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Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2021) | Viewed by 46770

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Management and Economics Department and NECE-UBI, University of Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: energy economics; energy policy; transportation research; e-mobility; climate change; econometrics methods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Assistant Guest Editor
GOVCOPP – Research Unit on Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies; Higher Institute of Accounting and Administration (ISCA-UA), University of Aveiro, 3810-500 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: financial markets; sustainable finance; energy finance; financial economics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The issue of environmental pollution has become a worldwide concern, due to its effects on climate change, namely, the effect of large carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels in the generation of energy and exploration and production of natural resources and natural products. By itself, carbon dioxide is not bad, because it is an essential element in nature. Therefore, the effect of CO2 on the environment is both positive and negative. Ever since the Industrial Revolution, CO2 levels in the atmosphere have been increasing drastically, mostly due to deforestation and the burning of fossil fuel. The question is knowing how CO2 emissions affect air quality and how carbon dioxide emissions affect the environment overall. Scientific explanations refer to carbon dioxide in the greenhouse effect being a major contributor to air pollution. Radiation and heat emanating from the earth’s surface need to be released out into the atmosphere. However, because carbon dioxide levels are so high, there is an ozone effect on the ground level. This means that the heat is trapped against the earth’s surface, the earth cannot cool at night, oceans cannot cool off, and the water is warmer. All the rest is influenced by this trap.

It should be noted that the production of mineral resources by means of chemical reactions between raw materials and oxygen per se implies significant emissions of carbon dioxide. As suggested by Chen et al. (2019), it is necessary to refer to a no less important aspect, which is related to the management of terrestrial resources, in which the land cover by anthropogenic activities, per se, influences the capacity of terrestrial carbon storage ecosystems. In addition, global warming has a measurable effect on water resources, changing the quantity, distribution, and quality of water. On the other hand, floods and runoff can contaminate water and cause water pollution, which can damage the atmosphere and hinder the growth of flora, whereas drought can harm water, food, and health. Carbon absorption and the climate, in turn, are impacted by water pollution. In addition, soil is the second largest carbon reservoir after the ocean to mitigate the effects of climate change. Thus, according to Lai et al., 2016, human and ecological systems depend on soil to provide water and nutrients for plant growth, regulation of the water cycle, and carbon storage. Soil pollution affects its ability to absorb carbon and causes climate change, despite changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, etc. Therefore, environmental pollution and carbon dioxide emissions are influenced by complex interactions on Earth. It is essential to study the relevant areas and contribute with new knowledge in the areas of the environment and energy saving. Thus, in order to better formulate policies that address reductions in CO2 emissions, a more complete understanding of the generation of natural resources and low carbon energy resources is needed. The optimization of the energy structure and the improvement of energy efficiency accompanied by the increase in the use of low carbon energy may make it possible to satisfy society’s energy demand with a reduction in dependence on fossil fuels.

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Edition offers an opportunity to develop analyses and a deeper discussion of how to effectively implement the generation of low carbon natural resources in the task of limiting climate change. Recent techniques and developments regarding the prevention and protection of the environment against different pollutants, as well as the prediction of future climate changes that may have adverse effects on humans and other physical and biological constituents, will be a focus for the investigation of economists, managers, environmentalists, engineers, and other researchers with an interest in the problem proposed in this special issue.

Additional topics of interest for this Special Issue are listed below, including but not limited to (i) pollution monitoring, pollution prevention, and control, (ii) pollution measurement and management in various sectors of economic activity, (iii) evaluation of the cycle of pollution, technologies, and approaches to the generation of low carbon natural resources; (iv) air pollution management and its impacts on human health, (v) emissions impacts on environmental pollution and water resources, (vi) analysis and evaluation of potential performance and socioeconomic costs in the management of low carbon natural resources, (vii) pollution fight in different economic activity sectors, and (viii) assessment of economic, financial and management implications of air pollution reductions and abatement of CO2 emissions.

Dr. Victor Moutinho
Dr. Mara Madaleno
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • air pollution
  • air/water/waste pollution
  • air pollution and CO2 emissions nexus
  • persistent and emerging pollutants
  • renewable resources
  • fossil fuels
  • energy production

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
The Effectiveness of Environmental Taxes in Reducing CO2 Emissions in Passenger Vehicles: The Case of Mediterranean Countries
by Mónica Meireles, Margarita Robaina and Daniel Magueta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105442 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3081
Abstract
The transport sector is the biggest source of CO2 emissions in Europe. It is responsible for over a quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions. Passenger vehicles, alone, account for nearly 41% of these emissions, resulting in human health impacts. To meet the [...] Read more.
The transport sector is the biggest source of CO2 emissions in Europe. It is responsible for over a quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions. Passenger vehicles, alone, account for nearly 41% of these emissions, resulting in human health impacts. To meet the Paris climate commitments, cars and vans should be decarbonized until 2050. Such a transformation requires general changes, such as how the vehicles are owned, taxed, and driven. The European Federation for Transport and Environment revealed that Mediterranean countries tend to emit less per vehicle compared to the northern and central Europeans. Intriguingly, this does not necessarily correspond to motorization rates. In this article, we assess whether the observed reductions in CO2 emissions in the Mediterranean countries can be attributed to vehicle taxation on CO2 emissions. We apply panel data econometric techniques using data on annual registrations from 2008 to 2018 and model the demand for new-vehicle purchases and their responsiveness to changes in both CO2-based taxation and circulation tax. Our results show the determinants of new-vehicle demand and the change in the emissions rate in each country under the taxation currently adopted. We found that fiscal policies can have an important role in reducing the emission in the Mediterranean countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
15 pages, 5451 KiB  
Article
Emission Inventories and Particulate Matter Air Quality Modeling over the Pearl River Delta Region
by Diogo Lopes, Joana Ferreira, Ka In Hoi, Ka-Veng Yuen, Kai Meng Mok and Ana I. Miranda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084155 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is located on the southeast coast of mainland China and it is an important economic hub. The high levels of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere, however, and poor visibility have become a complex environmental problem for [...] Read more.
The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is located on the southeast coast of mainland China and it is an important economic hub. The high levels of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere, however, and poor visibility have become a complex environmental problem for the region. Air quality modeling systems are useful to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of air pollution, making use of atmospheric emission data as inputs. Over the years, several atmospheric emission inventories have been developed for the Asia region. The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of the air quality modeling system for simulating PM concentrations over the PRD using three atmospheric emission inventories (i.e., EDGAR, REAS and MIX) during a winter and a summer period. In general, there is a tendency to underestimate PM levels, but results based on the EDGAR emission inventory show slightly better accuracy. However, improvements in the spatial and temporal disaggregation of emissions are still needed to properly represent PRD air quality. This study’s comparison of the three emission inventories’ data, as well as their PM simulating outcomes, generates recommendations for future improvements to atmospheric emission inventories and our understanding of air pollution problems in the PRD region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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21 pages, 907 KiB  
Article
A Two-Stage DEA Model to Evaluate the Technical Eco-Efficiency Indicator in the EU Countries
by Victor Moutinho and Mara Madaleno
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063038 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
This paper evaluates the evolution of eco-efficiency for the 27 European Union (EU) countries over the period 2008–2018, provided the traditional high concerns of the EU concerning the economic growth-environmental performance relationship. The EU has triggered several initiatives and regulations regarding environmental protection [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the evolution of eco-efficiency for the 27 European Union (EU) countries over the period 2008–2018, provided the traditional high concerns of the EU concerning the economic growth-environmental performance relationship. The EU has triggered several initiatives and regulations regarding environmental protection over the years, but as well the Sustainable Development Goals demand it. Under this setting, we conduct a two-stage analysis, which computes eco-efficiency scores in the first stage for each of the pairs EU 27-year, through the nonparametric method data envelopment analysis (DEA), considering the ratio GDP per capita and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). In the second stage, scores are used as a dependent variable in the proposed fractional regression model (FRM), whose determinants considered were eight pollutants (three greenhouse gases and five atmospheric pollutants). CO2/area and N2O/area effects are negative and significant, improving the eco-efficiency of the EU 27 countries. When the efficient European countries are excluded from the estimations, the results evidence that CO2/area and CH4/area decrease the DEA score. The country with the lowest GHG emissions and pollutant gases was Ireland, being the country within the considered period that mostly reduced emissions, particularly SOx and PM10, increasing its score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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23 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the New Kuznets Relationship: Considering Emissions of Carbon, Methanol, and Nitrous Oxide Greenhouse Gases—Evidence from EU Countries
by Mara Madaleno and Victor Moutinho
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062907 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2464
Abstract
Decreased greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are urgently needed in view of global health threat represented by climate change. The goal of this paper is to test the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, considering less common measures of environmental burden. For [...] Read more.
Decreased greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are urgently needed in view of global health threat represented by climate change. The goal of this paper is to test the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, considering less common measures of environmental burden. For that, four different estimations are done, one considering total GHG emissions, and three more taking into account, individually, the three main GHG gases—carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane gas (CH4)—considering the oldest and most recent economies adhering to the EU27 (the EU 15 (Old Europe) and the EU 12 (New Europe)) separately. Using panel dynamic fixed effects (DFE), dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS), and fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) techniques, we validate the existence of a U-shaped relationship for all emission proxies considered, and groups of countries in the short-run. Some evidence of this effect also exists in the long-run. However, we were only able to validate the EKC hypothesis for the short-run in EU 12 under DOLS and the short and long-run using FMOLS. Confirmed is the fact that results are sensitive to models and measures adopted. Externalization of problems globally takes a longer period for national policies to correct, turning global measures harder and local environmental proxies more suitable to deeply explore the EKC hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
30 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Is the Relocation of Polluting Industries Prompted by FDI Flow and Stock, Globalisation, Corruption and Regulation?
by Patrícia Hipólito Leal, Rafaela Vital Caetano and António Cardoso Marques
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041981 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2920
Abstract
Can globalisation and foreign direct investment shape sustainable development? Foreign direct investment is one of the main drivers for the transfer of polluting industries. With this in mind, the main objective of this research is to identify the role played by foreign direct [...] Read more.
Can globalisation and foreign direct investment shape sustainable development? Foreign direct investment is one of the main drivers for the transfer of polluting industries. With this in mind, the main objective of this research is to identify the role played by foreign direct investment (flow and stock), globalisation (de jure and de facto), corruption and regulatory quality in environmental degradation and sustainable development. To accomplish this objective, and to link the relationships under analysis to the level of development, a comparison between a group of developing countries and a group of developed ones was performed. The results confirm the suitability of the division of the countries by revealing various effects. This analysis was conducted from 1996 to 2017 and by recurring to the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model. This study proves that foreign investors play a vital role in reaching sustainable development. Measures must be implemented to eliminate the distortions that cause a company based in a country with strict environmental regulations to relocate its production to one with lax environmental regulations. However, these measures need to be combined with complementary measures that encourage developing economies to agree to a possible slowdown in their economic growth if sufficiently compensated for this reduced growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
22 pages, 1223 KiB  
Article
Can Industrial Collaborative Agglomeration Reduce Haze Pollution? City-Level Empirical Evidence from China
by Yunling Ye, Sheng Ye and Haichao Yu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041566 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
We analyze the mechanism for industrial co-agglomeration in Chinese 283 cities to affect haze pollution from 2003 to 2016 and examine the possible mediating effects of urbanization and energy structure between haze pollution and industrial co-agglomeration, finally obtaining the following results. First, industrial [...] Read more.
We analyze the mechanism for industrial co-agglomeration in Chinese 283 cities to affect haze pollution from 2003 to 2016 and examine the possible mediating effects of urbanization and energy structure between haze pollution and industrial co-agglomeration, finally obtaining the following results. First, industrial co-agglomeration and haze pollution across China, including central and eastern regions keep a typical inverted U-shaped curve relationship. That is, industrial co-agglomeration first promotes haze pollution and then restrains it. However, the impact of industrial co-agglomeration on haze pollution in western China is still on the left side of the inverted U-shaped curve, reflecting a promotion effect. Second, industrial co-agglomeration has a significant spatial spillover effect on haze pollution. Additionally, industrial co-agglomeration can promote haze pollution in local regions but inhibit it in surrounding regions in both the short and long run. In contrast, when the industrial co-agglomeration index exceeds the inflection point (3.6531), it benefits the reduction of haze pollution in local regions, while not being conducive to it in the neighboring regions. Third, industrial co-agglomeration can affect haze pollution through urbanization and energy structure, that is, urbanization and energy structure play an intermediary role between them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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13 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Explaining the Social Acceptance of Renewables through Location-Related Factors: An Application to the Portuguese Case
by Lígia M. Costa Pinto, Sara Sousa and Marieta Valente
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020806 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
The public perception of renewable energy sources is generally positive, due to their role in air pollution and CO2 emission mitigation policies. However, there are local environmental detrimental effects, and empirical evidence is not consistent as to the support of local communities. [...] Read more.
The public perception of renewable energy sources is generally positive, due to their role in air pollution and CO2 emission mitigation policies. However, there are local environmental detrimental effects, and empirical evidence is not consistent as to the support of local communities. In the present paper, we analyse the antecedents of public generic perceptions of renewables grounded on objective location-related factors. Personal location-related factors can originate in the involvement of individuals with renewable energy sources. Regional location-related factors concern the importance of the renewable energy source in the district of residence and in relation to other renewables. We implement a questionnaire on public perceptions of renewable energy sources by the general population in mainland Portugal and complement respondent-level responses with renewable energy district information. Regression analysis shows that these objective location-related factors, both personal and regional, help explain public perceptions of renewables and thus we find empirical support for the proposed approach. These results can inform and guide policymakers in tackling future social acceptance issues of renewable energy policies towards lower carbon emissions and less polluting energy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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24 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
Can Innovation Agglomeration Reduce Carbon Emissions? Evidence from China
by Jianqing Zhang, Haichao Yu, Keke Zhang, Liang Zhao and Fei Fan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020382 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
Innovation agglomeration plays a decisive role in improving the input–output scale and marginal output efficiency of factors. This paper takes carbon emissions as the unexpected output and energy consumption as the input factor into the traditional output density model. The dynamic spatial panel [...] Read more.
Innovation agglomeration plays a decisive role in improving the input–output scale and marginal output efficiency of factors. This paper takes carbon emissions as the unexpected output and energy consumption as the input factor into the traditional output density model. The dynamic spatial panel Durbin model is used to analyze the mechanism for innovation agglomeration and energy intensity to affect carbon emissions from 2004 to 2017 in thirty Chinese provinces. Then, we test the possible mediating effect of energy intensity between innovation agglomeration and carbon emissions. The major findings are as follows. (1) The carbon emission intensity has time-dependence and positive spatial spillover effect. That is, there is a close correlation between current and early carbon emissions, and there is also a high-degree correlation between regional and surrounding areas’ carbon emissions. (2) Carbon emissions keep a classical inverted U-shaped relation with innovation agglomeration, as well as with energy intensity. However, the impact of innovation agglomeration on carbon emissions in inland regions of China does not appear on the right side of the inverted U-shaped curve, while carbon emissions are subject to a positive nonlinear promoting effect from energy intensity. (3) When the logarithm of innovation agglomeration is more than 3.0309, it first shows the inhibition effect on energy intensity. With the logarithm of innovation agglomeration exceeding 5.0100, it will show the dual effect of emission reduction and energy conservation. (4) Energy intensity could work as the intermediary variable of innovation agglomeration’s influence on carbon emissions. Through its various positive externalities, innovation agglomeration can produce a direct impact on carbon emissions, and through energy intensity, it can also affect carbon emissions indirectly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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13 pages, 1336 KiB  
Article
Towards Achieving Sustainable Development: Role of Technology Innovation, Technology Adoption and CO2 Emission for BRICS
by Chi-Wei Su, Yannong Xie, Sadaf Shahab, Ch. Muhammad Nadeem Faisal, Muhammad Hafeez and Ghulam Muhammad Qamri
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010277 - 01 Jan 2021
Cited by 111 | Viewed by 6606
Abstract
In the digital era, technology innovation and adoption trigger economic growth and enhance CO2 emissions through productivity, which places it in the mainstream policy debate. For BRICS economies, this paper uses the first method proposed in the literature to quantify their information [...] Read more.
In the digital era, technology innovation and adoption trigger economic growth and enhance CO2 emissions through productivity, which places it in the mainstream policy debate. For BRICS economies, this paper uses the first method proposed in the literature to quantify their information and communication technology (ICT) and innovatively links each country to their information technology adoption rate, as a surrogate indicator for measuring information and communication technology. Environmental Kuznets curve evidence is also examined, using technology innovation, technology adoption, and trade openness as the control variables for sustainable development. The results show that two out of three technology innovation instruments, fixed telephone, and broadband subscriptions increase CO2 emissions. Simultaneously, mobile cellular subscriptions have a lowering effect on CO2 emission in BRICS. The technology adoption indicators, high-technology exports, and electric power consumption also cause an upsurge in CO2 emission. Moreover, trade openness also enriches the level of CO2 emission in the BRICS regions. There is a need to devise technology innovation and adoption policies to better use technology and to ensure a green environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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13 pages, 1519 KiB  
Article
Carbon Emissions Trading and Sustainable Development in China: Empirical Analysis Based on the Coupling Coordination Degree Model
by Jingru Huang, Jie Shen and Lu Miao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010089 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3313
Abstract
Despite the extensive attention paid to emissions trading scheme (ETS) approaches, few studies have examined whether such ETS policies can lead to sustainable development in China. Drawing on the ideas of coupling and synergistic development, this study views sustainable development as the result [...] Read more.
Despite the extensive attention paid to emissions trading scheme (ETS) approaches, few studies have examined whether such ETS policies can lead to sustainable development in China. Drawing on the ideas of coupling and synergistic development, this study views sustainable development as the result of the interactions between the economy and the environment and constructs an index system to measure economic development and environmental quality. The system coupling model is used to reflect the synergistic interactions between the economy and the environment systems. The coordination degree model is then used to assess the economic–environmental coupling coordination degree in order to measure sustainable development. The empirical results show that the ETS can help in achieving economic–environmental sustainable development in the pilot cities. Moreover, the better the socioeconomic development of a city, the better effects of the ETS on sustainable development. However, it is more difficult to achieve economic–environmental coordinated development in industrially developed areas (e.g., Guangdong). These findings provide empirical evidence that the market-based ETS could alleviate the conflict between economic development and environmental pollution and could help in achieving sustainable development in emerging economies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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17 pages, 546 KiB  
Article
Financial Development and Environmental Regulations: The Two Pillars of Green Transformation in China
by Cong Li, Xihua Liu, Xue Bai and Muhammad Umar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249242 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3064
Abstract
Awareness of the influence of environmental regulations and financial development on green technological progress by Chinese enterprises will help to promote the green transformation of China’s economy, thereby comprehensively enhancing the quality and competitiveness of its economic development. This paper constructs a theoretical [...] Read more.
Awareness of the influence of environmental regulations and financial development on green technological progress by Chinese enterprises will help to promote the green transformation of China’s economy, thereby comprehensively enhancing the quality and competitiveness of its economic development. This paper constructs a theoretical framework to analyze environmental regulation, financial development, and green technological progress and studies the relationship among these three indicators using 2004–2018 data from Shandong province. The results show that environmental regulations and financial development both play roles in promoting green technological progress, but as environmental regulation becomes stronger, the effects of finance on green technological progress begin to differ across regions. The results partially verify the applicability of the Porter hypothesis in China, providing a reference for all levels of government to formulate scientific and reasonable environmental rules and policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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15 pages, 1051 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Ambient Air Pollutant Exposure and Risk of Recurrent Headache in Children: A 12-Year Cohort Study
by Syuan-Yu Hong, Lei Wan, Hui-Ju Lin, Cheng-Li Lin and Chang-Ching Wei
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239140 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Although studies have suggested environmental factors to be triggers of headache, the contribution of long-term air pollution exposure to recurrent headaches is poorly understood. Hence, we executed this nationwide cohort study to investigate associations between levels of ambient air pollutants and risks of [...] Read more.
Although studies have suggested environmental factors to be triggers of headache, the contribution of long-term air pollution exposure to recurrent headaches is poorly understood. Hence, we executed this nationwide cohort study to investigate associations between levels of ambient air pollutants and risks of recurrent headaches in children in Taiwan from 2000 to 2012. We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and linked them to the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Database. Overall, 218,008 children aged < 18 were identified from 1 January 2000, and then followed until they were diagnosed by a physician for ≥3 times with recurrent headaches or until 31 December 2012. We categorized the annual average concentration of each air pollutant (fine particulate matter, total hydrocarbon, methane, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide) into quartiles (Q1–Q4). We measured the incidence rate, hazard ratios (HRs), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals for recurrent headaches. stratified by the quartiles. A total of 28,037 children (12.9%) were identified with recurrent headaches. The incidence rate and adjusted HR for recurrent headaches increased with higher-level exposure of air pollutants, except sulfur dioxide. We herein demonstrate that long-term ambient air pollutant exposure might be a risk factor for childhood recurrent headaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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11 pages, 778 KiB  
Article
Towards a Sustainable Public Transportation: Replacing the Conventional Taxis by a Hybrid Taxi Fleet in the West Bank, Palestine
by Fady M. A. Hassouna and Mahmoud Assad
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238940 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2351
Abstract
Recently, developing sustainable public transportation systems has been highlighted by decision makers and transportation agencies, due to the development of urban areas and the related environmental problems. Implementing new vehicle technologies has been introduced as an appropriate alternative to the conventional taxis. Hybrid [...] Read more.
Recently, developing sustainable public transportation systems has been highlighted by decision makers and transportation agencies, due to the development of urban areas and the related environmental problems. Implementing new vehicle technologies has been introduced as an appropriate alternative to the conventional taxis. Hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) have been the potential candidates for replacing the conventional taxis, since they are more eco-friendly than conventional ones and even more reliable than electric vehicles (EVs) as a mode of public transportation. In this study, current and future environmental impact assessments have been determined for the taxi fleet in the West Bank, Palestine, and the implications of using new vehicle technologies (hybrid taxis) as a replacement of the conventional taxi fleet have been investigated. In order to perform this study, firstly, the data of the number of taxis for the period of 1994–2018 have been collected and a prediction model for the future number of taxis has been developed. The expected total amounts of consumed fuels have been then estimated. Finally, the current and the future N2O and CO2, and emissions, have been estimated and the expected influences of hybrid taxis have been determined. The results of the analysis have concluded that replacing 50% of conventional taxis with a hybrid fleet could achieve 42.3% and 28% reductions in N2O and CO2, respectively, in the next 10 years. A 395% increase in CH4 could be obtained due to the higher amount of CH4 that is produced by the gasoline combustion compared to the diesel fuel, since hybrid vehicles have gasoline-based engines (GHG in terms of CO2-equivalent could be increased by 28.2%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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20 pages, 829 KiB  
Article
Is Improvement of Innovation Efficiency Conducive to Haze Governance? Empirical Evidence from 283 Chinese Cities
by Fei Fan, Dailin Cao and Ning Ma
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176095 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 2506
Abstract
In recent years, haze pollution has had a wide impact in China. This research systematically studies the influence mechanism of haze pollution from a new perspective of urban innovation efficiency. We use a generalised space two-stage least squares method to analyse the correlation [...] Read more.
In recent years, haze pollution has had a wide impact in China. This research systematically studies the influence mechanism of haze pollution from a new perspective of urban innovation efficiency. We use a generalised space two-stage least squares method to analyse the correlation between urban innovation efficiency and haze pollution. The periodic and regional influences of urban innovation efficiency on haze pollution is explored using a threshold regression model. Through the mediating effect model, we accurately identify the transmission mechanism of urban innovation efficiency affecting haze pollution. The results show a significant inverted ‘U’ relationship between improvement of urban innovation efficiency and haze pollution. The regional innovation activities of innovative cities differ greatly from those of non-innovative cities. The effect of innovation efficiency improvement in innovative cities on haze governance is better than that of non-innovative pilot cities. In eastern cities with a higher level of economic development, the improvement of innovation efficiency has a stronger impact on haze governance. Industrial structure and population agglomeration have a mediating effect on the impact of urban innovation efficiency on haze pollution, providing directions for the rational formulation and effective implementation of haze governance policies in China, as well as in other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Emissions)
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