Non-pharmacological Approaches and Their Impact on Noncommunicable Diseases

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (3 June 2024) | Viewed by 15018

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The World Health Organization suggests that noncommunicable diseases (NCD) kill more than 41 million people each year, from those cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, and diabetes represents almost 80% of all premature NCD deaths. The main causes for increasing the risk of dying from NCD can be associated with bad lifestyles, namely poor levels of physical activity and exercise, harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diets, or taking other serious habits of consuming drugs or tobacco. Therefore, lifestyle is a key component to mitigate the risk of getting a premature NCD and to reduce the harmful effect on those who have NCD. Promoting an active life and a healthy diet, associated with a good psychological mindset are some of the approaches included in non-pharmacological approaches for fighting the progression of premature NCD. Participation in recreational sports and exercise, increase education in keeping a balanced diet and the use of phycological interventions are some of the strategies with consistent evidence for improving the quality of life of people with and without NCD. However, more research is a need, namely combining scientific areas and identify the best educational strategies for people, revealing the beneficial effects of specific programmes, and providing solid evidence for governments and decision-makers.

For that reason the special issue “Non-pharmacological approaches and their impact on noncommunicable diseases” is open a place to submit original works, systematic reviews and meta-analysis that may provide relevant evidence about (but not exclusively): (i) effects of combined or isolated educational programmes in children, youth, adults, older and clinical populations and the effects on health; and (ii) combined or isolated effects of physical activity and exercise, diet and supplementation, physiological interventions on health of children, youth adults, older and clinical populations.

Dr. Markel Rico-González
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • chronic diseases
  • healthcare
  • exercise
  • diet
  • lifestyle
  • health
  • non-communicable diseases
  • acute diseases
  • wellness
  • well-being.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1288 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of a Rehabilitation Program Using Mirror Therapy and Cognitive Therapeutic Exercise on Upper Limb Functionality in Patients with Acute Stroke
by Jessica Fernández-Solana, Sergio Álvarez-Pardo, Adrián Moreno-Villanueva, Mirian Santamaría-Peláez, Jerónimo J. González-Bernal, Rodrigo Vélez-Santamaría and Josefa González-Santos
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12050569 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Applying evidence-based therapies in stroke rehabilitation plays a crucial role in this process, as they are supported by studies and results that demonstrate their effectiveness in improving functionality, such as mirror therapy (MT), cognitive therapeutic exercise (CTE), and task-oriented training. The aim of [...] Read more.
Applying evidence-based therapies in stroke rehabilitation plays a crucial role in this process, as they are supported by studies and results that demonstrate their effectiveness in improving functionality, such as mirror therapy (MT), cognitive therapeutic exercise (CTE), and task-oriented training. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of MT and CTE combined with task-oriented training on the functionality, sensitivity, range, and pain of the affected upper limb in patients with acute stroke. A longitudinal multicenter study recruited a sample of 120 patients with acute stroke randomly and consecutively, meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were randomly allocated into three groups: a control group only for task-oriented training (TOT) and two groups undergoing either MT or CTE, both combined with TOT. The overall functionality of the affected upper limb, specific functionality, sensitivity, range of motion, and pain were assessed using the Fugl–Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) scale validated for the Spanish population. An initial assessment was conducted before the intervention, a second assessment after completing the 20 sessions, and another three months later. ANCOVA analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the assessments and the experimental groups compared to the control group, indicating significant improvement in the overall functionality of the upper limb in these patients. However, no significant differences were observed between the two experimental groups. The conclusion drawn was that both therapeutic techniques are equally effective in treating functionality, sensitivity, range of motion, and pain in the upper limb following a stroke. Full article
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19 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
Preventive Medicine via Lifestyle Medicine Implementation Practices Should Consider Individuals’ Complex Psychosocial Profile
by Zacharias Papadakis, Andreas Stamatis, Matthew Manierre and Ali Boolani
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2560; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122560 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Noncommunicable chronic diseases are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Psychological and social factors may influence the adoption of such behaviors. Being mentally and physically energized or fatigued may influence the intention–behavior gap of healthy lifestyle adoption accordingly. We investigated the associations of age, sex, [...] Read more.
Noncommunicable chronic diseases are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Psychological and social factors may influence the adoption of such behaviors. Being mentally and physically energized or fatigued may influence the intention–behavior gap of healthy lifestyle adoption accordingly. We investigated the associations of age, sex, lifestyle behaviors, mood, and mental and physical energy and fatigue at both the trait and state levels. The participants (N = 670) completed questionnaires assessing their sleep, mood, mental and physical state energy and fatigue, physical activity, mental workload, and diet. The ordinary least squares regression models revealed an overlap between the mental state and trait energy levels for males who consume polyphenols, have a high mental workload, and sleep well. Being younger, having a high stress level, bad sleep habits, and being confused and depressed were associated with high mental fatigue. Physical energy and fatigue shared the same commonalities with the previous results, with greater discrepancies observed between the state and trait indicators compared to that between mental energy and fatigue. Diet and stress management seem to be predictors of high physical energy, and females report higher physical fatigue levels. Health care professionals should consider this psychosocial complex profiling in their differential diagnosis and when one is implementing lifestyle behavioral changes to address the facets of preventive medicine, wellness, and health promotion. Full article

Review

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27 pages, 496 KiB  
Review
Relationships between Sleep, Athletic and Match Performance, Training Load, and Injuries: A Systematic Review of Soccer Players
by Filipe Manuel Clemente, José Afonso, Júlio Costa, Rafael Oliveira, José Pino-Ortega and Markel Rico-González
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070808 - 26 Jun 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7004
Abstract
The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize available evidence regarding the relationships between sleep and (i) athletic and match performance, (ii) training load, and (iii) injuries in soccer players. A systematic review of EBSCOhost (SPORTDiscus), PubMed, Cochrane Library, FECYT (Web of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize available evidence regarding the relationships between sleep and (i) athletic and match performance, (ii) training load, and (iii) injuries in soccer players. A systematic review of EBSCOhost (SPORTDiscus), PubMed, Cochrane Library, FECYT (Web of Sciences, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO) databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 297 titles were identified, of which 32 met the eligibility criteria. Results revealed that soccer players are no exception for sleep inadequacy. Although there was inconsistency in the findings, some studies suggested that sleep restrictions in soccer negatively affected athletic and match performance while also increasing the number and severity of musculoskeletal injuries. On the other hand, inconsistent results were found between sleep and athletic and match performance, and training load in soccer players. Physiological responses (and their intensity) during drill-based games were not influenced by changes in sleep. The available evidence is inconsistent; however, it appears to suggest that poor sleep affects soccer players’ performance and increases the risk of injury. However, it remains important to study this complex relationship further. Full article
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Other

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18 pages, 1054 KiB  
Systematic Review
Relationship between Training Load Management and Immunoglobulin A to Avoid Immunosuppression after Soccer Training and Competition: A Theoretical Framework Based on COVID-19 for Athletes’ Healthcare
by Markel Rico-González, José Pino-Ortega, Filipe Manuel Clemente and Naia Bustamante-Hernández
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070856 - 6 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is the main effector against upper respiratory tract viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been related to training load management. The aim of this systematic review was to establish the relationship between training load [...] Read more.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is the main effector against upper respiratory tract viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been related to training load management. The aim of this systematic review was to establish the relationship between training load and salivary IgA based on current evidence in order to avoid immunosuppression after exercise and players´ vulnerability to virus contagion. A systematic review of relevant articles was carried out using two electronic databases (PubMed and Web of Science) until 19 May 2021. From a total of 127 studies initially found, 23 were included in the qualitative synthesis. These studies were clustered depending on stress level. The salivary IgA was analysed considering soccer-specific treadmill exercise and repeated sprint drills (n = 5), matches (n = 7), and during certain periods during the season or pre-season (n = 11). Repeated sprint ability tests and treadmill exercises are suitable exercises for the first steps on return to play periods yet still maintain social distance. A rest or moderate training sessions (technical/tactical) are suggested after official matches to ensure 16–18 h to recover IgA levels, while periods with multiple matches per week with limited recovery time should be avoided. Weekly training load should assume a small increment (<10%) to ensure IgA immune responses, especially, during the post coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) season. Full article
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