Special Issue "Drinking Water and Health Risks"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Haider A. Khwaja
Website
Guest Editor
Wadsworth Center, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany
Interests: acid rain; cloud water chemistry; water and human health issues; health impacts of air pollution
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Concerns regarding declining water quality are increasing worldwide due to its significant impact on public health and ecosystem protection. About 2.3 billion people are suffering from water-related diseases globally (UNESCO 2003). In developing countries more than 2.2 million people die every year due to contaminated water and inadequate sanitation (WHO and UNICEF, 2000). Understanding anthropogenic impacts is increasingly important, particularly with unprecedented population growth, urbanization, industrialization, agricultural demands, and climatic change. New methodologies for determining drinking water quality are needed. Information about drinking water quality must be improved for citizens and stakeholders and health protection measures must be proposed. In this Special Issue, we seek to publish innovative papers from multidisciplinary fields investigating the problems of water quality degradation due to a multitude of impacts with an emphasis on major pollutants (heavy metals, organic chemicals, and microbial contamination) and their possible impacts on human health. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Drinking water quality monitoring and protection
  • Major pollutants
  • Water pollutants analysis
  • Sources
  • Drinking water safety, and public health
  • Exposure
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk analysis
  • Assessment, development and management
  • Policy

Dr. Haider A. Khwaja
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Current Effects of Cyanobacteria Toxin in Water Sources and Containers in the Hartbeespoort Dam Area, South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224468 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
The study investigated the effects of cyanobacteria toxins such as microcystins in water sources and water stored in containers during its blooming and decaying seasons. Samples from water sources and containers near the Hartbeespoort Dam in South Africa were analysed using a microcystin [...] Read more.
The study investigated the effects of cyanobacteria toxins such as microcystins in water sources and water stored in containers during its blooming and decaying seasons. Samples from water sources and containers near the Hartbeespoort Dam in South Africa were analysed using a microcystin ELIZA test kit. Microcystins were present in water sources used by the community, with an average of 4.3 μg/L in communal tap water and 4.8 μg/L in the water stored in tanks. The concentration of microcystins was lower in groundwater in the decaying season (0.38 μg/L) than in the blooming season (1.4 μg/L). Although microcystins were present in the storage containers, the average levels in all water samples were below the acceptable limit of 1 μg/L. The present study confirmed the presence of microcystins in the water storage containers. Therefore, it is suggested that water used for drinking from community water sources should be treated before storage to eliminate microcystins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of High Concentrations of Ammonium from Groundwater in a Pilot-Scale System through Aeration at the Bottom Layer of a Chemical Catalytic Oxidation Filter
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203989 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To remove high concentrations of ammonium from groundwater, pure oxygen and compressed air were fed into a chemical catalytic filter and the ammonium removal efficiency was investigated. The experimental results showed that the oxygen content is the critical limiting factor for ammonium removal. [...] Read more.
To remove high concentrations of ammonium from groundwater, pure oxygen and compressed air were fed into a chemical catalytic filter and the ammonium removal efficiency was investigated. The experimental results showed that the oxygen content is the critical limiting factor for ammonium removal. Aeration with 40 mL/min pure oxygen or 100 mL/min compressed air from the bottom of the filter supplied adequate oxygen and approximately 4.2 mg/L of ammonium was removed in this process. Moreover, when the aeration device was moved to 1/3 of the height of the filter bed, the required flow rates of pure oxygen and compressed air decreased further and the turbidity removal was improved. Pouring ozone gas into the filter system, which can inactivate bacteria effectively, can also obtain the remarkable ammonium removal, indicating that ammonium removal was mainly due to the chemical catalytic oxidation in this process rather than the biodegradation. This study provides a novel method for removing high concentrations of ammonium from groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Health Implications of Drinking Water Salinity in Coastal Areas of Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3746; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193746 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Coastal areas in South Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to elevated water salinity. Drinking water salinity has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Our study aimed to find if excess drinking water salinity was associated with [...] Read more.
Coastal areas in South Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to elevated water salinity. Drinking water salinity has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Our study aimed to find if excess drinking water salinity was associated with increased hospital visits with an array of health effects in coastal sub-districts of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 157 participants from three coastal sub-districts. A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect salinity exposure and hospital visit data. Water samples were collected from both drinking and other household water sources for the measurement of salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS). CVD, diarrhea, and abdominal pain related hospital visits were found to be significantly associated with high water salinity and TDS. Households exposed to high salinity demonstrated a higher frequency of hospital visits than the low salinity-exposed households. People exposed to high salinity seemed to lack awareness regarding salinity-inducing health effects. Water salinity is a public health concern that will continue to rise due to climate change. Therefore, raising awareness about the health risks of water salinity is essential for the government to frame policies and mitigation strategies to control this emerging threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Metals in Occluded Water: A New Perspective for Pollution in Drinking Water Distribution Systems
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162849 - 09 Aug 2019
Abstract
Occluded water is water that remains inside corrosion scales within deteriorating distribution pipes. The accumulation of iron and manganese in the occluded water is a potential risk for water quality. Thus, this study investigated the change in metal (iron, manganese, copper and chromium) [...] Read more.
Occluded water is water that remains inside corrosion scales within deteriorating distribution pipes. The accumulation of iron and manganese in the occluded water is a potential risk for water quality. Thus, this study investigated the change in metal (iron, manganese, copper and chromium) concentration in occluded water, the effect of these metals on the flowing water, and the source of iron and manganese in the occluded water using a simulation device. The results showed that total iron and total manganese were enriched in the occluded water, while the concentrations of total copper and total chromium in the occluded water gradually decreased over time. The iron and manganese in the occluded water migrate to the flowing water causing pollution in the flowing water. Also, copper and chromium adsorb on the corrosion scales within the pipes. The iron and manganese in the occluded water mainly came from the corrosion of the metal pipes, and the corrosion scales had a certain obstructive effect on the outward migration of iron in the occluded water but had less hindrance to the migration of manganese. Occluded water plays a critical role in the pollution of drinking water, and additional work is needed to control metal accumulation and release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Variation of Water Quality in Unregulated Domestic Wells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091569 - 05 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the United States (U.S.), up to 14% of the population depend on private wells as their primary drinking water source. The U.S. government does not regulate contaminants in private wells. The goals of this study were to investigate the quality of drinking [...] Read more.
In the United States (U.S.), up to 14% of the population depend on private wells as their primary drinking water source. The U.S. government does not regulate contaminants in private wells. The goals of this study were to investigate the quality of drinking water from unregulated private wells within one mile (1.6 kilometers) of an effluent-dominated river in the arid Southwest, determine differences in contaminant levels between wet and dry seasons, and identify contributions from human sources by specifically measuring man-made organic contaminants (perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfate (PFOS), and sucralose). Samples were collected during two dry seasons and two wet seasons over the course of two years and analyzed for microbial (Escherichia coli), inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nitrate), and synthetic organic (PFOA, PFOS, and sucralose) contaminants. Arsenic, nitrate, and Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded their respective regulatory levels of 0.01 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 1 colony forming unit (CFU)/100 mL, respectively. The measured concentrations of PFOA and PFOS exceeded the respective Public Health Advisory level. Arsenic, PFOA, PFOS, and sucralose were significantly higher during the dry seasons, whereas E. coli was higher during the wet seasons. While some contaminants were correlated (e.g., As and Hg ρ = 0.87; PFOA and PFOS ρ = 0.45), the lack of correlation between different contaminant types indicates that they may arise from different sources. Multi-faceted interventions are needed to reduce exposure to drinking water above health-based guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogeochemical Characterization and Suitability Assessment of Groundwater: A Case Study in Central Sindh, Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050886 - 11 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Groundwater is the most important water resource, on which depends human geo-economic development and survival. Recent environmental changes and anthropogenic activities render groundwater severely vulnerable. Groundwater in Central Sindh, Pakistan, is facing a similar situation. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the groundwater in the said [...] Read more.
Groundwater is the most important water resource, on which depends human geo-economic development and survival. Recent environmental changes and anthropogenic activities render groundwater severely vulnerable. Groundwater in Central Sindh, Pakistan, is facing a similar situation. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the groundwater in the said region were investigated by analyzing 59 groundwater samples via agricultural and drinking indices, using various statistical methods and graphical approaches to identify factors affecting groundwater. Major reactions occurring in the groundwater system were quantified by hydrogeochemical modeling. A statistical summary reveals the abundance of cations is Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, while the abundance of anions is HCO3 > Cl > SO42. Groundwater chemistry is mainly of rock dominance. Correlation analysis and graphical relationships between ions reveal that ion exchange and rock weathering such as the dissolution of halite, albite, and dissolution of carbonate minerals are important rock–water interactions, governing the evolution of groundwater chemistry. Hydrochemical facies are predominantly of mixed CaMgCl and Na-Cl type, with few samples of Ca-HCO3 type, which constitutes fresh recharged water. Based on the Water Quality Index (WQI), 28.82% samples were found to be unsuitable for drinking. A United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) diagram, Wilcox diagram, and other agricultural indices indicate that majority of the groundwater samples fall within the acceptable range for irrigation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health Risks)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hazard Assessment Method for Waterworks Systems Operating in Self-Government Units
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050767 - 03 Mar 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Informing users of waterworks systems about the quality of tap water is an obligatory trend. It should be accompanied by studies on the influence of the risk of threats on public health. Waterworks systems, being included in a critical infrastructure of the city, [...] Read more.
Informing users of waterworks systems about the quality of tap water is an obligatory trend. It should be accompanied by studies on the influence of the risk of threats on public health. Waterworks systems, being included in a critical infrastructure of the city, should be subject to special protection in this respect. In the paper, the authors’ method of assessing threats to people and property from waterworks systems functioning in self-government units (SGUs), is proposed. Four categories of factors affecting the risk of threat to tap water consumers were assumed: the frequency or the probability of exposure—P, financial losses—C, damages to peoples’ health—HL, the degree of the security—S. Based on this, a four-parametric risk matrix was developed. It was assumed that risk is a function of the parameters mentioned above: r = f(P, C, HL, S). For every parameter the five-parametric weight scale was assumed. An example of applying the method is presented. The proposed method should be an important element of water safety plans. It can also be adopted for other municipal systems subject to SGU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health Risks)
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