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Article

Molecular Probes to Evaluate the Synthesis and Production Potential of an Odorous Compound (2-methylisoborneol) in Cyanobacteria

1
Human and Eco-Care Center, Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
3
Hangang River Regional Division, Department of Water Resources Management, K-Water, Gwacheon 13841, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061933
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 14 March 2020 / Published: 16 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and the Ecological Health Risk)
The volatile metabolite, 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) produced by cyanobacterial species, causes odor and taste problems in freshwater systems. However, simple identification of cyanobacteria that produce such off-flavors may be insufficient to establish the causal agent of off-flavor-related problems as the production-related genes are often strain-specific. Here, we designed a set of primers for detecting and quantifying 2-MIB-synthesizing cyanobacteria based on mibC gene sequences (encoding 2-MIB synthesis-catalyzing monoterpene cyclase) from various Oscillatoriales and Synechococcales cyanobacterial strains deposited in GenBank. Cyanobacterial cells and environmental DNA and RNA were collected from both the water column and sediment of a eutrophic stream (the Gong-ji Stream, Chuncheon, South Korea), which has a high 2-MIB concentration. Primer sets mibC196 and mibC300 showed universality to mibC in the Synechococcales and Oscillatoriales strains; the mibC132 primer showed high specificity for Pseudanabaena and Planktothricoides mibC. Our mibC primers showed excellent amplification efficiency (100–102%) and high correlation among related variables (2-MIB concentration with water RNA r = 689, p < 0.01; sediment DNA r = 0.794, p < 0.01; and water DNA r = 0.644, p < 0.05; cyanobacteria cell density with water RNA and DNA r = 0.995, p < 0.01). These primers offer an efficient tool for identifying cyanobacterial strains possessing mibC genes (and thus 2-MIB-producing potential) and for evaluating mibC gene expression as an early warning of massive cyanobacterial occurrence. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB); cyanobacteria; molecular probes; mibC; real-time PCR 2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB); cyanobacteria; molecular probes; mibC; real-time PCR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, K.; Yoon, Y.; Cho, H.; Hwang, S.-J. Molecular Probes to Evaluate the Synthesis and Production Potential of an Odorous Compound (2-methylisoborneol) in Cyanobacteria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1933. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061933

AMA Style

Kim K, Yoon Y, Cho H, Hwang S-J. Molecular Probes to Evaluate the Synthesis and Production Potential of an Odorous Compound (2-methylisoborneol) in Cyanobacteria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):1933. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061933

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Keonhee, Youngdae Yoon, Hyukjin Cho, and Soon-Jin Hwang. 2020. "Molecular Probes to Evaluate the Synthesis and Production Potential of an Odorous Compound (2-methylisoborneol) in Cyanobacteria" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 6: 1933. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061933

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