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Article

Changes in Water Soluble Uremic Toxins and Urinary Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers After 10- and 100-km Runs

1
Department of Occupational, Metabolic and Internal Medicine, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, 81-519 Gdynia, Poland
2
Department of Biology, Ecology and Sports Medicine, Gdańsk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Department of Bioanalysis and Drug Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Immunobiology and Environment Microbiology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 81-519 Gdynia, Poland
5
Medical Laboratories Bruss Group ALAB, Gdynia, Poland 81-519 Gdynia, Poland
6
Department of Athletics, Department of Athletics, Gdańsk University of Physical Education and Sport; 80-336 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214153
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is described as a relatively common complication of exercise. In clinical practice the diagnosis of AKI is based on serum creatinine, the level of which is dependent not only on glomerular filtration rate but also on muscle mass and injury. Therefore, the diagnosis of AKI is overestimated after physical exercise. The aim of this study was to determine changes in uremic toxins: creatinine, urea, uric acid, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and urinary makers of AKI: albumin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 and cystatin-C (uCyst-C) after long runs. Sixteen runners, mean age 36.7 ± 8.2 years, (2 women, 14 men) participating in 10- and 100-km races were studied. Blood and urine were taken before and after the races to assess markers of AKI. A statistically significant increase in creatinine, urea, uric acid, SDMA and all studied urinary AKI markers was observed. TMAO and ADMA levels did not change. The changes in studied markers seem to be a physiological reaction, because they were observed almost in every runner. The diagnosis of kidney failure after exercise is challenging. The most valuable novel markers which can help in post-exercise AKI diagnosis are uCyst-C and uNGAL. View Full-Text
Keywords: urinary biomarkers; uremic toxins; albuminuria; fractional excretion; SDMA; TMAO; ultramarathon urinary biomarkers; uremic toxins; albuminuria; fractional excretion; SDMA; TMAO; ultramarathon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wołyniec, W.; Kasprowicz, K.; Giebułtowicz, J.; Korytowska, N.; Zorena, K.; Bartoszewicz, M.; Rita-Tkachenko, P.; Renke, M.; Ratkowski, W. Changes in Water Soluble Uremic Toxins and Urinary Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers After 10- and 100-km Runs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4153. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214153

AMA Style

Wołyniec W, Kasprowicz K, Giebułtowicz J, Korytowska N, Zorena K, Bartoszewicz M, Rita-Tkachenko P, Renke M, Ratkowski W. Changes in Water Soluble Uremic Toxins and Urinary Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers After 10- and 100-km Runs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(21):4153. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214153

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wołyniec, Wojciech, Katarzyna Kasprowicz, Joanna Giebułtowicz, Natalia Korytowska, Katarzyna Zorena, Maria Bartoszewicz, Patrycja Rita-Tkachenko, Marcin Renke, and Wojciech Ratkowski. 2019. "Changes in Water Soluble Uremic Toxins and Urinary Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers After 10- and 100-km Runs" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 21: 4153. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214153

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