ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Physical Fitness and Health Improvement

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 73371

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain (Faculty of Sport Sciences)
Interests: exercise testing; sport physiology; resistance training; health promotion; ageing; older adults; data analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well established that regular physical exercise provides health benefits throughout the lifetime that prevent morbidity, disability, and premature death. In addition to health benefits, the promotion of physical fitness has the potential to save billions in healthcare costs. On the other hand, a sedentary lifestyle and related non-communicable diseases are among the leading causes of premature death. Thus, encouraging children, adolescents, adults, and older adult people to increase their physical activity levels and fitness status remains an ongoing challenge.

There is growing evidence suggesting that individualized exercise could be a non-pharmacological therapeutic tool for the treatment and prevention of multiple pathologies, including metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity, hypertension), cardiovascular diseases, chronic pain, age-related syndromes (physical frailty, sarcopenia, arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease), and cancer. The use of M-Health systems and new technologies to monitor and individually tailor exercise training prescriptions has emerged as a powerful strategy to improve adherence to exercise and increase physical fitness levels.

Further investigation is now required to better determine the dose–response to physical exercise in the treatment of specific diseases. The development of evidence-based interventions to improve vulnerable people’s health and quality of life is needed to assist professionals in prescribing safe and effective physical exercise programs.

This Special Issue will synthesize current knowledge on “Physical Fitness and Health Improvement”, with an emphasis on the role of physical fitness in health, the effectiveness of exercise programs in healthy and vulnerable populations, best practices in physical fitness promotion, new strategies to improve adherence to exercise, and the role of new technologies in improving physical exercise prescription.

Dr. Javier Courel-Ibáñez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity/exercise
  • exercise promotion
  • adherence to exercise
  • pregnancy
  • chronic pain
  • obesity
  • frailty
  • cognition
  • aging
  • new technologies

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

14 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Could Physical Fitness Be Considered as a Protective Social Factor Associated with Bridging the Cognitive Gap Related to School Vulnerability in Adolescents? The Cogni-Action Project
by Carlos Cristi-Montero, Jessica Ibarra-Mora, Anelise Gaya, Jose Castro-Piñero, Patricio Solis-Urra, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Gerson Ferrari, Fernando Rodriguez-Rodriguez and Kabir P. Sadarangani
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910073 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
The first aim was to compare differences between school vulnerability groups, fitness levels, and their combination in adolescent cognitive performance. The second aim was to determine the mediation role of fitness in the association between school vulnerability and cognitive performance. A total of [...] Read more.
The first aim was to compare differences between school vulnerability groups, fitness levels, and their combination in adolescent cognitive performance. The second aim was to determine the mediation role of fitness in the association between school vulnerability and cognitive performance. A total of 912 Chilean adolescents aged 10–14 years participated in this study. The school vulnerability index (SVI) assigned by the Chilean Government was categorized into high-, mid-, or low-SVI. Adolescents were classified as fit or unfit according to their global fitness z-score computed from their cardiorespiratory (CRF), muscular (MF), and speed/agility fitness (SAF) adjusted for age and sex. A global cognitive score was estimated through eight tasks based on a neurocognitive battery. Covariance and mediation analyses were performed, adjusted for sex, schools, body mass index, and peak high velocity. Independent analyses showed that the higher SVI, the lower the cognitive performance (F(6,905) = 18.5; p < 0.001). Conversely, fit adolescents presented a higher cognitive performance than their unfit peers (F(5,906) = 8.93; p < 0.001). The combined analysis found cognitive differences between fit and unfit adolescents in both the high- and mid-SVI levels (Cohen’s d = 0.32). No differences were found between fit participants belonging to higher SVI groups and unfit participants belonging to lower SVI groups. Mediation percentages of 9.0%, 5.6%, 7.1%, and 2.8% were observed for the global fitness score, CRF, MF, and SAF, respectively. The mediation effect was significant between low- with mid-high-SVI levels but not between mid- and high-SVI levels. These findings suggest that an adequate physical fitness level should be deemed a protective social factor associated with bridging the cognitive gap linked to school vulnerability in adolescents. This favourable influence seems to be most significant in adolescents belonging to a more adverse social background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
A Possible Preventive Role of Physically Active Lifestyle during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic; Might Regular Cold-Water Swimming and Exercise Reduce the Symptom Severity of COVID-19?
by Viktor Bielik, Marian Grendar and Martin Kolisek
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137158 - 4 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4463
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and course of COVID-19 and the risk of an upper respiratory tract infection in a group of people with physically active lifestyles. Data were collected anonymously using an online survey platform during December [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and course of COVID-19 and the risk of an upper respiratory tract infection in a group of people with physically active lifestyles. Data were collected anonymously using an online survey platform during December 2020. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 65 years. Out of 2343 participants, 11.5% overcame COVID-19 infection. Relative to the control group (CTRL), physically active, cold-water swimmers (PACW) did not exhibit a lower risk of incidence for COVID-19 (RR 1.074, CI 95% (0.710–1.625). However, PACW had a higher chance of having an asymptomatic course of COVID-19 (RR 2.321, CI 95% (0.836–6.442); p < 0.05) and a higher chance of only having an acute respiratory infection once or less per year than CTRL (RR 1.923, CI 95% (1.1641–2.253); p < 0.01). Furthermore, PACW exhibited a lower incidence of acute respiratory infection occurring more than twice per year (RR 0.258, CI 95% (0.138–0.483); p < 0.01). Cold-water swimming and physical activity may not lessen the risk of COVID-19 in recreational athletes. However, a physically active lifestyle might have a positive effect on the rate of incidence of acute respiratory infection and on the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1545 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Physical Activity in Older Adults: Integrating Self-Concordance into the Theory of Planned Behavior
by Paula Stehr, Constanze Rossmann, Tabea Kremer and Johanna Geppert
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115759 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4822
Abstract
Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), augmented by the concept of self-concordance (derived from self-determination theory, SDT), we conducted a study to identify the key determinants of physical activity in older adults. We applied structural equation modeling of telephone survey data [...] Read more.
Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), augmented by the concept of self-concordance (derived from self-determination theory, SDT), we conducted a study to identify the key determinants of physical activity in older adults. We applied structural equation modeling of telephone survey data from a random sample of adults aged 65 years and older living in Germany (N = 865). Relations of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) with intention strength and self-concordance of intention to be physically active were tested. Habit strength was analyzed as a moderator. Data analysis showed this model to be well-suited for explaining the intention to be physically active—especially for people with a weak habit. The influence of TPB components on intention would have been underestimated if we had investigated intention strength only, without considering the self-concordance of intention. While attitude and PBC had positive relations with a strong and self-determined intention, the subjective norm showed no relation with intention strength but, rather, with non-self-determined regulation forms. We conclude that the combined model provides a better theoretical foundation from which to explain physical activity intentions than does just one of the theories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2321 KiB  
Article
Control Deficits, Conditioning Factors, and Playing through Pain and Injury among Iranian Professional Soccer Players
by Saeed Kabiri, Jaeyong Choi, Seyyedeh Masoomeh (Shamila) Shadmanfaat and Julak Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073387 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2289
Abstract
Playing through pain and injury is a common and accepted behavior in the athletic realm. The purpose of this research was to apply Tittle’s control balance theory to explain why athletes engage in playing through pain and injury despite its risky nature. We [...] Read more.
Playing through pain and injury is a common and accepted behavior in the athletic realm. The purpose of this research was to apply Tittle’s control balance theory to explain why athletes engage in playing through pain and injury despite its risky nature. We hypothesized that playing through pain and injury is a form of submission described by Tittle and that it can be predicted by the concept of control deficit. To this end, we collected and used data from a sample of 410 professional soccer players from Guilan province, Iran, and tested several propositions derived from control balance theory. Hierarchical linear regression was used to analyze the data. The study findings demonstrate that players with more control deficits are more likely to play through pain and injury. This relationship is conditioned by self-control, opportunity, motivation, perceived benefits, and provocations. For example, the relationship between control deficit and playing through pain and injury is stronger for those with lower self-control. Our findings support the utility of control balance theory in explaining an act of submission (i.e., playing through pain and injury). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Physical Fitness in Young Padel Players: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Javier Courel-Ibáñez and Javier Llorca-Miralles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052658 - 6 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the fitness characteristics and to identify the influence of gender and practice experience between young amateur padel players. A total of thirty-four padel players (n = 19 boys and 15 girls) aged 13 to 17 years old [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the fitness characteristics and to identify the influence of gender and practice experience between young amateur padel players. A total of thirty-four padel players (n = 19 boys and 15 girls) aged 13 to 17 years old (age 14.6 ± 1.5 years; body mass 63.4 ± 14.5 kg; height 166.6 ± 9.8 cm; 6.2 ± 2.5 padel experience) volunteered to participate. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance. Change of direction and agility were evaluated by two padel-adapted tests. Upper-limb strength measurement included overhead and side medicine ball throws with dominant and non-dominant hands. One-way ANCOVA was used to determine whether there were significant differences between gender and experience on fitness variables adjusting for age as a covariate. Male and female young padel players presented an apparently healthy body composition and exhibited similar performance in all fitness tests except for jumping ability. Practice experience seemed to influence upper-limb throwing strength, however, sub-analyses revealed no conclusive results. These results contribute to the existing knowledge in padel by providing new data about the fitness status of amateur young players aged 13 to 17 years old and open a window for future interventions using padel as a health promotion tool among youths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Increased Cardiopulmonary Fitness Is Associated with a Greater Reduction in Depression among People Who Underwent Bariatric Surgery
by Tomas Vetrovsky, Tereza Fortova, Elena Conesa-Ros, Michal Steffl, Jana Heczkova, Jan Belohlavek and Javier Courel-Ibáñez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052508 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changes in cardiopulmonary fitness on the mental health of patients with severe obesity who underwent gastric bypass surgery (prior to and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery). Study participants were recruited [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changes in cardiopulmonary fitness on the mental health of patients with severe obesity who underwent gastric bypass surgery (prior to and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery). Study participants were recruited from among patients of a regional hospital in Czechia who underwent gastric bypass surgery between April 2018 and October 2019. They were eligible if they (a) were between 18 and 65 years old, (b) provided written informed consent, and (c) were able to walk independently. Twenty-six patients (age 45.4 ± 9.0 years, body mass index 45.1 ± 7.4 kg·m−2, body fat 43.8 ± 4.8%) were included in the analysis. The key finding revealed that the greater the increase in cardiopulmonary fitness (i.e., longer distance walked in the six-minute walk test, 6MWT), the better the improvement in depression score among patients who underwent bariatric surgery. In particular, increments of 10 m in the 6MWT lead to the improvement of 0.5 points on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. As the main implication, these results suggest that patients should participate in exercise training programs to increase their fitness status for optimal physical and mental outcomes of bariatric surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
15 pages, 826 KiB  
Article
Can Health-Promoting Schools Contribute to Better Health Behaviors? Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Habits among Israeli Adolescents
by Hila Beck, Riki Tesler, Sharon Barak, Daniel Sender Moran, Adilson Marques and Yossi Harel Fisch
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031183 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3075
Abstract
Schools with health-promoting school (HPS) frameworks are actively committed to enhancing healthy lifestyles. This study explored the contribution of school participation in HPS on students’ health behaviors, namely, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and dieting. Data from the 2018/2019 Health Behavior in School-aged [...] Read more.
Schools with health-promoting school (HPS) frameworks are actively committed to enhancing healthy lifestyles. This study explored the contribution of school participation in HPS on students’ health behaviors, namely, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and dieting. Data from the 2018/2019 Health Behavior in School-aged Children study on Israeli adolescents aged 11–17 years were used. Schools were selected from a sample of HPSs and non-HPSs. Between-group differences and predictions of health behavior were analyzed. No between-group differences were observed in mean number of days/week with at least 60 min of PA (HPS: 3.84 ± 2.19 days/week, 95% confidence interval of the mean = 3.02–3.34; non-HPS: 3.93 ± 2.17 days/week, 95% confidence interval of the mean = 3.13–3.38). Most children engaged in screen time behavior for >2 h/day (HPS: 60.83%; non-HPS: 63.91%). The odds of being on a diet were higher among more active children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20), higher socio-economic status (OR = 1.23), and female (OR = 2.29). HPS did not predict any health behavior. These findings suggest that HPSs did not contribute to health behaviors more than non-HPSs. Therefore, health-promoting activities in HPSs need to be improved in order to justify their recognition as members of the HPS network and to fulfill their mission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 974 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Global Postural Re-Education on Non-Specific Low Back Pain. Does Time-of-Day Play a Role?
by David Merinero, Manuel Rodríguez-Aragón, Javier Álvarez-González, Álvaro López-Samanes and Joaquín López-Pascual
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020713 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3132
Abstract
Low back pain is one the most common forms of musculoskeletal disorders. Thus, several physiotherapeutic strategies (e.g., global postural re-education therapy) have been used for reducing low back pain. The aim of this study was to determinate if acute application of global postural [...] Read more.
Low back pain is one the most common forms of musculoskeletal disorders. Thus, several physiotherapeutic strategies (e.g., global postural re-education therapy) have been used for reducing low back pain. The aim of this study was to determinate if acute application of global postural re-education session associated effects are influenced by the time-of-day when this physical therapy is applied. Eight participants in a randomized, counterbalanced order were acutely tested both before and 24 h after a global postural re-education therapy session (10 min session) in three different time-of-day points; morning (i.e., AM; 7:00–9:00 h), midday (i.e., AM; 12:00–14:00 h) and afternoon (i.e., PM; 18:00–20:00 h). In each session, low back pain Visual Analogue Pain Scale [VAS]), flexibility, function capacity (Roland Morris Questionnaire [RMQ], and physical functioning Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]) were recorded. Results showed a pain reduction (VAS Scale) 24 h post Global postural re-education [GPR] session (p = 0.001) and increasing of flexibility pre-post GPR session in all the time-of-day points (morning, midday, and afternoon) (p = 0.001) while no differences were reported in RMQ (p = 0.969) and ODI (p = 0.767). Thus, acute GPR session produces the same effects on flexibility, low back pain, function capacity, and physical functioning values independently of time-of-day when it is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 355 KiB  
Article
Hair Maintenance and Chemical Hair Product Usage as Barriers to Physical Activity in Childhood and Adulthood among African American Women
by Symielle A. Gaston, Tamarra James-Todd, Nyree M. Riley, Micaela N. Gladney, Quaker E. Harmon, Donna D. Baird and Chandra L. Jackson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249254 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
Qualitative studies have identified haircare practices as important culturally specific barriers to physical activity (PA) among Black/African American (AA) women, but quantitative investigations are lacking. Using the Study of Environment, Lifestyle and Fibroids data among 1558 Black/AA women, we investigated associations between hair [...] Read more.
Qualitative studies have identified haircare practices as important culturally specific barriers to physical activity (PA) among Black/African American (AA) women, but quantitative investigations are lacking. Using the Study of Environment, Lifestyle and Fibroids data among 1558 Black/AA women, we investigated associations between hair product usage/hair maintenance behaviors and PA during childhood and adulthood. Participants reported childhood and current chemical relaxer and leave-in conditioner use. Self-reported PA included childhood recreational sports participation, leisure-time PA engagement during adulthood, and, at each life stage, minutes of and intensity of PA. Adjusting for socioeconomic and health characteristics, we used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each PA measure for more vs. less frequent hair product use/hair maintenance. Thirty-four percent reported ≥twice/year chemical relaxer use and 22% reported ≥once/week leave-in conditioner use at age 10 years, and neither were associated with PA at age 10 years. In adulthood, ≥twice/year chemical relaxer users (30%) were less likely (PR = 0.90 [95% CI: 0.79–1.02]) and ≥once/week leave-in conditioner users (24%) were more likely (PR = 1.09 [95% CI: 0.99–1.20]) to report intense PA compared to counterparts reporting rarely/never use. Hair product use/maintenance may influence PA among Black/AA women and impact cardiometabolic health disparities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
13 pages, 1041 KiB  
Article
Effects of Exercise Training during Christmas on Body Weight and Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight Individuals
by Miguel Ramirez-Jimenez, Felix Morales-Palomo, Juan Fernando Ortega, Alfonso Moreno-Cabañas, Valle Guio de Prada, Laura Alvarez-Jimenez and Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134732 - 1 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3985
Abstract
Individuals with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have augmented risk of all-cause mortality. Lifestyle interventions are effective to treat MetS, however, there are periods during the year in which exercise programs are discontinued and improper dietary habits reappear (e.g., Christmas holidays). We [...] Read more.
Individuals with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have augmented risk of all-cause mortality. Lifestyle interventions are effective to treat MetS, however, there are periods during the year in which exercise programs are discontinued and improper dietary habits reappear (e.g., Christmas holidays). We aimed to analyze if exercise-training during Christmas holidays would avoid body-weight gains and cardiometabolic deterioration in MetS individuals, using a randomized control trial. Thirty-eight men with MetS undergoing exercise training were randomly allocated to either continue (TRAIN group, n = 16) or discontinue (HOLID group, n = 22) training, during the three weeks of Christmas. Anthropometrics (body weight, fat, and waist circumference), fasting blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations) and exercise maximal fat oxidation (FOMAX) and oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) were determined before and after Christmas. Both groups were similar at baseline in all parameters (p > 0.05). HOLID group increased body weight (91.3 ± 13.0 to 92.0 ± 13.4 kg, p = 0.004), mean arterial pressure (94.0 ± 10.6 to 97.1 ± 8.9 mmHg, p = 0.026), blood insulin (10.2 ± 3.8 to 12.5 ± 5.4 µIU·mL−1, p = 0.003) and HOMA (3.2 ± 1.3 to 4.1 ± 2.3, p = 0.003). In contrast, TRAIN prevented those disarrangements and reduced total (170.6 ± 30.6 to 161.3 ± 31.3 mg·dL−1, p = 0.026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (i.e., LDL-C, 104.8 ± 26.1 to 95.6 ± 21.7 mg·dL−1, p = 0.013). TRAIN also prevented the reductions in exercise FOMAX and VO2PEAK that was observed in the HOLID group (p = 0.002). In conclusion, exercise training during Christmas, prevents body weight gains and the associated cardiovascular (increase in blood pressure and LDL-C) and metabolic (reduced insulin sensitivity) health risks are an optimal non-pharmacological therapy for that period of the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 811 KiB  
Article
Sex Differences and the Influence of an Active Lifestyle on Adiposity in Patients with McArdle Disease
by Irene Rodríguez-Gómez, Alfredo Santalla, Jorge Diez-Bermejo, Diego Munguía-Izquierdo, Luis M. Alegre, Gisela Nogales-Gadea, Joaquín Arenas, Miguel A. Martín, Alejandro Lucia and Ignacio Ara
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124334 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
McArdle disease (glycogenosis-V) is associated with exercise intolerance, however, how it affects an important marker of cardiometabolic health as it is adiposity remains unknown. We evaluated the association between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in patients with McArdle disease. We assessed 199 adults [...] Read more.
McArdle disease (glycogenosis-V) is associated with exercise intolerance, however, how it affects an important marker of cardiometabolic health as it is adiposity remains unknown. We evaluated the association between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in patients with McArdle disease. We assessed 199 adults of both sexes (51 McArdle patients (36 ± 11 years) and 148 healthy controls (35 ± 10 years)). Body fat (BF) was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method and each patient’s PA was assessed with the International PA Questionnaire (IPAQ). Although body mass index values did not differ between patients and controls, McArdle patients had significantly higher values of BF in all body regions (p < 0.05) and higher risk of suffering obesity (odds ratio (OR): 2.54, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.32–4.88). Male patients had higher BF and obesity risk (OR: 3.69, 95% CI: 1.46−9.34) than their sex-matched controls, but no differences were found within the female sex (p < 0.05). In turn, active female patients had lower trunk BF than their inactive peers (p < 0.05). Males with McArdle seem to have adiposity problems and a higher risk of developing obesity than people without the condition, while female patients show similar or even better levels in the trunk region with an active lifestyle. Therefore, special attention should be given to decrease adiposity and reduce obesity risk in males with McArdle disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

16 pages, 1618 KiB  
Review
Post-COVID-19 Syndrome and the Potential Benefits of Exercise
by Amaya Jimeno-Almazán, Jesús G. Pallarés, Ángel Buendía-Romero, Alejandro Martínez-Cava, Francisco Franco-López, Bernardino J. Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez, Enrique Bernal-Morel and Javier Courel-Ibáñez
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105329 (registering DOI) - 17 May 2021
Cited by 185 | Viewed by 35887
Abstract
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is leading to unknown and unusual health conditions that are challenging to manage. Post-COVID-19 syndrome is one of those challenges, having become increasingly common as the pandemic evolves. The latest estimates [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is leading to unknown and unusual health conditions that are challenging to manage. Post-COVID-19 syndrome is one of those challenges, having become increasingly common as the pandemic evolves. The latest estimates suggest that 10 to 20% of the SARS-CoV-2 patients who undergo an acute symptomatic phase are experiencing effects of the disease beyond 12 weeks after diagnosis. Although research is beginning to examine this new condition, there are still serious concerns about the diagnostic identification, which limits the best therapeutic approach. Exercise programs and physical activity levels are well-known modulators of the clinical manifestations and prognosis in many chronic diseases. This narrative review summarizes the up-to-date evidence on post-COVID-19 syndrome to contribute to a better knowledge of the disease and explains how regular exercise may improve many of these symptoms and could reduce the long-term effects of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Fitness and Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop