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Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Air".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (27 March 2023) | Viewed by 13793

Special Issue Editors

State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Interests: air pollution; aerosol composition; O3; field observation; air quality-weather-climate interaction; application of remote sensing; exposure assessment
Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Testing Center, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
Interests: aerosol chemical characteristics observation; source analysis and fine particle formation mechanism; collaborative control technology of PM2.5 and O3
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Guest Editor
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
Interests: atmospheric exposure evaluation; bridging air pollution and health; health risk analysis and assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a growing realization that unfavorable meteorological conditions (e.g., heat waves) and air pollution could be able to pose serious threat to human health. Many countries and regions have been conducting a series of measures to mitigate the impacts of extreme weather and air pollution and obtained huge human health benefits (e.g., the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in China). However, the pollution level in some countries and regions is still very high. In particular, the promulgation of WHO AQG (2021) puts forward higher requirements for air pollution control around the world. Thus, it is fundamental to explore the characteristics of atmospheric pollutants related to human health (e.g., PM2.5 and its chemical compositions, ozone, and the precursors), identify the key influencing meteorological factors and processes, illustrate the formation mechanism, transport and sources, improve the forecasting accuracy, accurately evaluate human exposure to air pollution and unfavorable meteorological condition, establish more specific exposure-response relationship, and propose more reasonable and precise control strategies. These studies will provide a scientific basis for air pollution prevention and control with the goal of maximizing health benefits.

The original research and reviews, focusing on meteorological conditions and air pollution mentioned above (but are not limited to) at the urban and regional scales, and epidemiology studies influenced by unfavorable meteorology or air pollution, are welcome in this Special Issue. In addition, the multi-source dataset (in situ, satellite data, other retrievals) and technical note on various methods (e.g., statistical methods, numerical models, and machine learning), as well as up-to-date technology, are also welcome.

Dr. Lili Wang
Dr. Xingru Li
Dr. Minjuan Huang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • air pollution
  • PM2.5
  • ozone
  • chemical compositions of aerosol
  • microclimate
  • meteorology
  • human health
  • source apportionment
  • secondary formation mechanism

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 59170 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Potential Characterization of Different PM2.5 Sources and Components in Beijing and the Surrounding Region
by Wei Wen, Tongxin Hua, Lei Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Xin Ma, Song Shen and Zifan Deng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065109 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
With the implementation of air pollution control measures, the concentration of air pollutants in the North China Plain has exhibited a downward trend, but severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution remains. PM2.5 is harmful to human health, and the exploration [...] Read more.
With the implementation of air pollution control measures, the concentration of air pollutants in the North China Plain has exhibited a downward trend, but severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution remains. PM2.5 is harmful to human health, and the exploration of its source characteristics and potential hazards has become the key to mitigating PM2.5 pollution. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected in Beijing and Gucheng during the summer of 2019. PM2.5 components, its oxidative potential (OP), and health risks were characterized. The average PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing and Gucheng during the sampling period were 34.0 ± 6.1 μg/m3 and 37.1 ± 6.9 μg/m3, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) results indicated that the main sources of PM2.5 in Beijing were vehicle exhaust and secondary components and that the main sources in Gucheng were industrial emissions, dust and biomass combustion. The OP values were 91.6 ± 42.1 and 82.2 ± 47.1 pmol/(min·m3), respectively, at these two sites. The correlation between the chemical components and the OP values varied with the PM2.5 sources at these two locations. The health risk assessment results demonstrated that Cr and As were potentially carcinogenic to all populations at both sites, and Cd posed a potential carcinogenic risk for adults in Gucheng. Regional cooperation regarding air pollution control must be strengthened to further reduce PM2.5 pollution and its adverse health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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15 pages, 5908 KiB  
Article
Particle Deposition in Large-Scale Human Tracheobronchial Airways Predicted by Single-Path Modelling
by Cuiyun Ou, Jian Hang, Jiajia Hua, Yuguo Li, Qihong Deng, Bo Zhao and Hong Ling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054583 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
The health effects of particles are directly related to their deposition patterns (deposition site and amount) in human airways. However, estimating the particle trajectory in a large-scale human lung airway model is still a challenge. In this work, a truncated single-path, large-scale human [...] Read more.
The health effects of particles are directly related to their deposition patterns (deposition site and amount) in human airways. However, estimating the particle trajectory in a large-scale human lung airway model is still a challenge. In this work, a truncated single-path, large-scale human airway model (G3–G10) with a stochastically coupled boundary method were employed to investigate the particle trajectory and the roles of their deposition mechanisms. The deposition patterns of particles with diameters (dp) of 1–10 μm are investigated under various inlet Reynolds numbers (Re = 100–2000). Inertial impaction, gravitational sedimentation, and combined mechanism were considered. With the increasing airway generations, the deposition of smaller particles (dp < 4 μm) increased due to gravitational sedimentation, while that of larger particles decreased due to inertial impaction. The obtained formulas of Stokes number and Re can predict the deposition efficiency due to the combined mechanism in the present model, and the prediction can be used to assess the dose-effect of atmospheric aerosols on the human body. Diseases in deeper generations are mainly attributed to the deposition of smaller particles under lower inhalation rates, while diseases at the proximal generations mainly result from the deposition of larger particles under higher inhalation rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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14 pages, 2492 KiB  
Article
Study on the Fingerprint and Atmospheric Activity of Volatile Organic Compounds from Typical Industrial Emissions
by Xin Gu, Kaitao Chen, Min Cai, Zhongyi Yin, Xingang Liu and Xingru Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043517 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
China is prone to severe surface ozone pollution in summer, so it is very important to understand the source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to control ozone formation. In this work, the emission characteristics of 91 VOC components from the plastic products industry, [...] Read more.
China is prone to severe surface ozone pollution in summer, so it is very important to understand the source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to control ozone formation. In this work, the emission characteristics of 91 VOC components from the plastic products industry, packaging and printing industries, printing ink industry, furniture manufacturing and vehicle manufacturing industries were studied. The results show that there are significant differences between these sources, and for the plastic products industry, alkanes (48%) are the most abundant VOCs. The main emission species in the packaging and printing industry are OVOCs (36%) and alkanes (34%). The proportion of OVOCs in the printing ink (73%) and furniture manufacturing industries (49%) is dominated by VOC emissions; aromatic hydrocarbons (33%), alkanes (33%), and OVOCs (17%) are the main emission species in the vehicle manufacturing industry. At the same time, the ozone generation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOA) of anthropogenic VOC emissions were evaluated, and the top 10 contributors to OFP and SOA were identified. Toluene, o-xylene, and m-xylene had a significant tendency to form OFP or SOA. Then, a health risk assessment of VOC components was carried out. These data can supplement the existing VOC emission characteristics of anthropogenic emissions, thus enriching the research progress of VOC emission sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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12 pages, 4163 KiB  
Article
Full Coverage Hourly PM2.5 Concentrations’ Estimation Using Himawari-8 and MERRA-2 AODs in China
by Zhenghua Liu, Qijun Xiao and Rong Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021490 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
(1) Background: Recognising the full spatial and temporal distribution of PM2.5 is important in order to understand the formation, evolution and impact of pollutants. The high temporal resolution satellite, Himawari-8, providing an hourly AOD dataset, has been used to predict real-time hourly [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recognising the full spatial and temporal distribution of PM2.5 is important in order to understand the formation, evolution and impact of pollutants. The high temporal resolution satellite, Himawari-8, providing an hourly AOD dataset, has been used to predict real-time hourly PM2.5 concentrations in China in previous studies. However, the low observation frequency of the AOD due to long-term cloud/snow cover or high surface reflectance may produce high uncertainty in characterizing diurnal variation in PM2.5. (2) Methods: We fill the missing Himawari-8 AOD with MERRA-2 AOD, and drive the random forest model with the gap-filled AOD (AODH+M) and Himawari-8 AOD (AODH) to estimate hourly PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. Then we compare AODH+M-derived PM2.5 with AODH-derived PM2.5 in detail. (3) Results: Overall, the non-random missing information of the Himawari-8 AOD will bring large biases to the diurnal variations in regions with both a high polluted level and a low polluted level. (4) Conclusions: Filling the gap with the MERRA-2 AOD can provide reliable, full spatial and temporal PM2.5 predictions, and greatly reduce errors in PM2.5 estimation. This is very useful for dynamic monitoring of the evolution of PM2.5 in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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20 pages, 4435 KiB  
Article
Changes in Air Quality and Drivers for the Heavy PM2.5 Pollution on the North China Plain Pre- to Post-COVID-19
by Shuang Liu, Xingchuan Yang, Fuzhou Duan and Wenji Zhao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912904 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Under the clean air action plans and the lockdown to constrain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the air quality improved significantly. However, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution still occurred on the North China Plain (NCP). This study analyzed the variations of [...] Read more.
Under the clean air action plans and the lockdown to constrain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the air quality improved significantly. However, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution still occurred on the North China Plain (NCP). This study analyzed the variations of PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) during 2017–2021 on the northern (Beijing) and southern (Henan) edges of the NCP. Furthermore, the drivers for the PM2.5 pollution episodes pre- to post-COVID-19 in Beijing and Henan were explored by combining air pollutant and meteorological datasets and the weighted potential source contribution function. Results showed air quality generally improved during 2017–2021, except for a slight rebound (3.6%) in NO2 concentration in 2021 in Beijing. Notably, the O3 concentration began to decrease significantly in 2020. The COVID-19 lockdown resulted in a sharp drop in the concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and CO in February of 2020, but PM2.5 and CO in Beijing exhibited a delayed decrease in March. For Beijing, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the initial regional transport and later secondary formation under adverse meteorology. For Henan, the PM2.5 pollution was driven by the primary emissions under the persistent high humidity and stable atmospheric conditions, superimposing small-scale regional transport. Low wind speed, shallow boundary layer, and high humidity are major drivers of heavy PM2.5 pollution. These results provide an important reference for setting mitigation measures not only for the NCP but for the entire world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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17 pages, 10303 KiB  
Article
Air Pollution Characteristics during the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics
by Fangjie Chu, Chengao Gong, Shuang Sun, Lingjun Li, Xingchuan Yang and Wenji Zhao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811616 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
Using air pollution monitoring data from 31 January to 31 March 2022, we evaluated air quality trends in Beijing and Zhangjiakou before and after the 2022 Winter Olympics and compared them with the conditions during the same period in 2021. The objective was [...] Read more.
Using air pollution monitoring data from 31 January to 31 March 2022, we evaluated air quality trends in Beijing and Zhangjiakou before and after the 2022 Winter Olympics and compared them with the conditions during the same period in 2021. The objective was to define the air quality during the 2022 Winter Olympics. The results indicated that: (1) the average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and SO2 in Zhangjiakou during the 2022 Winter Olympics were 28.15, 29.16, 34.96, 9.06, and 16.41%, respectively, lower than those before the 2022 Winter Olympics; (2) the five pollutant concentrations in Beijing showed the following pattern: during the 2022 Winter Olympics (DWO) < before the 2022 Winter Olympics < after 2022 Winter Paralympics < during 2022 Winter Paralympics; (3) on the opening day (4 February), the concentrations of the five pollutants in both cities were low. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations varied widely without substantial peaks and the daily average maximum values were 15.17 and 8.67 µg/m3, respectively, which were 65.56 and 69.79% lower than those of DWO, respectively; (4) the PM2.5 clean days in Beijing and Zhangjiakou DWO accounted for 94.12 and 76.47% of the total days, respectively, which were 11.76 and 41.18% higher than those during the same period in 2021; (5) during each phase of the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing and Zhangjiakou, the NO2/SO2 and PM2.5/SO2 trends exhibited a decrease followed by an increase. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios in Beijing and Zhangjiakou were 0.65 and 0.67, respectively, indicating that fine particulate matter was the main contributor to air pollution DWO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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17 pages, 7262 KiB  
Article
Temporal and Spatial Variation (2001–2020) Characteristics of Wind Speed in the Water Erosion Area of the Typical Black Soil Region, Northeast China
by Liang Pei, Chunhui Wang, Liying Sun and Lili Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(17), 10473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710473 - 23 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Soil erosion is one of the driving factors leading to the land degradation in the black soil region of Northeast China. It is of great significance to analyze the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of wind speed there for the study of wind [...] Read more.
Soil erosion is one of the driving factors leading to the land degradation in the black soil region of Northeast China. It is of great significance to analyze the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of wind speed there for the study of wind erosion impacts and geomantic erosion. Based on the daily meteorological data of 51 meteorological stations from 2001 to 2020, the interannual variation, seasonal variation, and spatial characteristics of wind speed were analyzed by cumulative anomaly method, Mann–Kendall test method, and Kriging interpolation method. The natural factors affecting wind speed were discussed by using geographic detectors, and the potential effects of wind speed on soil erosion were further analyzed. The results showed that the maximum annual wind speed in the water erosion area of the typical black soil region fluctuated with a decreasing trend. However, the mean annual wind speed demonstrated a decreasing trend before 2014, and then showed increasing trend. The proportion of the meteorological stations with decreasing mean annual wind speed and maximum annual wind speed during years 2001–2020 was 70% and 60%, respectively. The seasonal variation of the mean monthly wind speed and maximum monthly wind speed showed the same trend as Spring > Autumn > Winter > Summer. The spatial variation of the mean annual wind speed and maximum annual wind speed was consistent. According to the results of the geographic detectors, DEM and temperature are the main factors affecting the spatial heterogeneity of the maximum annual wind speed. The area of ‘severe’ and ‘extremely severe’ of wind impacts account for 23.4%, and specific concerns should be paid to the areas of Nenjiang, Yilan, Tonghe, and Baoqing, located in the north and east sides of the study area. The results of the article could provide reference for the study of wind–water complex erosion in the water erosion area of the typical black soil region for better soil erosion control and ecological protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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16 pages, 3279 KiB  
Article
Fog–Haze Transition and Drivers in the Coastal Region of the Yangtze River Delta
by Rui Lyu, Wei Gao, Yarong Peng, Yijie Qian, Qianshan He, Tiantao Cheng, Xingna Yu and Gang Zhao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(15), 9608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159608 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Low-visibility events (LVEs) are severe weather phenomena that are closely linked with anthropogenic pollution, which negatively affects traffic, air quality, human health, and the environment. This study conducted a two-month (from October to December 2019) continuous measurement campaign on Chongming Island in Shanghai [...] Read more.
Low-visibility events (LVEs) are severe weather phenomena that are closely linked with anthropogenic pollution, which negatively affects traffic, air quality, human health, and the environment. This study conducted a two-month (from October to December 2019) continuous measurement campaign on Chongming Island in Shanghai to characterize the LVEs transition and its drivers. The LVEs accounted for 38% of the time during the campaign, of which mist accounted for 14%, fog–haze for 13%, haze for 6%, and fog for 5%. The fog and mist mainly occurred from midnight to early morning, while haze mostly occurred during the daytime. Different LVEs were interdependent and transitioned from one to another. Fog generally turned into haze after sunrise, while haze turned into fog after sunset. Their formation and evolution were caused by the combined impacts of meteorological conditions and aerosol particles. It was found that temperature difference was the dominant meteorological factor driving the evolution of LVEs. Within the short term, cooling led to a greater increase in relative humidity than humidification. Radiative cooling during the night promoted the formation of fog and mist. During fog and mist events, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were mainly internally mixed due to the impact of fog droplet removal and aqueous/heterogeneous aerosol reactions occurring under high humidity. Increased CCN concentration appeared to increase the fog droplet number and liquid water content in fog events. Overall, conditions of high humidity and high particle loading were conducive to LVEs, whereas conditions of sufficient water vapor at a low particle level and sufficient particles at a low humidity level also caused LVEs. This study provided insights into LVEs classification, evolution scheme, and aerosol roles from a micro point of view. The findings could be useful for improving forecasts of local radiative fog and other LVEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meteorology/Air Pollution and Health Impact)
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