060903 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2146
Abstract
Although the acute effects of ultra-endurance exercise on body composition have been well studied, limited information exists about the chronic adaptations of body composition to ultra-endurance training. The aim of the present study was to examine the day-by-day variation of training and body [...] Read more.
Although the acute effects of ultra-endurance exercise on body composition have been well studied, limited information exists about the chronic adaptations of body composition to ultra-endurance training. The aim of the present study was to examine the day-by-day variation of training and body composition of a master athlete during the preparation for a 48-hour ultra-marathon race. For all training sessions (n = 73) before the race, the running distance, duration, and pace were recorded, and body mass, body fat (BF), body water (%), visceral fat, fat-free mass (FFM), four circumferences (i.e., waist, upper arm, thigh and calf), and eight skinfolds (i.e., chest, mid-axilla, triceps, subscapular, abdomen, iliac crest, thigh and calf) were measured accordingly in a 53-year-old experienced ultra-endurance athlete (body mass 80.1 kg, body height 177 cm, body mass index 25.6 kg·m−2). The main findings of the present study were that (a) the training plan of the ultra-endurance master athlete followed a periodization pattern with regard to exercise intensity and training volume, which increased over time, (b) the body mass, BF, and FFM decreased largely during the first 30 training sessions, and (c) the circumferences and skinfolds reflected the respective decrease in BF. The findings of this case study provided useful information about the variation of training and body composition during the preparation for an ultra-marathon race in a male master ultra-marathoner. The preparation for an ultra-endurance race seems to induce pronounced changes in body mass and body composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
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