Special Issue "Maya Anthropological Archaeology"

A special issue of Heritage (ISSN 2571-9408). This special issue belongs to the section "Archaeological Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Asst. Prof. Dr. Chelsea R. Fisher
Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Studies Program and Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia, 24450, United States
Interests: anthropological archaeology; environmental anthropology; historical ecology; food and agriculture; Maya
Prof. Dr. Arlen F. Chase
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Anthropology, Pomona College, 420 N. Harvard Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711, USA
Interests: anthropological archaeology; environmental anthropology; historical ecology; food and agriculture; Maya

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the introduction to her book Maya Cultural Heritage: How Archaeologists and Indigenous Communities Engage the Past, Patricia McAnany (2016:6) urges archaeologists who work in the Maya region (i.e., southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, western El Salvador, and Honduras) “to leave the quiet jungle path”—that is, the mindset where many archaeologists assert exclusive mastery of the past—“and engage with an archaeological practice that is more uncertain but more inclusive”. This place of uncertainty and inclusivity to which McAnany and others steer us is the busy, often fraught, intersectional space of cultural heritage, where multiple and diverse sorts of people command simultaneous and often competing claims to the past.

As more archaeologists working in the Maya region enter this intersection, we are seeing, in real-time, an archaeology that willfully and thoughtfully engages with cultural heritage to better preserve the past, while yielding new forms of knowledge. Aside from making for better research, archaeological engagement with Maya cultural heritage has proven itself a capable vehicle for social and environmental advances. In addition, heritage programs implemented throughout the Maya region are showing how equitable partnerships with local communities and governments move archaeological research forward in modern nation-states. Yet, even with all of these positive reasons that Maya archaeologists should move into the spaces of cultural heritage, still, relatively few are actually making those moves—and understandably so; while conceptually the case for engaging with cultural heritage may be easy, the on-the-ground employment of such practices is unpredictable, chaotic, and often difficult.

The goal of this Special Issue aims to compile an open-access repository of “on-the-ground” narratives from Maya archaeologists who have positioned themselves, their projects, and their practices within larger discussions of cultural heritage. Increasing the visibility of these endeavors, while embracing a frank discussion of the positives and negatives they entail, offers a gestalt model of the ground-level efficacy and experience of heritage-oriented archaeology in the Maya region. Rather than focus on the products of their work, contributors are encouraged to emphasize the process—the logistics, the practicalities, and the nitty-gritty—that played out on the ground. How did these approaches spawn new research questions? How did they impact knowledge production? What challenges arose, and how were they managed? How were practices prevented from entering a neo-colonialist realm?

By contextualizing research alongside a frank and transparent discussion of the surprises, improvisations, and setbacks met along the way, contributors will co-create a widely accessible collective resource meant to catalyze further archaeological engagement with cultural heritage work within the Maya region, as well as providing examples and lessons that may prove to be useful globally. With this spirit, we invite contributions dealing with a range of topics, including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Building and sustaining mutually beneficial partnerships with local and Indigenous communities and governments at all levels
  • Local heritage tourism at archaeological sites
  • Globalized heritage tourism (i.e., UNESCO World Heritage sites) in the Maya region
  • Collaborative protection and conservation of archaeological resources
  • Navigating partnerships with non-profits and for-profits
  • Measuring the mutual benefits and, in some cases, contrapositives of community partnerships over time
  • Collaboratively designing heritage programs for social and environmental goals
  • Modes of cultural heritage programs (e.g., educational activities, workshops, radio shows, cooking demos, and community mapping)
  • Development of local cultural heritage centers (e.g., local museums) by local communities
  • Ensuring that foreign and non-local researchers are not neo-colonialists in their approaches to cultural heritage

McAnany, P. (2016). Maya Cultural Heritage: How Archaeologists and Indigenous Communities Engage the Past. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Chelsea R. Fisher
Prof. Dr. Arlen F. Chase
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Heritage is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Thirty-Two Years of Integrating Archaeology and Heritage Management in Belize: A Brief History of the Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance (BVAR) Project’s Engagement with the Public
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 699-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030040 - 05 Jul 2020
Abstract
Since its inception in 1988, the Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance (BVAR) Project has had two major foci, that of cultural heritage management and archaeological research. While research has concentrated on excavation and survey, the heritage management focus of the project has included the [...] Read more.
Since its inception in 1988, the Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance (BVAR) Project has had two major foci, that of cultural heritage management and archaeological research. While research has concentrated on excavation and survey, the heritage management focus of the project has included the preservation of ancient monuments, the integration of archaeology and tourism development, and cultural heritage education. In this paper, we provide a brief overview on the history of scientific investigations by the BVAR Project, highlighting the project’s dual heritage management and research goals. This background offers the basis in which to discuss the successes and challenges of the project’s efforts in cultural heritage management and public engagement, particularly in early conservation efforts, in its training and educational efforts, and its ongoing outreach activity. We emphasize the need to train Belizeans as professional archaeologists and conservators, to serve as the next generation of advocates for Belize’s heritage management. We offer some ideas on how research projects can make significant contributions to heritage education and preservation in the developing world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Contradictions of Engaged Archaeology at Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 682-698; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030039 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
Engaged archaeology, like other forms of research, is replete with contradictions. Over the last several years, members of the Punta Laguna Archaeology Project—a community-based endeavor in Yucatan, Mexico—have encountered and sought to address several paradoxical questions. Do attempts to mitigate certain forms of [...] Read more.
Engaged archaeology, like other forms of research, is replete with contradictions. Over the last several years, members of the Punta Laguna Archaeology Project—a community-based endeavor in Yucatan, Mexico—have encountered and sought to address several paradoxical questions. Do attempts to mitigate certain forms of inequality unintentionally sustain other forms of inequality? Can the production of capital alleviate rather than exacerbate unequal social relationships? And, can Western social theories be marshalled to advocate for and increase Maya and other Indigenous perspectives in archaeology? This article examines these contradictory questions and analyzes them as potential sources of dialectical change. To conclude, the article suggests three new foci for engaged archaeology: intersectionality, control, and authoritative speech. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Collaborative Archaeology, Relational Memory, and Stakeholder Action at Three Henequen Haciendas in Yucatan, Mexico
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 649-670; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030037 - 02 Jul 2020
Abstract
In the Mexican state of Yucatán, the Industrial Revolution is intimately linked to the cultivation and commercialization of henequen (Agave fourcroydes). The second half of the nineteenth and the first decade of the twentieth century are most often referred to as [...] Read more.
In the Mexican state of Yucatán, the Industrial Revolution is intimately linked to the cultivation and commercialization of henequen (Agave fourcroydes). The second half of the nineteenth and the first decade of the twentieth century are most often referred to as the region’s Gilded Age. Some local families accrued immense wealth, while many peasants were essentially enslaved. The city of Mérida saw the construction of magnificent mansions, and the new port of Progreso was connected through thousands of kilometers of railroads. At the same time, the rural landscape experienced the foundation of countless new and the expansion of existing haciendas. In this article, we provide a comparison of the relational memory of local communities regarding three of these historical settlements: San Pedro Cholul, San Antonio Nohuayún, and San Antonio Sihó. We present the circumstances leading to the historical archaeology project at San Pedro and recount our efforts at involving its descendant community. In the face of the recent destruction of San Pedro’s core buildings, we end with a discussion about the potential fates of Yucatan’s henequen haciendas and a series of suggestions on how to safeguard related material remains, while allowing stakeholders to benefit from historic preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Community Engagement around the Maya Archaeological Site of Ceibal, Guatemala
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 637-648; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030036 - 01 Jul 2020
Abstract
The Ceibal-Petexbatún Archaeological Project has built long-standing relationships in the area around Ceibal, Guatemala, particularly in the Q’eqchi’ Maya village of Las Pozas. Both Q’eqchi’ and ladino (non-indigenous) people in the region face serious, systemic problems, including a loss of access to land [...] Read more.
The Ceibal-Petexbatún Archaeological Project has built long-standing relationships in the area around Ceibal, Guatemala, particularly in the Q’eqchi’ Maya village of Las Pozas. Both Q’eqchi’ and ladino (non-indigenous) people in the region face serious, systemic problems, including a loss of access to land and an absence of economic opportunities. The ancient Maya sites in the area have been damaged by deforestation and looting. Project archaeologists seek to improve economic conditions in local communities while encouraging the preservation of cultural heritage. Here, we describe past microfinance and classroom outreach projects conducted in Las Pozas and discuss future initiatives that could make archaeological heritage more beneficial to multiple communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Addressing Problems beyond Heritage, Patrimony, and Representation:  Reflections on Twenty Years of Community Archaeology in the Southwestern Maya Lowlands
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 561-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030033 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Collaborative or community archaeology as a methodological approach has a long history and is becoming increasingly common in the Maya world. This article draws from the authors’ experiences on three distinct archaeological projects to discuss the benefits and obstacles we confronted while conducting [...] Read more.
Collaborative or community archaeology as a methodological approach has a long history and is becoming increasingly common in the Maya world. This article draws from the authors’ experiences on three distinct archaeological projects to discuss the benefits and obstacles we confronted while conducting collaborative research with contemporary Maya communities as well as lessons we learned that can increase the odds of a mutually beneficial partnership. After summarizing the history of the research projects and the expectations for and contributions of the scientific and community stakeholders, we propose several characteristics that were particularly helpful. These include the need for all parties to engage in sincere and sustained dialogue, to be flexible, and to take others in account when making any plans that affect them. Most importantly, we urge archaeologists to collaborate with community endeavors beyond those that are directly related to their research, offering a few examples of how archaeological skills, equipment, and social capital can be used to address a wide range of local concerns beyond patrimony and heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Maya of the Past, Present, and Future: Heritage, Anthropological Archaeology, and the Study of the Caste War of Yucatan
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 511-527; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020030 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between the past, present, and future of Maya heritage and archaeology. We trace some of the background of Maya archaeology and Maya heritage studies in order to understand the state of the field today. We examine and demonstrate [...] Read more.
This paper examines the relationship between the past, present, and future of Maya heritage and archaeology. We trace some of the background of Maya archaeology and Maya heritage studies in order to understand the state of the field today. We examine and demonstrate how an integrated and collaborative community heritage project, based in Tihosuco, Quintana Roo, Mexico, has developed and changed over time in reaction to perceptions about heritage and identity within the local community. We also describe the many sub-programs of the Tihosuco Heritage and Community Development Project, showcasing our methods and outcomes, with the aim of presenting this as a model to be used by other anthropologists interested in collaborative heritage practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Different Ways of Knowing and a Different Ways of Being: On a Path to Reawakening Legacy of the Maya Forest
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 493-510; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020029 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Archaeological projects are in a special position to create unique partnerships, with shared goals and intentions, to development Maya anthropological archaeology. This narrative presents an education outreach project in archaeology invigorated with local collaboration. When priorities of active archaeological projects formally include resident [...] Read more.
Archaeological projects are in a special position to create unique partnerships, with shared goals and intentions, to development Maya anthropological archaeology. This narrative presents an education outreach project in archaeology invigorated with local collaboration. When priorities of active archaeological projects formally include resident community participation, new horizons and accomplishments are achieved. Local and international interests in heritage and cultural traditions create the platform for interactive relationships and identification of common ground. Together, our experience recognizes four educational pillars that revolve around ancient Maya heritage and the fundamental Maya forest garden. Centered on the protected area of the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve for Maya Flora and Fauna, El Pilar and forest gardens are celebrated at the urban Cayo Welcome Center, practiced at the active outfield Chak Ha Col forest garden, and taught at the rural Känan K’aax School Garden. As our experience demonstrates, community partnerships require specific elements of acknowledgment including a valued tangible heritage, a formal information outlet, an education link, and an honored cultural tradition. Together, these provide fertile ground for cultivating collaborations in the Maya region and across the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Partaking in Culinary Heritage at Yaxunah, Yucatán during the 2017 Noma Mexico Pop-Up
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 474-492; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020028 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
In spring of 2017, celebrity chef René Redzepi opened a pop-up of his famed restaurant, Noma, on the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. During its run, Noma Mexico worked closely with the town of Yaxunah, a Yucatec-Mayan speaking community in the peninsula’s interior, [...] Read more.
In spring of 2017, celebrity chef René Redzepi opened a pop-up of his famed restaurant, Noma, on the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula. During its run, Noma Mexico worked closely with the town of Yaxunah, a Yucatec-Mayan speaking community in the peninsula’s interior, hiring women to make tortillas and acquiring local ingredients for the restaurant. For us—two archaeologists interested in past and present Maya food and agriculture who have worked in the Yaxunah community for years—this made the 2017 field season a compelling time to engage in culinary heritage. We share on-the-ground perspectives from our work with Yaxunah community members during a decisive spring for rural Yucatán’s globalizing food system. These perspectives offer a candid contribution to this special issue’s archive of community-based and heritage-engaged archaeological work in the Maya area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Archaeology and Heritage Management in the Maya Area: History and Practice at Caracol, Belize
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 436-456; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020026 - 11 Jun 2020
Abstract
Archaeology and heritage management in the Maya area have developed differently in the various modern-day countries that make up ancient Mesoamerica. In the country of Belize, heritage management has been conjoined with archaeology since at least the late 1970s. Long-term projects, such as [...] Read more.
Archaeology and heritage management in the Maya area have developed differently in the various modern-day countries that make up ancient Mesoamerica. In the country of Belize, heritage management has been conjoined with archaeology since at least the late 1970s. Long-term projects, such as the 1985-to-present archaeological investigations at the ancient ruins that comprise the immense city of Caracol, Belize, demonstrate the evolution of heritage management. This abandoned metropolis has also been the location of concerted stabilization and conservation efforts. Research and heritage management efforts at this urban center have been coordinated and intertwined since the project’s inception. This article contextualizes the long-standing relationships between archaeology and cultural heritage as it has been practiced at Caracol, Belize within the broader field of Maya Studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Making Space for Heritage: Collaboration, Sustainability, and Education in a Creole Community Archaeology Museum in Northern Belize
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 412-435; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020025 - 31 May 2020
Abstract
Working with local partners, we developed an archaeology museum in the Creole community of Crooked Tree in the Maya lowlands of northern Belize. This community museum presents the deep history of human–environment interaction in the lower Belize River Watershed, which includes a wealth [...] Read more.
Working with local partners, we developed an archaeology museum in the Creole community of Crooked Tree in the Maya lowlands of northern Belize. This community museum presents the deep history of human–environment interaction in the lower Belize River Watershed, which includes a wealth of ancient Maya sites and, as the birthplace of Creole culture, a rich repository of historical archaeology and oral history. The Creole are descendants of Europeans and enslaved Africans brought to Belize—a former British colony—for logging in the colonial period. Belizean history in schools focuses heavily on the ancient Maya, which is well documented archaeologically, but Creole history and culture remain largely undocumented and make up only a small component of the social studies curriculum. The development of a community archaeology museum in Crooked Tree aims to address this blind spot. We discuss how cultural sustainability, collaborative partnerships, and the role of education have shaped this heritage-oriented project. Working with local teachers, we produced exhibit content that augments the national social studies curriculum. Archaeology and museum education offer object-based learning geared for school-age children and provide a powerful means of promoting cultural vitality, and a more inclusive consideration of Belizean history and cultural heritage practices and perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Mul Meyaj Tía U Betá Jump’el Kaj: Working Together to Build a Community in Puuc Archaeology
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 342-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020021 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper explores specific challenges that archaeologists face when attempting to involve a broader community of local stakeholders in cultural heritage research. We combine our perspectives as a US-based archaeologist and a local community member in a discussion of practical approaches for promoting [...] Read more.
This paper explores specific challenges that archaeologists face when attempting to involve a broader community of local stakeholders in cultural heritage research. We combine our perspectives as a US-based archaeologist and a local community member in a discussion of practical approaches for promoting more equitable research collaborations in the Puuc region of the northern Maya lowlands. The format of the paper includes a blend of dialogue, narrative, and analysis. First, we evaluate the importance of engaging in social interactions outside of the fieldwork setting and examine the limitations to full-coverage community participation. Next, we discuss the structural barriers discouraging greater local interest in cultural heritage research. We assess the potential of linguistic education and digital conservation programs for encouraging broader-scale engagement with knowledge production. Finally, we highlight the importance of employment by archaeological research projects as the critical factor influencing local participation in heritage-related activities. Barring immediate structural changes to the socio-economy of the Yucatán, the most significant way to promote local involvement in cultural heritage projects is for archaeologists and community members to work together to try to secure funding for more sustainable employment opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Imagining a Maya Archaeology That Is Anthropological and Attuned to Indigenous Cultural Heritage
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 318-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020019 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Taking an aspirational approach, this article imagines what Maya Archaeology would be like if it were truly anthropological and attuned to Indigenous heritage issues. In order to imagine such a future, the past of archaeology and anthropology is critically examined, including the emphasis [...] Read more.
Taking an aspirational approach, this article imagines what Maya Archaeology would be like if it were truly anthropological and attuned to Indigenous heritage issues. In order to imagine such a future, the past of archaeology and anthropology is critically examined, including the emphasis on processual theory within archaeology and the Indigenous critique of socio-cultural anthropology. Archaeological field work comes under scrutiny, particularly the emphasis on the product of field research over the collaborative process of engaging local and descendant communities. Particular significance is given to the role of settler colonialism in maintaining unequal access to and authority over landscapes filled with remains of the past. Interrogation of the distinction between archaeology and heritage results in the recommendation that the two approaches to the past be recognized as distinct and in tension with each other. Past heritage programs imagined and implemented in the Maya region by the author and colleagues are examined reflexively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
Open AccessArticle
Reflecting on PASUC Heritage Initiatives through Time, Positionality, and Place
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 228-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020014 - 14 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper reports on heritage initiatives associated with a 12-year-long archaeology project in Yucatan, Mexico. Our work has involved both surprises and setbacks and in the spirit of adding to the repository of useful knowledge, we present these in a frank and transparent [...] Read more.
This paper reports on heritage initiatives associated with a 12-year-long archaeology project in Yucatan, Mexico. Our work has involved both surprises and setbacks and in the spirit of adding to the repository of useful knowledge, we present these in a frank and transparent manner. Our findings are significant for a number of reasons. First, we show that the possibilities available to a heritage project facilitated by archaeologists depend not just on the form and focus of other stakeholders, but on the gender, sexuality, and class position of the archaeologists. Second, we provide a ground-level view of what approaches work well and which do not in terms of identifying aspects of cultural heritage that are relevant to a broad swath of stakeholders. Finally, we discuss ways in which heritage projects can overcome constraints to expanding community collaboration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)

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Open AccessLetter
A Classic Maya Mystery of a Medicinal Plant and Maya Hieroglyphs
Heritage 2020, 3(2), 275-282; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3020016 - 22 Apr 2020
Abstract
The Maya employed the k’an |K’AN| glyph in Late Classic (~750 CE) hieroglyphs on murals and polychrome pottery as an adjective meaning precious, yellow. On cacao drinking vessels, the k’an glyph was suggested as a descriptor for a flavoring ingredient, allspice, Pimenta dioica [...] Read more.
The Maya employed the k’an |K’AN| glyph in Late Classic (~750 CE) hieroglyphs on murals and polychrome pottery as an adjective meaning precious, yellow. On cacao drinking vessels, the k’an glyph was suggested as a descriptor for a flavoring ingredient, allspice, Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae). However, our previous consensus ethnobotanical fieldwork with Q’eqchi’ Maya healers of Belize revealed another candidate among antidiabetic plants, Tynanthus guatemalensis Donn. Sm. (Bignoniaceae), which was the healers’ top selection for treatment of diabetes and an exceptionally active extract in an antidiabetic assay for inhibition of protein glycation. Traits of T. guatemalensis observed after cross sectioning the liana were: (1) a cross-shaped xylem organization similar to the k’an glyph; (2) an allspice-like aroma; and (3) yellow color. Based on taxonomy and ethnobotany, confirmation of the allspice-like aromatic compound eugenol, and antidiabetic activity, we determined the plant described by the k’an glyph to be T. guatemalensis (chib’ayal in Q’eqchi’), not P. dioica (allspice). In contemporary Q’eqchi’ tradition, the section of the chib’ayal vine with its cross is associated with the eighth day of their Tzolk’in calendar, which is called the “nawal” (energy) of “q’anil” (ripe, full yellow). This day is represented with a different glyph from the k’an glyph, but notably has a cross representing the four cardinal points. The identification of a potent medicinal plant used in the late classic as well as contemporary times may suggest the long-term preservation of traditional medicinal knowledge in Maya culture for pharmacologically significant plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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