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Ecosystem Health Assessment and Ecological Restoration of Rivers and Lakes

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 30363

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Hydrology, Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing 210029, China
Interests: hydraulics and river dynamics, especially on engineering hydraulics for fishway, navigation channel and dam failure; water environment improvement and hydrodynamic regulation of urban river network; river and lake health evaluation and management, scientific demonstration of evaluation methods and technologies

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Hydrology, Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing 210029, China
Interests: hydraulics and river dynamics, especially on engineering hydraulics for fishway, navigation channel and dam failure; ecosystem health assessment of rivers and lakes, scientific demonstration of evaluation index system; water environment improvement, especially on engineering measures for water ecological restoration of rivers and lakes

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, YRCC, Key Laboratory of Lower Yellow River Channel and Estuary Regulation, MWR, Zhengzhou 450003, China
Interests: river evolution and ecological response; reservoir ecological operation; ecological restoration of fragile areas; ecosystem function and biodiversity protection in the Source; region of the Yellow River; ecosystem health assessment and ecological restoration of rivers and lakes
College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Interests: water quality improvement technology; water environment protection and bioremediation; coupling of biofilms and active substrata; ecological engineering; nanomaterials for environmental remediation; environmental behaviors of nanomaterials; toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As one of the basic objectives in water resource management, rivers and lakes are important components of surface water, being the ecological and environmental guarantees for regional sustainable development. Among ecosystems on the Earth, however, rivers and lakes are one of them that are most intensively influenced by human activities, and the intensity is becoming stronger. A healthy river and lake system is essential for maintaining the structure and function of ecosystems and serving human society. Practice to improve the health of rivers and lakes has been around the world for decades, but the specific techniques and measures of ecological restoration still face challenges.

This Special Issue seeks research papers of the latest research findings from worldwide scientists on various aspects of “River and Lake Health Improvement and Ecological Restoration”. Especially, we encourage submission of interdisciplinary work and multi-country collaborative research. We also encourage submission of environment policy or water policy-related manuscripts that focus on river and lake health improvement and ecological restoration associated issues.

Prof. Dr. Yun Li
Dr. Xiaogang Wang
Dr. Shimin Tian
Dr. Jun Hou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Ecosystem health assessment of rivers and lakes
  • Aquatic life integrated evaluation methods, benchmarks and criteria
  • Theory, methods and techniques for monitoring the water ecology of rivers and lakes
  • Technologies, methods and experiences in global or regional river and lake management
  • Ecological restoration of rivers and lakes
  • Diagnosis and management measures of water environment degradation in rivers and lakes
  • Efficient policies for river and lake health improvement and ecological restoration

Published Papers (15 papers)

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11 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Study and Application of Urban Aquatic Ecosystem Health Evaluation Index System in River Network Plain Area
by Rui Ding, Kai Yu, Ziwu Fan and Jiaying Liu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416545 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
The evaluation index system of urban aquatic ecosystem health is of great significance for the assessment and management of urban river networks, and for urban development planning. In this paper, the concept of urban aquatic ecosystem health was analyzed by the relationship between [...] Read more.
The evaluation index system of urban aquatic ecosystem health is of great significance for the assessment and management of urban river networks, and for urban development planning. In this paper, the concept of urban aquatic ecosystem health was analyzed by the relationship between human, city and aquatic ecosystem, and its evaluation index system was established from environmental conditions, ecological construction, and social service. In addition, the weight value of each index was calculated by the analytic hierarchy process, and the grading standard of each index was set. Jiading New City, a typical city of the river network plain area in Yangtze River delta, was selected as the aquatic ecosystem health evaluation sample. The fuzzy comprehensive method was used to evaluate the aquatic ecosystem health of Jiading New City. The results indicated that the water ecosystem health of Jiading New City reached the “good” level. For the criterion level, environmental conditions and ecological construction reached the “good” level, and social services reached the “excellent” level. For the indicator level, most indicators reached “good” and “excellent” levels, but the river complexity and benthic macroinvertebrate diversity are still in the “poor” state, which indicates that the aquatic environment has greatly improved, but the aquatic ecosystem has not been fully restored. Results suggested that river complexity and biodiversity should be increased in urban construction planning. The evaluation index system established in this paper can be used to reflect the urban aquatic ecosystem health conditions in river network plain areas. Full article
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18 pages, 2565 KiB  
Article
Assessment of a Multifunctional River Using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model in Xiaoqing River, Eastern China
by Yongfei Fu, Yuyu Liu, Shiguo Xu and Zhenghe Xu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12264; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912264 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Rivers are beneficial to humans due to their multiple functions. However, human meddling substantially degrades the functions of rivers and constitutes a threat to river health. Therefore, it is vital to assess and maintain river function. This study used the Xiaoqing River in [...] Read more.
Rivers are beneficial to humans due to their multiple functions. However, human meddling substantially degrades the functions of rivers and constitutes a threat to river health. Therefore, it is vital to assess and maintain river function. This study used the Xiaoqing River in Shandong Province, China, as a case study and established a multilayered multifunctional river evaluation indicator system consisting of environmental function, ecological function, social function, and economic function. The weights of indicators were calculated using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the entropy method. Furthermore, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on the Cauchy distribution function was developed to assess the operation status of each function in each river segment. The results of the indicator and criterion layers in different river sections varied. The multifunctionality of the river decreased from upstream to downstream. The Jinan section was the most multifunctional, followed by the Binzhou, Zibo, and Dongying sections, and finally the Weifang section. Through additional analysis, this study determined the constraint indicators and functions of each river section. Overall, the results reveal that the idea of a “multifunctional river” can advance the theoretical understanding of a river’s function, and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model is demonstrated to provide fresh perspectives for evaluating river function. Full article
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18 pages, 4447 KiB  
Article
Impact of Low-Head Dam Removal on River Morphology and Habitat Suitability in Mountainous Rivers
by Yun Lu, Wan-Yi Zhu, Qing-Yuan Liu, Yong Li, Hui-Wu Tian, Bi-Xin Cheng, Ze-Yu Zhang, Zi-Han Wu, Jie Qing, Gan Sun and Xin Yan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811743 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Dam removal is considered an effective measure to solve the adverse ecological effects caused by dam construction and has started to be considered in China. The sediment migration and habitat restoration of river ecosystems after dam removal have been extensively studied abroad but [...] Read more.
Dam removal is considered an effective measure to solve the adverse ecological effects caused by dam construction and has started to be considered in China. The sediment migration and habitat restoration of river ecosystems after dam removal have been extensively studied abroad but are still in the exploratory stage in China. However, there are few studies on the ecological response of fishes at different growth stages. Considering the different habitat preferences of Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti) in the spawning and juvenile periods, this study coupled field survey data and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to explore the changes in river morphology at different scales and the impact of changes in hydrodynamic conditions on fish habitat suitability in the short term. The results show that after the dam is removed, in the upstream of the dam, the riverbed is eroded and cut down and the riverbed material coarsens. With the increase in flow velocity and the decrease in flow area, the weighted usable area (WUA) in the spawning and juvenile periods decreases by 5.52% and 16.36%, respectively. In the downstream of the dam, the riverbed is markedly silted and the bottom material becomes fine. With the increase in water depth and flow velocity, the WUA increases by 79.91% in the spawning period and decreases by 67.90% in the juvenile period, which is conducive to adult fish spawning but not to juvenile fish growth. The changes in physical habitat structure over a short time period caused by dam removal have different effects on different fish development periods, which are not all positive. The restoration of stream continuity increases adult fish spawning potential while limiting juvenile growth. Thus, although fish can spawn successfully, self-recruitment of fish stocks can still be affected if juvenile fish do not grow successfully. This study provides a research basis for habitat assessment after dam removal and a new perspective for the subsequent adaptive management strategy of the project. Full article
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18 pages, 14920 KiB  
Article
A Practical Approach for Environmental Flow Calculation to Support Ecosystem Management in Wujiang River, China
by Xiaokuan Ni, Zengchuan Dong, Wei Xie, Shujun Wu, Mufeng Chen, Hongyi Yao and Wenhao Jia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811615 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
To promote ecosystem protection in the Wujiang River, this paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the environmental flow. The proposed approach combines the idea of the “guarantee rate” of the flow duration curve (FDC) method and the grading idea of the Tennant [...] Read more.
To promote ecosystem protection in the Wujiang River, this paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the environmental flow. The proposed approach combines the idea of the “guarantee rate” of the flow duration curve (FDC) method and the grading idea of the Tennant method. A daily flow series of the Wujiang River was compiled from 1956 to 2019 and used to compare the effect of the proposed approach versus the traditional approaches in four selected sections along the river. The results show that the environmental flow of the Wujiang River can be divided into five levels by the T-FDC method, with a level-by-level disparity, and all levels can capture the temporal and spatial variability of river flow. Additionally, the calculated basic environmental flow process ranges between the historical minimum and second minimum monthly average flow, and the threshold width of the optimal flow is more reasonable than the Tennant method. The T-FDC method can provide technical support for Wujiang River ecosystem management and sustainable development. Full article
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24 pages, 6603 KiB  
Article
Reservoir Regulation for Ecological Protection and Remediation: A Case Study of the Irtysh River Basin, China
by Dan Wang, Shuanghu Zhang, Guoli Wang, Yin Liu, Hao Wang and Jingjing Gu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811582 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Hydrological processes play a key role in ecosystem stability in arid regions. The operation of water conservancy projects leads to changes in the natural hydrological processes, thereby damaging the ecosystem balance. Ecological regulation is an effective non-engineering measure to relieve the influence of [...] Read more.
Hydrological processes play a key role in ecosystem stability in arid regions. The operation of water conservancy projects leads to changes in the natural hydrological processes, thereby damaging the ecosystem balance. Ecological regulation is an effective non-engineering measure to relieve the influence of water conservancy projects on ecosystems. However, there are still some problems, such as an insufficient understanding of hydraulic processes and difficulty evaluating the application effects. In this study, the theory of ecological reservoir regulation coupled with hydrological and ecological processes was examined and ecological protection and remediation were investigated using the valley forests and grasslands in the Irtysh River Basin as a case study. The results demonstrated that (1) to meet the demand of the hydrological processes in the valley forests and grasslands, in terms of ecological regulation, the peak flow and flood peak duration of the reservoir, named 635, in the Irtysh River Basin should be 1000 m3 s−1 and 168 h, respectively, and the total water volume of ecological regulation should be 605 million m³. Ecological regulation can guarantee that the floodplain range reaches 64.3% of the core area of ecological regulation and the inundation duration in most areas is between 4–8 d; (2) an insufficient ecological water supply would seriously affect the inundation effects. The inundation areas were reduced by 2.8, 5.1, 10.3, and 19.3%, respectively, under the four insufficient ecological water supply conditions (528, 482, 398, and 301 million m3), and the inundation duration showed a general decreasing trend; (3) the construction of ecological sluices and the optimization of the reservoir regulation rules could effectively relieve the influences of an insufficient ecological water supply. At water supply volumes of 528 and 482 million m3, the regulation rules should assign priority to the flood peak flow; at water supply volumes of 398 and 301 million m3, the regulation rules should assign priority to the flood peak duration. Consequently, this study provides a reference for ecological protection in arid regions and the optimization of ecological regulation theories. Full article
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19 pages, 16486 KiB  
Article
Effect of Parameters of Pool Geometry on Flow Structure in Nature-like Fishway
by Qiaoyi Hu, Xiaogang Wang, Long Zhu, Shuai Du and Feifei He
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159389 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Many uncertainties such as variable irregular structure and complex flow conditions bring difficulties to the design of a nature-like fishway. This study defines the main factors and parameters affecting flow conditions such as permeability ratio, offset ratio, bottom slope and pool length to [...] Read more.
Many uncertainties such as variable irregular structure and complex flow conditions bring difficulties to the design of a nature-like fishway. This study defines the main factors and parameters affecting flow conditions such as permeability ratio, offset ratio, bottom slope and pool length to simplify and generalize the irregular geometry of the nature-like fishway. According to the engineering requirements of the Mopiling nature-like fishway, the effect of the above parameters of pool geometry on the flow structure is investigated through a 3D turbulent numerical simulation, and the parameter thresholds are summarized according to the optimization of the flow conditions. The results show that under the same conditions, the maximum velocity of the control section increases with the increase in permeability ratio, bottom slope and pool length, and the offset ratio has limited effect on the maximum velocity of the control section. It is recommended that when the bottom slope is 1/250 and the pool length is 10 m, the permeability ratio should not be greater than 0.30 and the offset ratio should be located between 0.15 and 0.60. When the bottom slope is adjusted to 1/200, it is recommended to control the permeability ratio below 0.20, the offset ratio between 0.30 and 0.60, and the pool length can be adjusted to 8 m. Within the above threshold range of the design parameters, the maximum velocity in the fishway can be basically controlled at about 1.0 m/s. The mainstream in the pool is clear and the flow pattern is good, which can basically satisfy the requirements of fish passing. The relevant design parameters and optimization strategies can provide reference for similar projects. Full article
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21 pages, 6858 KiB  
Article
Ecological River Health Assessment Using Multi-Metric Models in an Asian Temperate Region with Land Use/Land Cover as the Primary Factor Regulating Nutrients, Organic Matter, and Fish Composition
by Md Mamun, Namsrai Jargal, Usman Atique and Kwang-Guk An
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159305 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2294
Abstract
This study was performed to determine the ecological health of a temperate river over nine years (2011–2019); it also analyzed the trophic structure and linkage of nutrients (nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]), sestonic chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), and the top trophic fish in the Asian [...] Read more.
This study was performed to determine the ecological health of a temperate river over nine years (2011–2019); it also analyzed the trophic structure and linkage of nutrients (nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]), sestonic chlorophyll-a (CHL-a), and the top trophic fish in the Asian monsoon region. Water chemistry, trophic indicators, and tolerance guilds were primarily influenced by land use and land cover (LULC); the magnitude of variation was also related to geographic elevation, artificial physical barriers (weirs), and point sources. Levels of nutrients, organic matter, and CHL-a largely influenced by the intensity of the monsoon seasonality for a particular LULC and stream order. Mann–Kendall tests based on a long-term annual dataset showed that annual organic matter and CHL-a increased over time because of longer hydraulic residence time after weir construction. The results of empirical nutrient models suggested that P was the key determinant for algal growth (CHL-a); the strong P-limitation was supported by N:P ratios > 17 in ambient waters. Linear regression models and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to determine the influences of LULC and water quality on the trophic/tolerance linkages, fish community compositions and structures, and river health. Tolerant species had a positive functional relationship with nutrient enrichment through total phosphorus (TP) (R2 = 0.55, p < 0.05) and total nitrogen (TN) (R2 = 0.57, p < 0.05), organic pollution in terms of biological oxygen demand (BOD) (R2 = 0.41, p < 0.05) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (R2 = 0.49, p < 0.05), and algal growth (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.05); sensitive species exhibited the opposite pattern. The degradation of river health, based on the multi-metric index of biotic integrity (IBI) model, was evident in the downriver region (“fair–poor” condition) and was supported by the quantitative fish community index (QFCI) model. The outcomes suggested that the degradation and variation of ecological river health, trophic linkages of water chemistry (N, P)-algal biomass-fish, were largely controlled by the land use pattern and construction of physical barriers in relation to the Asian monsoon. Full article
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13 pages, 1205 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Ecological Carrying Capacity of Fish Resources in Shengjin Lake, Anhui Province, China
by Guiyou Zhang, Yan Lu, Zijun Fang, Hong Yang and Zhong Wei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8177; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138177 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
The carrying capacity of fish is related to the sustainability of fisheries’ activities in water bodies. The fish carrying capacity of a water body is the maximum fish yield that can be carried by the natural bait organisms in the water body under [...] Read more.
The carrying capacity of fish is related to the sustainability of fisheries’ activities in water bodies. The fish carrying capacity of a water body is the maximum fish yield that can be carried by the natural bait organisms in the water body under the ideal natural conditions without feeding and fertilization. The evaluation of fish productivity is an important basis for rational stocking, rational fishing, and the scientific utilization of natural bait resources in a water area. This paper adopts the background data of the Shengjin Lake fishery ecosystem and uses the bait-based estimation method. The results show that (1) the annual yield of silver carp fed on phytoplankton is 1.5 million kg; (2) the annual yield of bighead carp fed on zooplankton is 1.295 million kg; (3) the annual yield of benthos is 310,000 kg; (4) the annual yield of organic detritus is 280,000 kg; and (5) as the coverage of water grass in Shengjin Lake is less than 10%, it should be protected and restored rather than used by fish. In general, the annual maximum carrying capacity of fish in Shengjin Lake is 3.385 million kg, except for water and grass. Full article
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18 pages, 2948 KiB  
Article
Antioxidative Defense and Gut Microbial Changes under Pollution Stress in Carassius gibelio from Bucharest Lakes
by Cristina F. Alistar, Ionela C. Nica, Mihai Nita-Lazar, Gabriela Geanina Vasile, Stefania Gheorghe, Alexa-Maria Croitoru, Georgiana Dolete, Dan Eduard Mihaiescu, Anton Ficai, Nicolai Craciun, Gratiela Gradisteanu Pircalabioru, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Miruna S. Stan and Anca Dinischiotu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127510 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2489
Abstract
Fish are able to accumulate by ingestion various contaminants of aquatic environment, with negative consequences on their intestine, being continuously threatened worldwide by heavy metals, pesticides and antibiotics resulted from the human activities. Consequently, the health of other species can be affected by [...] Read more.
Fish are able to accumulate by ingestion various contaminants of aquatic environment, with negative consequences on their intestine, being continuously threatened worldwide by heavy metals, pesticides and antibiotics resulted from the human activities. Consequently, the health of other species can be affected by eating the contaminated fish meat. In this context, our study aimed to perform a comparison between the changes in intestine samples of Carassius gibelio individuals collected from different artificial lakes in Bucharest (Romania), used by people for leisure and fishing. The presence of various metals, pesticides and antibiotics in the gut of fish was assessed in order to correlate their accumulation with changes of antioxidative enzymes activities and microbiome. Our results showed that fish from Bucharest lakes designed for leisure (Chitila, Floreasca and Tei lakes) have an increased level of oxidative stress in intestine tissue, revealed by affected antioxidant enzymes activities and GSH levels, as well as the high degree of lipid peroxidation, compared to the fish from protected environment (Vacaresti Lake). Some heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Pb) and pesticides (aldrin and dieldrin) were in high amount in the gut of fish with modified antioxidative status. In conclusion, our study could improve the knowledge regarding the current state of urban aquatic pollution in order to impose several environmental health measures. Full article
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17 pages, 3217 KiB  
Article
Riverine Health Assessment Using Coordinated Development Degree Model Based on Natural and Social Functions in the Lhasa River, China
by Junhong Chen, Yanjun Kong and Yadong Mei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127182 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Rivers provide a variety of ecosystem services to humans. However, human interference significantly impairs the rivers’ functions and poses a threat to river health. To increase the understanding of riverine health in Tibet, China from 2011 to 2014, this study used the Lhasa [...] Read more.
Rivers provide a variety of ecosystem services to humans. However, human interference significantly impairs the rivers’ functions and poses a threat to river health. To increase the understanding of riverine health in Tibet, China from 2011 to 2014, this study used the Lhasa River as a case study and established a multiple indicator system incorporating both natural and social functions of the river. Weights of riverine health indicators were calculated using the entropy method. Moreover, to evaluate the coordination and development of natural and social functions, a coordinated development degree model was developed. The results showed that the entropy weights of natural and social functions in the target layer were 0.67 and 0.33, respectively. Natural functions, social functions, and riverine state index all decreased from upstream to downstream, and marked as “good” during the entire study period. In 2012, the coordinated development degree improved from previously “moderately coordinated” to “highly coordinated”. Furthermore, the development of natural and social functions was synchronized throughout the study period. Further analysis revealed that the construction of hydraulic projects had a significant effect on the hydrological regime, resulting in an increase in social functions of the river. Therefore, the coordinated development degree model is shown to provide new insight into assessing riverine health in terms of both natural and social functions. Full article
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19 pages, 6376 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Studies on the Rheotaxis of Fish under Different Attraction Flow Conditions
by Nanbo Tang, Xiaogang Wang, Yun Li, Long Zhu, Zhushuan Tang, Hongze Li, Feifei He, Yongzeng Huang and Zhengxian Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095744 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1600
Abstract
The damming of the river changes the structure of the original river ecosystem, and although fish passage plays an important role in maintaining the connectivity of the river ecosystem, the fish have difficulty finding the fish passage entrance during the upstream process. This [...] Read more.
The damming of the river changes the structure of the original river ecosystem, and although fish passage plays an important role in maintaining the connectivity of the river ecosystem, the fish have difficulty finding the fish passage entrance during the upstream process. This paper studied the rheotaxis of fish under three different water flow conditions experimentally through recirculating water tanks. To better understand the response of Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to water flow stimulation, the representative swimming trajectory, sensing success rate, attraction success rate, reaction time, and attraction time of the fish were analyzed by using a video monitoring system. The experimental results showed that fish responded differently to single-peak and lateral bimodal outflow conditions: (1) the single-peak outflow condition had a much better attraction effect than the lateral bimodal outflow condition, both in terms of sensing success rate and attraction success rate; (2) the fish swam mainly in the middle area of the lateral bimodal outflow condition, while the fish swam more evenly in the single-peak outflow condition. Therefore, setting the attraction current at the right time and near the entrance of the fish passage may help to improve the effect of fish attraction. Full article
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20 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
Aluminum Bioaccumulation in Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) from Rivers in Southwestern Poland
by Magdalena Senze, Monika Kowalska-Góralska and Katarzyna Czyż
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052930 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
This study aimed to determine aluminum levels in reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea L.) in rivers in southwestern Poland—Bystrzyca, Strzegomka, and Nysa Szalona, together with their tributaries. The samples were collected in spring and autumn 2015–2018. The highest amounts of aluminum were recorded [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine aluminum levels in reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea L.) in rivers in southwestern Poland—Bystrzyca, Strzegomka, and Nysa Szalona, together with their tributaries. The samples were collected in spring and autumn 2015–2018. The highest amounts of aluminum were recorded in the Nysa Szalona, and the lowest in the Bystrzyca. During the four-year cycle of studies, the highest values were recorded in the last year, and the lowest in the first year. The highest amounts of aluminum were found in all three rivers in the lowland tributaries. In the main rivers, higher amounts of aluminum were found at the mouth of the Nysa Szalona and Strzegomka reservoirs, while the opposite situation was found for the Bystrzyca. Higher aluminum contents were recorded in autumn than in spring, and the values of BCFW (aluminum bioaccumulation factor in relation to water) and BCFB (aluminum bioaccumulation factor in relation to bottom sediments) coefficients were also higher. The MPI (metal pollution index) was arranged in a series: Bystrzyca < Strzegomka < Nysa Szalona, while the degree of pollution was high for Bystrzyca and very high for the other two rivers. The variability in Al levels may be attributed to pollution level in the catchments, but also to successive modernization works carried out in the beds of the main rivers and their tributaries. All these works were carried out in a variable way and often covered only a fragment of the riverbed; therefore, the consequences of activity may have been visible in the catchment but not necessarily in the same vegetation cycles. Full article
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15 pages, 2139 KiB  
Article
Effect of Urbanization on the River Network Structure in Zhengzhou City, China
by Hongxiang Wang, Lintong Huang, Jianwen Hu, Huan Yang and Wenxian Guo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(4), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042464 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
Hydrological problems, such as flood disasters, can be caused by the influence of urbanization on river network structures in plain areas. Taking the main urban region of Zhengzhou city as the research area, based on six remote sensing images from 1992 to 2015, [...] Read more.
Hydrological problems, such as flood disasters, can be caused by the influence of urbanization on river network structures in plain areas. Taking the main urban region of Zhengzhou city as the research area, based on six remote sensing images from 1992 to 2015, the modified normalized difference water index method and a land-use transfer matrix were used to reconstruct river network data to study the temporal and spatial changes in the river system. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process and the entropy weight method were used to construct pattern indexes of the river system to quantitatively evaluate the inner relationship between the urbanization process and the river network structure in the plain area. The results showed that the percentages of arable land, forest and grassland, water, and unused land in Zhengzhou that was transferred to construction land from 1992 to 2015 were 59.10%, 51.05%, 29.83%, and 58.76%, respectively. In the past 34 years, the morphological indices, structural indices, and connectivity indices of the river system experienced a trend of high to low, and then increased, with the structural indices being significantly correlated with construction land use (p < 0.05). The regression equation R2 between urbanization level and river length, water area, river network density, water surface rate, connection rate, and connectivity ranged from 0.677 to 0.966, which could well reflect the response relationship between urbanization and the river network. In addition, the outflow was greater than the inflow, which has destroyed the natural structure of the channel. Full article
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16 pages, 5676 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Runoff Variation Characteristics and Influencing Factors in the Wujiang River Basin in the Past 30 Years
by Wenxian Guo, Jianwen Hu and Hongxiang Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010372 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Changes in climate and the underlying surface are the main factors affecting runoff. Quantitative assessment of runoff characteristics, and determination of the climate and underlying surface contribution to changes in runoff are critical to water resources management and protection. Based on the runoff [...] Read more.
Changes in climate and the underlying surface are the main factors affecting runoff. Quantitative assessment of runoff characteristics, and determination of the climate and underlying surface contribution to changes in runoff are critical to water resources management and protection. Based on the runoff data from the Wulong Hydrological Station, combined with the Mann-Kendall test, Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA), Budyko hypothesis, and changes in climate and the underlying surface, this study comprehensively analyzed the runoff in the Wujiang River Basin (WRB). The results showed that: (1) The annual runoff of Wujiang River showed a downward trend, and an abrupt change occurred in 2005. (2) The overall hydrological change in WRB is 46%, reaching a moderate change. (3) The contribution rates of precipitation (P), potential evaporation (ET0), and underlying surface to runoff changes are 61.5%, 11.4%, and 26.9%, respectively. (4) After 2005, the WRB has become more arid, human activities have become more active, vegetation coverage has increased, and the built-up land has increased significantly. Full article
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Review

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21 pages, 3018 KiB  
Review
River Ecological Corridor: A Conceptual Framework and Review of the Spatial Management Scope
by Qi Han, Xiaogang Wang, Yun Li and Zhengxian Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7752; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137752 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Studying the spatial management scope of the river ecological corridor is a crucial step in effectively managing river health problems. For various purposes and needs, human beings intervene excessively in the river, resulting in the problems of unclear spatial scope, unclear ownership, and [...] Read more.
Studying the spatial management scope of the river ecological corridor is a crucial step in effectively managing river health problems. For various purposes and needs, human beings intervene excessively in the river, resulting in the problems of unclear spatial scope, unclear ownership, and unreasonable functional utilization of the river ecological corridor. However, there is scarce research on the management scope of the river ecological corridor at present, and on the coordination relationship with territorial spatial protection planning. Therefore, in order to solve this key problem, this paper reviews and summarizes the current research status and development trends in terms of the concept, components, and other basic theories of the river ecological corridor, as well as relevant policy regulations. The relationship between the spatial scope of the river ecological corridor and the territorial spatial control line is analyzed, including the relationship with the river shoreline, aquatic ecological redline, “three control lines” and other control lines. Accordingly, this study reviewed the spatial management and control scope of the river ecological corridor. It also determined that the boundary line of the river shoreline management is the minimum line, the aquatic ecological redline, and the “three control lines” are the outermost boundary lines, in which the aquatic ecological redline has priority over other control lines. It also points out the thinking of determining the management scope in the protection and restoration of the river ecological corridor in the future. Our findings can provide a decision-making basis for the management of river ecological space. Full article
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