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Big Data Management Through Multivariate Data Analysis Techniques in Sport

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 32628

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1 Department of Physical Activity and Sport, Faculty of Sport Science, University of Murcia, 30720 Murcia, Spain
2 Faculty of Sports Sciences, BioVetMed & SportSci Research Group, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
Interests: electronic performance and tracking systems; technology; local positioning systems; global positioning systems; team sports performance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sport has experienced accelerated growth and evolution in technological developments, and this is impacting daily work in the area of sports sciences, from researchers to practitioners. The inclusion of electronic performance and tracking systems has been developed to capture up to a thousand data per second in an amount of up to 400 variables. This Special Issue on “Big Data Management through Multivariate Data Analysis Techniques in Sportrepresents a supreme challenge to the sports scientist or technical, medical, and administrative staff when trying to identify those variables which provide the most relevant information about a player’s performance to make decisions based on this scientific evidence. Therefore, it may drive a change within sport training processes and big data management through multivariate data analysis methods.

Considering the relevance of this issue in sport training, the aim of this Special Issue is to publish high-quality original investigations, narrative, and systematic reviews in the field. We look forward to receiving contributions related (but not limited) to the following topics:

  • Big data
  • Data processing
  • Principal component analysis (PCA)
  • Factor analysis
  • Data reductionist methods
  • Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)

Dr. Markel Rico-González
Dr. José Pino-Ortega
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Principal components
  • Training load
  • Sport
  • Statistics
  • Sport performance
  • Game-analysis

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 11736 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Olympic Pictograms Using Fuzzy TOPSIS—Focus on Judo, Taekwondo, Boxing, and Wrestling
by Kyoungho Choi, Bongseok Kim and Jinhee Choi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073934 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
It is necessary to evaluate whether Olympic pictograms are designed accurately and are easy to understand, so that they fulfill their intended functions and roles. Olympic pictograms are used to facilitate smooth communication at this large sporting event. However, viewers often find it [...] Read more.
It is necessary to evaluate whether Olympic pictograms are designed accurately and are easy to understand, so that they fulfill their intended functions and roles. Olympic pictograms are used to facilitate smooth communication at this large sporting event. However, viewers often find it challenging to understand the actual sport represented by the pictogram. This study evaluates the ranking of comprehensibility of the pictograms for judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling used in six games, from the 27th Sydney Olympics in 2000 to the 32nd Tokyo Olympics in 2021. The evaluation was done using the fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology commonly used in economics and other fields. Data collection was conducted from 10 May to 30 June 2021 for 44 general public and seven experts. The results are as follows. First, the pictograms from the 2008 Beijing Olympics ranked first in three sports: taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling, but there were no pictograms that consistently ranked first or sixth in all sports. Second, the sensitivity analysis result shows the possibility that the ranking would be reversed if the weight of the evaluation factors were changed. This study is expected to contribute to developing pictograms that can adequately convey the appropriate information regarding Olympic sports in the future. Full article
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29 pages, 29984 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Sequence-Based Classification Methods for Motion Assessment and Recognition in a Traditional Chinese Sport (Baduanjin)
by Hai Li, Selina Khoo and Hwa Jen Yap
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031744 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2230
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the motion accuracy of Baduanjin and recognise the motions of Baduanjin based on sequence-based methods. Motion data of Baduanjin were measured by the inertial sensor measurement system (IMU). Fifty-four participants were recruited to capture motion data. Based on [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the motion accuracy of Baduanjin and recognise the motions of Baduanjin based on sequence-based methods. Motion data of Baduanjin were measured by the inertial sensor measurement system (IMU). Fifty-four participants were recruited to capture motion data. Based on the motion data, various sequence-based methods, namely dynamic time warping (DTW) combined with classifiers, hidden Markov model (HMM), and recurrent neural networks (RNNs), were applied to assess motion accuracy and recognise the motions of Baduanjin. To assess motion accuracy, the scores for motion accuracies from teachers were used as the standard to train the models on the different sequence-based methods. The effectiveness of Baduanjin motion recognition with different sequence-based methods was verified. Among the methods, DTW + k-NN had the highest average accuracy (83.03%) and shortest average processing time (3.810 s) during assessing. In terms of motion reorganisation, three methods (DTW + k-NN, DTW + SVM, and HMM) had the highest accuracies (over 99%), which were not significantly different from each other. However, the processing time of DTW + k-NN was the shortest (3.823 s) compared to the other two methods. The results show that the motions of Baduanjin could be recognised, and the accuracy can be assessed through an appropriate sequence-based method with the motion data captured by IMU. Full article
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10 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Individual Set-Pieces in Elite Rink Hockey Match Outcomes
by Jordi Arboix-Alió, Guillem Trabal, Raúl Hileno, Joan Aguilera-Castells, Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe and Bernat Buscà
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312368 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of individual set-pieces (Free Direct Hits and Penalties) in elite rink hockey match outcomes in different game situations. A sample of 161 matches played between high-standard teams during ten consecutive seasons (2009–2010 [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of individual set-pieces (Free Direct Hits and Penalties) in elite rink hockey match outcomes in different game situations. A sample of 161 matches played between high-standard teams during ten consecutive seasons (2009–2010 to 2018–2019) were analyzed using a binary logistic regression. The full evaluated model was composed of an explanatory variable (set-pieces scored) and five potential confounding and interaction variables (match location, match level, match importance, extra time, and balanced score). However, the final model only included one significant interaction variable (balanced score). The results showed that scoring more individual set-pieces than the opponent was associated with victory (OR = 6.1; 95% CI: 3.7, 10.0) and was more relevant in unbalanced matches (OR = 19.5; 95% CI: 8.6, 44.3) than in balanced matches (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.5). These findings indicate that individual set-pieces are strongly associated with match outcomes in matches played between high-standard teams. Therefore, it is important for teams to excel in this aspect, and it is suggested that these data can encourage coaches to reinforce the systematic practice of individual set-pieces in their training programs. Additionally, it is suggested that teams have specialist players in this kind of action to mainly participate in these specific match moments. Full article
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18 pages, 3786 KiB  
Article
Predicting Active NBA Players Most Likely to Be Inducted into the Basketball Hall of Famers Using Artificial Neural Networks in Microsoft Excel: Development and Usability Study
by Po-Hsin Chou, Tsair-Wei Chien, Ting-Ya Yang, Yu-Tsen Yeh, Willy Chou and Chao-Hung Yeh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084256 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
The prediction of whether active NBA players can be inducted into the Hall of Fame (HOF) is interesting and important. However, no such research have been published in the literature, particularly using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
The prediction of whether active NBA players can be inducted into the Hall of Fame (HOF) is interesting and important. However, no such research have been published in the literature, particularly using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique. The aim of this study is to build an ANN model with an app for automatic prediction and classification of HOF for NBA players. We downloaded 4728 NBA players’ data of career stats and accolades from the website at basketball-reference.com. The training sample was collected from 85 HOF members and 113 retired Non-HOF players based on completed data and a longer career length (≥15 years). Featured variables were taken from the higher correlation coefficients (<0.1) with HOF and significant deviations apart from the two HOF/Non-HOF groups using logistical regression. Two models (i.e., ANN and convolutional neural network, CNN) were compared in model accuracy (e.g., sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC). An app predicting HOF was then developed involving the model’s parameters. We observed that (1) 20 feature variables in the ANN model yielded a higher AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) based on the 198-case training sample, (2) the ANN performed better than CNN on the accuracy of AUC (= 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.95), and (3) an ready and available app for predicting HOF was successfully developed. The 20-variable ANN model with the 53 parameters estimated by the ANN for improving the accuracy of HOF has been developed. The app can help NBA fans to predict their players likely to be inducted into the HOF and is not just limited to the active NBA players. Full article
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18 pages, 1882 KiB  
Article
Multivariate Exploratory Comparative Analysis of LaLiga Teams: Principal Component Analysis
by Claudio A. Casal, José L. Losada, Daniel Barreira and Rubén Maneiro
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063176 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
The use of principal component analysis (PCA) provides information about the main characteristics of teams, based on a set of indicators, instead of displaying individualized information for each of these indicators. In this work we have considered reducing an extensive data matrix to [...] Read more.
The use of principal component analysis (PCA) provides information about the main characteristics of teams, based on a set of indicators, instead of displaying individualized information for each of these indicators. In this work we have considered reducing an extensive data matrix to improve interpretation, using PCA. Subsequently, with new components and with multiple linear regression, we have carried out a comparative analysis between the best and bottom teams of LaLiga. The sample consisted of the matches corresponding to the 2015/16, 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons. The results showed that the best teams were characterized and differentiated from bottom teams in the realization of a greater number of successful passes and in the execution of a greater number of dynamic offensive transitions. The bottom teams were characterized by executing more defensive than offensive actions, showing fewer number of goals and a greater ball possession time in the final third of the field. Goals, ball possession time in the final third of the field, number of effective shots and crosses are the main discriminating performance factors of football. This information allows us to increase knowledge about the key performance indicators (KPI) in football. Full article
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15 pages, 1593 KiB  
Article
What Is the Relevance in the Passing Action between the Passer and the Receiver in Soccer? Study of Elite Soccer in La Liga
by Antonio Cordón-Carmona, Abraham García-Aliaga, Moisés Marquina, Jorge Lorenzo Calvo, Daniel Mon-López and Ignacio Refoyo Roman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249396 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4210
Abstract
Soccer is a high-complexity sport in which 22 players interact simultaneously in a common space. The ball-holder interacts with their teammates by passing actions, establishing a unique communication among them in the development of the game in its offensive phase. The main aim [...] Read more.
Soccer is a high-complexity sport in which 22 players interact simultaneously in a common space. The ball-holder interacts with their teammates by passing actions, establishing a unique communication among them in the development of the game in its offensive phase. The main aim of the present study was to analyze the pass action according to the trajectory of the ball receiver and the space for receiving the ball in terms of success at the end of play. Twenty La Liga 2018/2019 matches of two elite teams were analyzed. A system of notational analysis was used to create 11 categories based on context, timing and pass analysis. The data were analyzed using chi-squared analysis. The results showed that the main performance indicators were the efficiency of the pass, the zone of the field, the trajectory of the receiver and the reception space of the ball, which presented a moderate association with the end of play (p < 0.001). We concluded that receiving the ball on approach and in separation increased the probability of success by 5% and 7%, respectively, and a diagonal run increased the probability by 7%. Moreover, the combined analysis of these variables would improve the team performance. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 1175 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Methods and Criteria Standard Proposal for the Use of Principal Component Analysis in Team’s Sports Science
by Daniel Rojas-Valverde, José Pino-Ortega, Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona and Markel Rico-González
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238712 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 5176
Abstract
The availability of critical information about training and competition is fundamental on performance. Principal components analysis (PCA) is widely used in sports as a multivariate technique to manage big data from different technological assessments. This systematic review aimed to explore the methods reported [...] Read more.
The availability of critical information about training and competition is fundamental on performance. Principal components analysis (PCA) is widely used in sports as a multivariate technique to manage big data from different technological assessments. This systematic review aimed to explore the methods reported and statistical criteria used in team’s sports science and to propose a criteria standard to report PCA in further applications. A systematic electronic search was developed through four electronic databases and a total of 45 studies were included in the review for final analysis. Inclusion criteria: (i) of the studies we looked at, 22.22% performed factorability processes with different retention criteria (r > 0.4–0.7); (ii) 21 studies confirmed sample adequacy using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkim (KMO > 5–8) and 22 reported Bartlett’s sphericity; (iii) factor retention was considered if eigenvalues >1–1.5 (n = 29); (iv) 23 studies reported loading retention (>0.4–0.7); and (v) used VariMax as the rotation method (48.9%). A lack of consistency and serious voids in reporting of essential methodological information was found. Twenty-one items were selected to provide a standard quality criterion to report methods sections when using PCA. These evidence-based criteria will lead to a better understanding and applicability of the results and future study replications. Full article
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Other

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19 pages, 732 KiB  
Systematic Review
Training Design, Performance Analysis, and Talent Identification—A Systematic Review about the Most Relevant Variables through the Principal Component Analysis in Soccer, Basketball, and Rugby
by José Pino-Ortega, Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Carlos D. Gómez-Carmona and Markel Rico-González
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052642 - 5 Mar 2021
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 9294
Abstract
Since the accelerating development of technology applied to team sports and its subsequent high amount of information available, the need for data mining leads to the use of data reduction techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This systematic review aims to identify [...] Read more.
Since the accelerating development of technology applied to team sports and its subsequent high amount of information available, the need for data mining leads to the use of data reduction techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This systematic review aims to identify determinant variables in soccer, basketball and rugby using exploratory factor analysis for, training design, performance analysis and talent identification. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus) were systematically searched and 34 studies were finally included in the qualitative synthesis. Through PCA, data sets were reduced by 75.07%, and 3.9 ± 2.53 factors were retained that explained 80 ± 0.14% of the total variance. All team sports should be analyzed or trained based on the high level of aerobic capacity combined with adequate levels of power and strength to perform repeated high-intensity actions in a very short time, which differ between team sports. Accelerations and decelerations are mainly significant in soccer, jumps and landings are crucial in basketball, and impacts are primarily identified in rugby. Besides, from these team sports, primary information about different technical/tactical variables was extracted such as (a) soccer: occupied space, ball controls, passes, and shots; (b) basketball: throws, rebounds, and turnovers; or (c) rugby: possession game pace and team formation. Regarding talent identification, both anthropometrics and some physical capacity measures are relevant in soccer and basketball. Although overall, since these variables have been identified in different investigations, further studies should perform PCA on data sets that involve variables from different dimensions (technical, tactical, conditional). Full article
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