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Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020) | Viewed by 35195

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Freshwater is a crucial resource to limit the survival of mankind and other biota. However, global freshwater ecosystems are facing unprecedented threats induced by human activities. Moreover, climate change could aggravate those threats in unpredictable ways. Eutrophication is one of the most prevailing problems in freshwater systems, which often results in the development of harmful algal blooms, largely by cyanobacteria. Blooms of cyanobacteria are known as major producers of diverse harmful materials, including toxins and off-flavor substances, have been reported worldwide, and are regarded as potential hazards, particularly with respect to the maintenance and control of healthy freshwater systems. Therefore, it is important to efficiently detect, assess, and control ecological risks in order to ensure clean and healthy water.

This Special Issue seeks research papers on various aspects related to eutrophication and the ecological risk in relation to land use in the watershed, climate change, harmful algae, ecological health and risk, and management. Although the theme of this Special Issue is confined to freshwater systems, we encourage the submission of the same theme on estuary and marine ecosystems. We welcome original research papers using novel ideas and sound designs, as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Prof. Dr. Soon-Jin Hwang
Guest Editor

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • eutrophication
  • ecological health and risk
  • climate change
  • harmful algal blooms
  • cyanobacteria
  • potential hazards
  • freshwater ecosystem

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 268 KiB  
Editorial
Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk
by Soon-Jin Hwang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176332 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3890
Abstract
This Special Issue focuses on eutrophication and related ecological health risks—one of the biggest challenges to sustainable water management. It is increasingly recognized that eutrophication has multidimensional consequences for water quality, both ecosystem and human health, as well as economic activities. These consequences [...] Read more.
This Special Issue focuses on eutrophication and related ecological health risks—one of the biggest challenges to sustainable water management. It is increasingly recognized that eutrophication has multidimensional consequences for water quality, both ecosystem and human health, as well as economic activities. These consequences depend on site-specific conditions, specifically, the ecological stability of the system, land use types, climate change, and the presence of other contaminants, including infectious disease agents. This Special Issue contains ten research papers that focus on, among other factors, phosphorus, cyanobacteria, off-flavor substances, macroinvertebrates, chemical stress, and land-use effects, thereby increasing our understanding of the multidimensional effects of eutrophication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

12 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
Response of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyceae) to Salt Stress Considering Nutrient Enrichment and Intracellular Proline Accumulation
by Myung-Hwan Park, Chae-Hong Park, Yeon Bo Sim and Soon-Jin Hwang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103624 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
Aquatic organisms are exposed to a wide range of salinity, which could critically affect their survival and growth. However, their survival and growth response to salinity stress remain unclear. This study evaluates the growth response and intracellular proline accumulation of green algae, Scenedesmus [...] Read more.
Aquatic organisms are exposed to a wide range of salinity, which could critically affect their survival and growth. However, their survival and growth response to salinity stress remain unclear. This study evaluates the growth response and intracellular proline accumulation of green algae, Scenedesmus quadricauda, isolated from brackish water, against dissolved salts stress with N and P enrichment. We tested a hypothesis that nutrient enrichment can relieve the dissolved salts stress of algae by accumulating intracellular proline, thereby improving survival and growth. Four levels of salinity (0, 3, 6, 12 psu) were experimentally manipulated with four levels of nutrient stoichiometry (N:P ratio = 2, 5, 10, 20) at constant N (1 mgN/L) or P levels (0.05 and 0.5 mgP/L). In each set of experiments, growth rate and intracellular proline content were measured in triplicate. The highest level of salinity inhibited the growth rate of S. quadricauda, regardless of the nutrient levels. However, with nutrient enrichment, the alga showed tolerance to dissolved salts, reflecting intracellular proline synthesis. Proline accumulation was most prominent at the highest salinity level, and its maximum value appeared at the highest N:P ratio (i.e., highest N level) in all salinity treatments, regardless of P levels. Therefore, the effects of P and N on algal response to salt stress differ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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14 pages, 1430 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Social Value of Ecosystem Services for Resilient Riparian Greenway Planning and Management in an Urban Community
by Junga Lee, Byoung-Suk Kweon, Christopher D. Ellis and Sang-Woo Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093261 - 7 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2924
Abstract
Ecosystem services depend on the interrelation between people and the environment, and people are increasingly recognizing the social value of ecosystem services. Based on humans needs related to the values of ecosystem services, riparian greenways, properly planned and managed for resiliency, could provide [...] Read more.
Ecosystem services depend on the interrelation between people and the environment, and people are increasingly recognizing the social value of ecosystem services. Based on humans needs related to the values of ecosystem services, riparian greenways, properly planned and managed for resiliency, could provide great opportunities for social ecological change and transformation toward sustainability. We focus on the ecosystem service values of such greenways based on resilience in urban communities. The purpose of this study is to assess the social value of ecosystem services for resilient riparian greenway planning and management based on a survey of residents living near the Yangjaecheon riparian greenway in Gwacheon, South Korea. First, cluster analysis was performed with data from 485 completed surveys to identify different groups of respondents. Importance-performance analysis (IPA) was then applied to develop planning and management guidance for the riparian greenway based on group characteristics. Two distinct groups were identified: the Strong Social Value of Ecosystem Services group and the Neutral Social Value of Ecosystem Services group. Different distributions were found between the two groups based on gender and residency period, and significant differences were also found for age and familiarity with the riparian greenway. The results show what each group perceived to be important and how well the riparian greenway met their expectations regarding ecosystem services. These results indicate the perceived value of ecosystem services on the basis of the group characteristics, helping establish the direction for resilient riparian greenway planning and management approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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11 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
First Gut Content Analysis of 4th Instar Midge Larvae (Diptera: Chronomidae) In Large-Scale Weirs Using a DNA Meta-Barcoding Approach
by Hyunbin Jo, Bohyung Choi, Kiyun Park, Won-Seok Kim and Ihn-Sil Kwak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082856 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
Chironomidae larvae play an important role in the food chain of river ecosystems in Korea, where it is dominant. However, detailed information on the diet of Chironomidae larvae are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify the gut contents of [...] Read more.
Chironomidae larvae play an important role in the food chain of river ecosystems in Korea, where it is dominant. However, detailed information on the diet of Chironomidae larvae are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify the gut contents of 4th instar larvae of a Chironomidae inhabiting four large-scale weirs (Sejong Weir, Juksan Weir, Gangjeong-Goryeong Weir, and Dalseong Weir) using a DNA meta-barcoding approach. We found that dominant Operational Taxonomic Unit (OUT) was assigned to Paractinolaimus sp. (Nematoda), and the sub-dominant OTU was assigned to Dicrotendipes fumidus (Chironomidae). The most common OTUs among the individuals included phytoplankton, such as Tetrahymena sp., D. armatus, Pseudopediastrum sp., Tetradesmus dimorphus, Biddulphia tridens, and Desmodesmus spp. We calculated the selectivity index (E’) and provided scientific evidence that Chironomidae larvae have a significant preference (E’ > 0.5) for Desmodesmus armatus, E. minima, and T. dimorphus, while it does not show preference for other species found in its gut. Differences in physico-chemical factors, such as water quality, nutrients, Chl-a, and carbon concentrations, resulting from anthropogenic impacts (i.e., construction of large-scale weirs) as well as the particle size of prey organisms (small-sized single cell) and effects of chemicals (chemokinesis) could affect the feeding behavior of Chironomidae larvae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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15 pages, 3159 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Response Behavior of Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae) to Different Concentrations of Copper Sulfate Based on Line Body Shape Detection and a Recurrent Self-Organizing Map
by Chang Woo Ji, Young-Seuk Park, Yongde Cui, Hongzhu Wang, Ihn-Sil Kwak and Tae-Soo Chon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082627 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2677
Abstract
Point detection (e.g., the centroid of the body) of species has been conducted in numerous studies. However, line detection (i.e., the line body shape) of elongated species has rarely been investigated under stressful conditions. We analyzed the line movements of an Oligochaeta Lumbriculus [...] Read more.
Point detection (e.g., the centroid of the body) of species has been conducted in numerous studies. However, line detection (i.e., the line body shape) of elongated species has rarely been investigated under stressful conditions. We analyzed the line movements of an Oligochaeta Lumbriculus variegatus in response to treatments with a toxic chemical, copper sulfate, at low concentrations (0.01 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L). The automatic line-tracking system was devised to identify the movement of body segments (body length) and the movements of segments (i.e., the speed and angles between segments) were recorded before and after treatment. Total body length was shortened from 31.22 (±5.18) mm to 20.91 (±4.65) mm after the 0.1 mg/L treatment. The Shannon entropy index decreased from 0.44 (±0.1) to 0.28 (±0.08) after treatment. On the other hand, the body and movement segments did not significantly change after the 0.01 mg/L treatment. Sequential movements of test organisms were further analyzed with a recurrent self-organizing map (RSOM) to determine the pattern of time-series line movements. The RSOM made it feasible to classify sequential behaviors of indicator organisms and identify various continuous body movements under stressful conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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16 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
An Estimated Structural Equation Model to Assess the Effects of Land Use on Water Quality and Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Streams of the Nam-Han River System, South Korea
by Jong-Won Lee, Sang-Woo Lee, Kyung-Jin An, Soon-Jin Hwang and Nan-Young Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062116 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
The extent of anthropogenic land use in watersheds determines the amount of pollutants discharged to streams. This indirectly and directly affects stream water quality and biological health. Most studies have therefore focused on ways to reduce non-point pollution sources to streams from the [...] Read more.
The extent of anthropogenic land use in watersheds determines the amount of pollutants discharged to streams. This indirectly and directly affects stream water quality and biological health. Most studies have therefore focused on ways to reduce non-point pollution sources to streams from the surrounding land use in watersheds. However, the mechanistic pathways between land use and the deterioration of stream water quality and biological assemblages remain unclear. This study estimated a structural equation model (SEM) representing the impact of agricultural and urban land use on water quality and the benthic macroinvertebrate index (BMI) using IBM AMOS in the Nam-Han river systems, South Korea. The estimated SEM showed that the percent of urban and agricultural land in the watersheds significantly affected both the water quality and the BMI of the streams. Specifically, a higher percent of urban land use had directly increased the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total phosphorus (TP), and deteriorated the BMI of streams. Similarly, higher proportions of agricultural land use had also directly increased the BOD, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, and lowered the BMI of streams. In addition, it was observed that the percent of urban and agricultural land use had indirectly deteriorated the BMI through increased BOD. However, we were not able to observe any significant indirect effect of the percent of urban and agricultural land use through increased nutrients including TN and TP. These results indicate that increased urban and agricultural land use in the watersheds had directly and indirectly affected the physicochemical characteristics and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams. Our findings emphasize the need to develop more elaborate environmental management and restoration strategies to improve the water quality and biological status of streams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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13 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
Molecular Probes to Evaluate the Synthesis and Production Potential of an Odorous Compound (2-methylisoborneol) in Cyanobacteria
by Keonhee Kim, Youngdae Yoon, Hyukjin Cho and Soon-Jin Hwang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061933 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3116
Abstract
The volatile metabolite, 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) produced by cyanobacterial species, causes odor and taste problems in freshwater systems. However, simple identification of cyanobacteria that produce such off-flavors may be insufficient to establish the causal agent of off-flavor-related problems as the production-related genes are often [...] Read more.
The volatile metabolite, 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) produced by cyanobacterial species, causes odor and taste problems in freshwater systems. However, simple identification of cyanobacteria that produce such off-flavors may be insufficient to establish the causal agent of off-flavor-related problems as the production-related genes are often strain-specific. Here, we designed a set of primers for detecting and quantifying 2-MIB-synthesizing cyanobacteria based on mibC gene sequences (encoding 2-MIB synthesis-catalyzing monoterpene cyclase) from various Oscillatoriales and Synechococcales cyanobacterial strains deposited in GenBank. Cyanobacterial cells and environmental DNA and RNA were collected from both the water column and sediment of a eutrophic stream (the Gong-ji Stream, Chuncheon, South Korea), which has a high 2-MIB concentration. Primer sets mibC196 and mibC300 showed universality to mibC in the Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales strains; the mibC132 primer showed high specificity for Pseudanabaena and Planktothricoides mibC. Our mibC primers showed excellent amplification efficiency (100–102%) and high correlation among related variables (2-MIB concentration with water RNA r = 689, p < 0.01; sediment DNA r = 0.794, p < 0.01; and water DNA r = 0.644, p < 0.05; cyanobacteria cell density with water RNA and DNA r = 0.995, p < 0.01). These primers offer an efficient tool for identifying cyanobacterial strains possessing mibC genes (and thus 2-MIB-producing potential) and for evaluating mibC gene expression as an early warning of massive cyanobacterial occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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22 pages, 5892 KiB  
Article
Spatially Varying and Scale-Dependent Relationships of Land Use Types with Stream Water Quality
by Se-Rin Park and Sang-Woo Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051673 - 4 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
Understanding the complex relationships between land use and stream water quality is critical for water pollution control and watershed management. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between land use types and water quality indicators at multiple spatial scales, namely, the watershed and [...] Read more.
Understanding the complex relationships between land use and stream water quality is critical for water pollution control and watershed management. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between land use types and water quality indicators at multiple spatial scales, namely, the watershed and riparian scales, using the ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models. GWR extended traditional regression models, such as OLS to address the spatial variations among variables. Our results indicated that the water quality indicators were significantly affected by agricultural and forested areas at both scales. We found that extensive agricultural land use had negative effects on water quality indicators, whereas, forested areas had positive effects on these indicators. The results also indicated that the watershed scale is effective for management and regulation of watershed land use, as the predictive power of the models is much greater at the watershed scale. The maps of estimated local parameters and local R2 in GWR models showcased the spatially varying relationships and indicated that the effects of land use on water quality varied over space. The results of this study reinforced the importance of watershed management in the planning, restoration, and management of stream water quality. It is also suggested that planners and managers may need to adopt different strategies, considering watershed characteristics—such as topographic features and meteorological conditions—and the source of pollutants, in managing stream water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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16 pages, 1533 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Distribution of Organic Phosphorus Fractions in the Surface Sediments of the Inflow Rivers around Hongze Lake, China
by Jie Wan, Xuyin Yuan, Lei Han, Hongmeng Ye and Xiaofan Yang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020648 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3661
Abstract
In this study, the characteristics and distribution of the organic phosphorus (Po) fractions in the surface sediments of seven inflow rivers around Hongze Lake in China were analyzed with a soil Po fraction method, as used by Ivanoff. The relationships between the Po [...] Read more.
In this study, the characteristics and distribution of the organic phosphorus (Po) fractions in the surface sediments of seven inflow rivers around Hongze Lake in China were analyzed with a soil Po fraction method, as used by Ivanoff. The relationships between the Po fractions and physiochemical features of sediments were also discussed. The results showed that, the sediments of the rivers had been moderately pollution with certain ecological risk effects except the Waste Yellow River. The relative contribution order of the Po fractions in the sediments was residual Po > HCl-Po > fulvic acid-Po > humic acid-Po > labile organic phosphorus (LOP). Moderately labile organic phosphorus (MLOP) was the main part of the Po forms in the whole sediments. The risk of phosphorus released from river sediments was the highest in the western region, followed by the southwestern region, and finally the northwestern region. There were significant correlations between Po forms and total phosphorus (TP), inorganic phosphorus (Pi), and Po. Non labile organic phosphorus (NLOP) had the strongest correlation with TP. The distribution of Po forms in each region was different due to the impact of human activities, industrial and agricultural production and the land types; the heaver polluted sediments with higher Po fractions. It is suggested that most of the sediments of the inflow rivers in the regions have certain ecological risk effects and P of them have an important contributions on the eutrophication of Hongze Lake. Po forms can provide a reliable theoretical basis for dealing with the change of water quality and should be paid more attention in the lake eutrophication investigation. There was reciprocal transformation between different Po forms, especially non-bioavailable fraction can change into bio-available ones. The results can provide a basis for the earth cycle of phosphorus and a new perspective of eutrophication control of shallow lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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15 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
Effects of Microbial Activity and Environmental Parameters on the Degradation of Extracellular Environmental DNA from a Eutrophic Lake
by Nur Syahidah Zulkefli, Keon-Hee Kim and Soon-Jin Hwang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183339 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3985
Abstract
Extracellular DNA (exDNA) pool in aquatic environments is a valuable source for biomonitoring and bioassessment. However, degradation under particular environmental conditions can hamper exDNA detectability over time. In this study, we analyzed how different biotic and abiotic factors affect the degradation rate of [...] Read more.
Extracellular DNA (exDNA) pool in aquatic environments is a valuable source for biomonitoring and bioassessment. However, degradation under particular environmental conditions can hamper exDNA detectability over time. In this study, we analyzed how different biotic and abiotic factors affect the degradation rate of extracellular environmental DNA using 16S rDNA sequences extracted from the sediment of a eutrophic lake and Anabaena variabilis cultured in the laboratory. We exposed the extracted exDNA to different levels of temperature, light, pH, and bacterial activity, and quantitatively analyzed the concentration of exDNA during 4 days. The solution containing bacteria for microbial activity treatment was obtained from the lake sediment using four consecutive steps of filtration; two mesh filters (100 μm and 60 μm mesh) and two glass fiber filters (2.7 μm and 1.2 μm pore-sized). We found that temperature individually and in combination with bacterial abundance had significant positive effects on the degradation of exDNA. The highest degradation rate was observed in samples exposed to high microbial activity, where exDNA was completely degraded within 1 day at a rate of 3.27 day−1. Light intensity and pH had no significant effects on degradation rate of exDNA. Our results indicate that degradation of exDNA in freshwater ecosystems is driven by the combination of both biotic and abiotic factors and it may occur very fast under particular conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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13 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
Degradation Characteristics of Phosphorus in Phytoplankton-Derived Particulate Organic Matter and Its Effects on the Growth of Phosphorus-Deficient Microcystis aeruginosa in Lake Taihu
by Ming Kong, Jianying Chao, Wei Han, Chun Ye, Chun-Hua Li and Wei Tian
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122155 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
To illustrate the contribution of phytoplankton-derived particulate organic matter (PPOM) to endogenous phosphorus (P) cycling and its effects on cyanobacteria blooms, PPOM characteristics, the degradation mechanism, and the growth of P-deficient Microcystis aeruginosa were studied in Lake Taihu. Results showed that PPOM is [...] Read more.
To illustrate the contribution of phytoplankton-derived particulate organic matter (PPOM) to endogenous phosphorus (P) cycling and its effects on cyanobacteria blooms, PPOM characteristics, the degradation mechanism, and the growth of P-deficient Microcystis aeruginosa were studied in Lake Taihu. Results showed that PPOM is the most important P pool in the water column during cyanobacteria bloom, accounting for more than 80% of the total P (TP) in the water. During PPOM degradation, the particulate orthophosphate (Ortho-P) is the main species of P release from PPOM in the early degradation stage. The variations of polyphosphate (Poly-P) and phosphodiesters (Diester-P) contents were most significant, which were degraded completely within four days and eight days. Cell density and growth rate of M. aeruginosa using PPOM as P source were similar to those growing on Na2HPO4. The above results show that P in PPOM can be converted into available P by degradation, thus promoting the growth of M. aeruginosa. Therefore, the contribution of P release from PPOM degradation needs to be paid attention to in lake eutrophication control in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
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