Promotion of Health and Exercise

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Assessments".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 72621

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, Furman University, Greenville, SC, USA
Interests: human performance; muscular physiology; exercise science

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The year 2020 has taught us it that health is one of the most important aspects of our lives. Covid-19 demonstrated the need for a healthy population. As many governments around the world seek answers to current and future public health crises, we as health researchers know that prevention is key to avoiding illness, but also for overcoming it. We know the answers to many health questions that plague our society today, ranging from obesity and diabetes to cardio vascular disease, namely health and exercise; however the question for us is how do we promote it?

The aim of this Special Issue is to seek an understanding of the effective promotion of health and exercise. We are looking for reviews, original research, and scholarly opinion pieces that address the issues of how to promote health and exercise in a wide range of topics. These topics may include, but are not limited to, exercise intervention programs, health initiatives, nutritional research, and health trends analysis. In this Issue, we strongly suggest authors take a stance of not merely stating the results and conclusions of their work, but also solutions to the problems they are addressing. We want this to be a Special Issue that not only promotes health and exercise, but also lays out a framework of how to achieve it.

Eric Sobolewski, Ph.D., is serving as guest editor of the Issue. If you would like to consider submitting a manuscript or have questions concerning the submission of a manuscript, please contact the guest editors.

Dr. Eric Sobolewski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Healthcare is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health
  • wellness
  • prevention
  • promotion
  • exercise inverention
  • nutrioinal intervention

Published Papers (28 papers)

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17 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Practices and Challenges of Youth Volleyball Development in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia by Using the CIPP Model
by Zemenu Teshome, Bezabeh Wolde, Teketel Abrham and Tefera Tadesse
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040719 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
Youth athletes’ talent identification and development has become a serious concern around the globe. However, empirical evidence regarding youth sports policies and practices is limited. Emphasizing the talent development needs of youth volleyball players, in this study, the authors evaluated the practices and [...] Read more.
Youth athletes’ talent identification and development has become a serious concern around the globe. However, empirical evidence regarding youth sports policies and practices is limited. Emphasizing the talent development needs of youth volleyball players, in this study, the authors evaluated the practices and challenges of a youth volleyball development program in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This study addressed this concern by drawing upon Stufflebeam’s context, input, process, product (CIPP) model to explore a youth volleyball development program across the training sites located in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. With the help of this model, this study evaluated the prevailing contexts, allocated inputs, program implementation processes, and products. To this end, this study used multiple case studies involving ten youth project sites. The study participants included samples of participants (n = 179), consisting of youth volleyball players (n = 167), their coaches (n = 8), regional volleyball administrators, and regional educational office physical education coordinators (n = 4). The study participants identified some benefits from participating in the youth volleyball program, which included increased physical activity and health, enhanced positive interpersonal relationships, and knowledge of how to cope with challenges. However, they reported several challenges attributable to contextual constraints which included a lack of the necessary facilities and resources, lack of concern and convenient settings, poor implementation practices, and minimal outcomes. The findings suggest that the challenges of youth volleyball development in Ethiopia are complex and emanate from the context, input, process, and products. Accordingly, when addressing the issues of youth volleyball, it is necessary to develop systems, processes, methods, and tools that recognize all these concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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11 pages, 411 KiB  
Article
Effect of Exercise Combined with Natural Stimulation on Korean College Students’ Concentration and Positive Psychological Capital: A Pilot Study
by Kyudong Lee, Hwanseong Bae and Seyong Jang
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040673 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exercise, within the natural environment or by applying similar visual stimulation, on concentration and positive psychological capital among Korean college students. Participants were 175 male college students—selected by non-probabilistic sampling—from the Korean National Police [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exercise, within the natural environment or by applying similar visual stimulation, on concentration and positive psychological capital among Korean college students. Participants were 175 male college students—selected by non-probabilistic sampling—from the Korean National Police University in Asan-si, Republic of Korea, in March 2021. Participants were divided into three condition groups: the natural environmental exposure with outdoor exercise (n = 57), visual stimulation with indoor exercise (n = 58), and indoor exercise (control group; n = 60). The variables measured were concentration and positive psychological capital. Pre- and post-exercise data differences were analyzed using two-way (3 × 2) analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation analysis, and statistical significance was set at 0.05. The results revealed a significant main effect on concentration, with lower scores post-intervention indicating positive changes in all three groups. In addition, the scores for positive psychological capital sub-factors (self-efficacy, optimism, and hope), in the groups with the natural environmental exposure with outdoor exercise and visual stimulation with indoor exercise conditions, reflected higher positive change than the indoor exercise group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the Bonferroni post hoc test on this interaction effect revealed that the participant scores for the natural environmental exposure with outdoor exercise and visual stimulation with indoor exercise groups were positive after the exercise (p < 0.05). However, there was no interaction effect for the ego-resilience subscale (p > 0.05). Therefore, participating in short-term exercise while being exposed to a natural environment with healing characteristics or providing visual stimulation of a similar natural environment was found to positively impact the Korean college students’ concentration and positive psychological capital’s self-efficacy, optimism, and hope. Moreover, this particular intervention only affects subjective measures of well-being while not particularly influencing objective measures, such as cognitive functioning. We recommend implementing similar visual stimulation with indoor exercise for the current generation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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11 pages, 4892 KiB  
Article
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Secondary School Children Aged 14 to 18 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Lidija Marković, Jovana Trbojević Jocić, Maja Horvatin, Damir Pekas and Nebojša Trajković
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040660 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
The main aim of this study is to examine age and gender differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among Serbian secondary school children. The secondary aim is to explore the association between CRF and quality of life in Serbian adolescents. The sample consisted of [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study is to examine age and gender differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among Serbian secondary school children. The secondary aim is to explore the association between CRF and quality of life in Serbian adolescents. The sample consisted of 579 adolescents (285 males), aged from 14 to 18 years old. To evaluate their anthropometric measurements, body height and body weight were examined, the 20 m shuttle run test was used to access CRF, and the standardized global measure of wellbeing KIDSCREEN was used to access the wellbeing of adolescents. The results show that the boys possessed higher CRF compared to the girls, as well as higher scores on variable distance, but there were no significant differences according to age. CRF was positively associated with physical wellbeing, psychological wellbeing, total score HRQL, body height and body weight, and negatively correlated with BMI. Conversely, physical wellbeing showed positive correlation with the other subscales of KIDSCREEN (psychological wellbeing, autonomy and parents, peers and social support, and school environment), and total score of (Health–Related Quality of Life) HRQL. The results showed that better CRF would be beneficial for quality of life among Serbian adolescents, especially among girls. Moreover, the relationship between CRF and BMI shows that adolescents with regular values of BMI have better physical fitness and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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17 pages, 5296 KiB  
Article
A Performance Evaluation Matrix for Measuring the Life Satisfaction of Older Adults Using eHealth Wearables
by Mei-Yuan Jeng, Tsu-Ming Yeh and Fan-Yun Pai
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040605 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
eHealth wearables can track users’ state of health, record their physiological data, and facilitate self-care. In this study, we examined whether they enhance older adults’ casual exercise willingness and life satisfaction. After reviewing the related literature, the performance and satisfaction of elements for [...] Read more.
eHealth wearables can track users’ state of health, record their physiological data, and facilitate self-care. In this study, we examined whether they enhance older adults’ casual exercise willingness and life satisfaction. After reviewing the related literature, the performance and satisfaction of elements for older adults to use eHealth Wearables were determined. The elements were derived from the means–end chain analysis. Three dimensions, product attributes, beneficial consequences, personal values, and responding elements, were identified first. The Performance Evaluation Matrix (PEM) was then established to determine the elements to be improved. A total of 250 questionnaires were distributed, out of which 206 valid questionnaires were completed and returned. In the proposed PEM, the product attributes that were in the priority improvement zone were accessibility, learnability, usability, affordability, positioning, pedometer, heart rate monitor, and data feedback. These elements are the most essential properties in need of improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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10 pages, 669 KiB  
Article
Singing Experience Influences RSST Scores
by Naomi Yagi, Yoshitada Sakai, Naoko Kawamura, Hitoshi Maezawa, Yutaka Hata, Masayuki Hirata, Hideki Kashioka and Toshio Yanagida
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020377 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2115
Abstract
It has recently been shown that the aging population is refractory to the maintenance of swallowing function, which can seriously affect quality of life. Singing and vocal training contribute to mastication, swallowing and respiratory function. Previous studies have shown that singers have better [...] Read more.
It has recently been shown that the aging population is refractory to the maintenance of swallowing function, which can seriously affect quality of life. Singing and vocal training contribute to mastication, swallowing and respiratory function. Previous studies have shown that singers have better vocal cord health. No consensus has been reached as to how vocal training affects swallowing ability. Our study was designed to establish evidence that singers are statistically superior at inducing the swallowing reflex. To test our hypothesis, we undertook a clinical trial on 55 singers and 141 non-singers (mean age: 60.1 ± 11.7 years). This cross-sectional study with propensity score matching resulted in significant differences in a repetitive saliva swallowing test among singers: 7.1 ± 2.4, n = 53 vs. non-singers: 5.9 ± 1.9, n = 53, p < 0.05. We conclude that singing can serve an important role in stabilizing the impact of voluntary swallowing on speech. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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9 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
Association of Major Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases and Life Expectancy in China, 2019
by Liang Sun, Yabing Zhou, Mengge Zhang, Chuancang Li, Mengbing Qu, Qian Cai, Jingjing Meng, Haohao Fan, Yang Zhao and Dongsheng Hu
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020296 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
This study aimed to illustrate the association of four major chronic noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes) with life expectancy (LE) of Chinese residents in 2019 and to provide an evidence base for the scientific prevention and treatment of chronic [...] Read more.
This study aimed to illustrate the association of four major chronic noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes) with life expectancy (LE) of Chinese residents in 2019 and to provide an evidence base for the scientific prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in China. The abbreviated life and cause-eliminated life tables were compiled according to the Jiang Qing Lang method recommended by WHO (World Health Organization) to calculate LE and cause-eliminated life expectancy (CELE) in 2019. The disease that had the greatest association with the LE of Chinese residents was cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the LE increasing by 8.13 years after removing CVD deaths. This was followed by cancer (2.68 years), respiratory diseases (0.88 years), and diabetes (0.24 years). The four major chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were the main diseases affecting the health of Chinese residents. CVD should be prevented and treated as the key disease among the chronic diseases, while women and rural people should be the major focus of health knowledge promotion. All residents should be encouraged to develop a good understanding of self-protection and of how to achieve a healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the occurrence of death and to improve their quality of life and health in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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10 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
The Association of Health-Related Factors with Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Adults with COPD: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
by Mei-Lan Chen, Li-Sheng Chen, Yen Tzu Chen and Douglas S. Gardenhire
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020249 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the association of health attitudes, health appraisals and affective experience to leisure-time physical activity in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with a sample of 274 adults with COPD drawn from the second [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the association of health attitudes, health appraisals and affective experience to leisure-time physical activity in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with a sample of 274 adults with COPD drawn from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 2) Study. Chi-square analyses and independent t-tests were used to test the differences between physically active and inactive COPD patients (active group versus inactive group) for all study variables. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of each study variable with leisure-time physical activity. The results showed that there were significant differences between the active and inactive groups in terms of age, education, functional limitations, health attitudes, health appraisals and affective experience. After controlling for socio-demographic variables and functional limitations, beliefs about the importance of physical fitness and strength for a good life and comparative health appraisals were significantly related to physical activity. However, neither negative nor positive affect was associated with physical activity status. Modifiable factors, such as health attitudes toward physical fitness and strength, as well as health appraisals, should be considered for developing effective physical activity promotion interventions among COPD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
16 pages, 4015 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Women’s Fitness Demands and Their Influencing Factors in Urban China
by Yupeng Mao, Yongsheng Zhu, Fengxin Sun, Changjun Jia and Bing Liu
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020187 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
The “Healthy China 2030” plan states that it is necessary to formulate and implement physical health intervention plans for special groups, including women. Based on questionnaire data from women in seven Chinese cities, our research analyzed the status quo of women’s fitness, its [...] Read more.
The “Healthy China 2030” plan states that it is necessary to formulate and implement physical health intervention plans for special groups, including women. Based on questionnaire data from women in seven Chinese cities, our research analyzed the status quo of women’s fitness, its influencing factors, and the differences in and characteristics of different types of women’s fitness demands from four aspects: demography, fitness motivation, fitness behavior, and fitness demands, so as to provide a reference for the promotion of women’s fitness. A total of 3473 valid samples were completed. The questionnaire included five age groups: there were 146 in the “20–29 years old” group, 829 in the “30–39 years old” group, 1088 in the “40–49 years old” group, 1105 in the “50–59 years old” group and 305 in the “60 years old and above” group. The questionnaire used in this study was a self-made questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaire included age, occupation, educational level, family circumstances, and health status, women’s fitness behavior, fitness motivation and fitness demands. The results show that the current situation of urban women’s fitness in China is characterized by low frequency and short duration of exercise. The internal factors affecting women’s fitness demands include fitness motivation and fitness behavior. The external factors affecting their fitness demands are social environment and family environment. The differences in women’s fitness demands mainly come from women’s occupation, monthly income, and family stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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14 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
The Mediation Effect of Health Literacy on Social Support with Exchange and Depression in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older People in Taiwan
by Ya-Ling Shih, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ya-Ting Lin, Yi-Zhu Wang and Chieh-Yu Liu
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121757 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
The proportion of the world’s population that are over 60 years old is increasing rapidly. The physical and mental health of older people is affected by depression. Health literacy is a major determinant of health and healthcare for the aging; middle-aged and older [...] Read more.
The proportion of the world’s population that are over 60 years old is increasing rapidly. The physical and mental health of older people is affected by depression. Health literacy is a major determinant of health and healthcare for the aging; middle-aged and older people with high health literacy are more likely to maintain a healthy lifestyle, and control or manage their chronic diseases. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between health literacy, social support with exchange, and depression, in middle-aged and older adults in the community, using data from the 2015 Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) database. Of the 7636 participants, 1481 (19.4%) were middle-aged or older persons with depression symptoms. We found age, gender, and education level to be significantly related to health literacy status, social support with exchange, and depression. Health literacy was positively correlated with depression and social exchange in social support with exchange, whereas the emotional support component of social support with exchange was negatively correlated with depression. Regression-based process analysis was used to verify the mediation effect of health literacy. Our results indicated that when health literacy was entered into the regression model (a × b path), the effect of social exchange on depression was insignificant (c′ = −0.01, p = 0.84), indicating a complete mediation effect. These findings suggest that improving health literacy may offset the impact of social support with exchange on depression, and lead to the mitigation of depression in middle-aged and older people in Taiwanese communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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13 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Men’s Experiences and Engagement with the Rugby Fans in Training—New Zealand Pilot Trial: A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention for Men
by Elaine Anne Hargreaves, Samantha Marsh and Ralph Maddison
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121737 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Health promotion programs designed specifically to support men to improve their lifestyle behaviours are required to improve men’s health. This study explored factors that influenced men’s experiences of, and engagement with, the Rugby Fans in Training—New Zealand pilot trial, a professional sport-based healthy [...] Read more.
Health promotion programs designed specifically to support men to improve their lifestyle behaviours are required to improve men’s health. This study explored factors that influenced men’s experiences of, and engagement with, the Rugby Fans in Training—New Zealand pilot trial, a professional sport-based healthy lifestyle intervention for overweight men. Thirty-five men (mean age = 45, SD = 10 years) who completed the 12-week intervention participated in one of eight semi-structured focus groups. Using inductive thematic analysis, five themes represented the meanings in the data. First, a group of like-minded men all in the same boat recognised the importance of being in similar life situations and having similar reasons for joining the programme. Second, the men described the importance of the support and motivation provided by the team atmosphere created through the programme. Third, the motivational coach recognised the characteristics, skills and knowledge of the coach delivering the programme which created engagement with it. Fourth, the education sessions were valued for the knowledge gained and underpinning philosophies that guided them. Finally, the involvement of the rugby franchise influenced commitment to the programme and created initial interest. These results provide evidence for the key components that should be incorporated into the future development of and improvement to healthy lifestyle interventions for men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
16 pages, 412 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Prenatal Physical Activity Intervention Strategy for Women in Buffalo City Municipality, South Africa
by Uchenna Benedine Okafor and Daniel Ter Goon
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111445 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Women rarely participate in physical activity during pregnancy, despite scientific evidence emphasising its importance. This study sought to develop an intervention strategy to promote prenatal physical activity in Buffalo City Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A multi-stage approach was utilised. The Strength, [...] Read more.
Women rarely participate in physical activity during pregnancy, despite scientific evidence emphasising its importance. This study sought to develop an intervention strategy to promote prenatal physical activity in Buffalo City Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A multi-stage approach was utilised. The Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) approach was applied to the interfaced empirical findings on prenatal physical activity in the setting. Subsequently, the Build, Overcome, Explore and Minimise model was then used to develop strategies based on the SWOT findings. A checklist was administered to key stakeholders to validate the developed strategies. Key strategies to promote prenatal physical activity include the application of the Mom-Connect (a technological device already in use in South Africa to promote maternal health-related information for pregnant women) in collaboration with cellphone and network companies; the South African government to integrate prenatal physical activity and exercise training in the medical and health curricula to empower the healthcare providers with relevant knowledge and skills to support pregnant women in prenatal physical activity counselling; provision of increased workforce and the infrastructure necessary in antenatal sessions and antenatal physical exercise classes and counselling; the government, in partnership with various stakeholders, to provide periodical prenatal physical activity campaigns based in local, community town halls and clinics to address the lack of awareness, misrepresentations and concerns regarding the safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy. The effective implementation of this developed prenatal physical activity by policymakers and health professionals may help in the promotion of physical activity practices in the context of women in the setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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15 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Colorectal Polyps Based on Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscle Strength, Health Behavior, and Abdominal Obesity in Asymptomatic Elderly
by Shiyu Zhang, Junyong Zhang, Yonghwan Kim and Wangyang Zhang
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101400 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Colorectal polyps are precursor lesions of colorectal cancer and are known to be associated with obesity, low physical activity, and unhealthy behavior. This cross-sectional study analyzed the prevalence of colorectal polyps based on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength, and health behavior in older [...] Read more.
Colorectal polyps are precursor lesions of colorectal cancer and are known to be associated with obesity, low physical activity, and unhealthy behavior. This cross-sectional study analyzed the prevalence of colorectal polyps based on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength, and health behavior in older adults. Participants were asymptomatic and included 1024 men and 472 women aged 65–80 years who visited the health care center. Colonoscopy was performed under conscious sedation, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured as the maximum oxygen uptake using gas analysis. Muscle strength was determined using isokinetic equipment, and physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking status were investigated using questionnaires. Waist circumference was measured at the thickest part of the middle of the abdomen. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the prevalence of colorectal polyps using odds ratios (ORs) based on the variables. The incidence of colorectal polyps was 65.2% in men and 48.5% in women. The ORs of colorectal polyps for obesity were 1.151 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.010–2.291) and 1.178 (95% CI, 1.015–2.612) in men and women, respectively. The OR for colorectal polyps in male current smokers was 1.884. The ORs for low CRF were 1.985 and 1.841 in men and women, respectively, compared with high CRF. The prevalence of polyps increased with low muscle strength (men’s OR 1.343 women’s OR 1.440) and physical activity in both men (OR 1.693) and women (OR 1.861). In conclusion, lower CRF and muscle strength were associated with an increased prevalence of colorectal polyps in men and women. In both sexes, high waist circumference and low physical activity increased the prevalence of colorectal polyps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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11 pages, 385 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Health Literacy Scale Used in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Middle-Aged and Older People
by Ya-Ling Shih, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Pei-Shan Li and Chieh-Yu Liu
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101391 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
Health literacy, an important factor in public and personal health, is regarded as the core of patient-centered care. Older people with high health literacy are more likely to maintain a healthier lifestyle, with good control and management of chronic diseases, than those lacking [...] Read more.
Health literacy, an important factor in public and personal health, is regarded as the core of patient-centered care. Older people with high health literacy are more likely to maintain a healthier lifestyle, with good control and management of chronic diseases, than those lacking or with poor health literacy. Purpose: The present study investigated the validity and reliability of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) Health Literacy Scale. We also evaluated the health literacy of middle-aged and older Taiwanese adults, and its probable association with health outcomes and life satisfaction. Method: We analyzed the internal consistency reliability of the nine items of the 2015 TLSA Health Literacy Scale, and their relationship with the demographic variables. Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and the Life Satisfaction Index were used for criterion validity. Moreover, exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity and to test the known-group validity. Results: The TLSA health literacy scale has good internal consistency reliability. Criterion-related validity was supported by the fact that the health literacy score was significantly correlated with the IADL and Life Satisfaction Index. Factor analysis indicated a three-factor structure. Known-group validity was supported by the results, showing that middle-aged and older people with good self-reported health status had better health literacy. Conclusions: The TLSA health literacy scale is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring health literacy in middle-aged and older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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8 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Influence of Nordic Walking Training on Vitamin D Level in the Blood and Quality of Life among Women Aged 65–74
by Szymon Podsiadło, Agnieszka Skiba, Anna Kałuża, Bartłomiej Ptaszek, Joanna Stożek, Amadeusz Skiba and Anna Marchewka
Healthcare 2021, 9(9), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091146 - 2 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Introduction. Demographic forecasts indicate the progressive aging process of societies in all countries worldwide. The extension of life span may be accompanied by deterioration of its quality resulting from a decrease in physical activity, mental or even social performance, and a deficit in [...] Read more.
Introduction. Demographic forecasts indicate the progressive aging process of societies in all countries worldwide. The extension of life span may be accompanied by deterioration of its quality resulting from a decrease in physical activity, mental or even social performance, and a deficit in certain chemical compounds responsible for proper functioning of the body. Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a 12-week Nordic walking (NW) training intervention on the level of vitamin D in the blood and quality of life among women aged 65–74 years. Materials and methods. The study comprised 37 women aged 65–74 (x = 68.08, SD = 4.2). The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups: experimental group (NW), which consisted of 20 women who underwent an intervention in the form of Nordic walking training for 12 weeks, and the control group (C), including 17 women who underwent observation. In the experimental group, training sessions were held 3 times a week for 1 h. At that time, the C group was not subject to any intervention. The SF−36 questionnaire was used to measure quality of life. Vitamin D was assessed based on the results of biochemical blood tests. The analysed parameters were assessed twice-before and after the completed intervention or observation. Results. Comparison of the results regarding trials 1 and 2 allowed to note statistically significant improvement in quality of life for all health components and factors in the NW group. Analysis of vitamin D levels demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the NW group. In group C, no significant changes in the analysed parameters were observed. Conclusions. Regularly undertaking Nordic walking training significantly influences the improvement of self-evaluation regarding the components of physical and mental health, as well as the concentration of vitamin D in women aged 65–74 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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15 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Common Risk Factors in Relatives and Spouses of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Developing Prediabetes
by Wei-Hao Hsu, Chin-Wei Tseng, Yu-Ting Huang, Ching-Chao Liang, Mei-Yueh Lee and Szu-Chia Chen
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9081010 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
Prediabetes should be viewed as an increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated its prevalence among the relatives and spouses of patients with type 2 diabetes or risk factors for prediabetes, insulin resistance, and β-cell function. A total [...] Read more.
Prediabetes should be viewed as an increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated its prevalence among the relatives and spouses of patients with type 2 diabetes or risk factors for prediabetes, insulin resistance, and β-cell function. A total of 175 individuals were included and stratified into three groups: controls, and relatives and spouses of type 2 diabetic patients. We compared clinical characteristics consisting of a homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β), a quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and triglyceride glucose (TyG) index. After a multivariable linear regression analysis, the relative group was independently correlated with high fasting glucose, a high TyG index, and low β-cell function; the relatives and spouses were independently associated with a low QUICKI. The relatives and spouses equally had a higher prevalence of prediabetes. These study also indicated that the relatives had multiple factors predicting the development of diabetes mellitus, and that the spouses may share a number of common environmental factors associated with low insulin sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
8 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Association between Short Hours of Sleep and Overweight/Obesity in Mexican Adolescent Population: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study
by Ana Fresan, Alma Delia Genis-Mendoza, María Lilia López-Narváez, Tania Guadalupe Gómez-Peralta, Daniela Georgina Aguilar-Velázquez, Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop, Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate, Rosa Giannina Castillo-Avila and Humberto Nicolini
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9080939 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Background/Aim: Obesity in adolescents is increasing; as such, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity in Mexican adolescents and examine its possible association with hours of sleep. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out. This [...] Read more.
Background/Aim: Obesity in adolescents is increasing; as such, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity in Mexican adolescents and examine its possible association with hours of sleep. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out. This study included 863 adolescents aged between 11 and 16 years. The prevalence of obesity was estimated using the body mass index (BMI). The duration of sleep (and other information) was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. The Cochran–Mantel–Hansel test for categorical variables and a general linear model for continuous variables were used to evaluate the interaction effect of BMI and sex with respect to sleeping and assessed activity conditions. Results: It was found that 47.6% of the adolescents were overweight/obese. Men were more frequently overweight/obese than women (52.6% vs. 41.8%, p = 0.002). Moreover, overweight/obese adolescents were younger and spent fewer daily hours watching television (p < 0.05). Men practiced sports more hours per week than women (p = 0.04). However, women spent more daily time on the internet (p = 0.05), and overweight/obese adolescent women slept fewer hours than overweight/obese men and adolescents with normal weight (p = 0.008). Conclusions: The development of strategies for the prevention of overweight/obesity and the improvement of sleep duration should include a gender perspective to improve health habits in Mexican adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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8 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
Influences of Kinesio Taping with Therapeutic Exercise in Patients with Low Back Pain
by Kyoung-sim Jung, Jin-hwa Jung, Tae-sung In and Hwi-young Cho
Healthcare 2021, 9(8), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9080927 - 22 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3509
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of core stability exercise combined with Kinesio taping on pain, endurance, and balance in patients with lower back pain (LBP). 46 patients with LBP were recruited and randomly allocated into the core stability [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of core stability exercise combined with Kinesio taping on pain, endurance, and balance in patients with lower back pain (LBP). 46 patients with LBP were recruited and randomly allocated into the core stability exercise with taping (CSET) group and the core stability exercise (CSE) group. All participants performed core stability exercises for 40 min/day, 5 times/week for 8 weeks, and additional Kinesio taping was applied to the lower backs in the CSET group. The primary outcome measure was the pain intensity using the visual analog scale, and secondary outcome measures were trunk endurance and balance using the Biering-Sorensen test and force plate, respectively. After the intervention, the CSET group showed significant improvements in pain and postural balance compared to the CSE group (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in trunk endurance between two groups (p > 0.05). This study found that core stability exercise was effective in reducing pain and enhancing balance in patients with LBP, and demonstrated that the application of additional Kinesio taping further increased these effects. Therefore, we recommend that core exercise combined with Kinesio taping may be used to improve the pain and postural balance of patients with LBP in clinics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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15 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
Have We Taken Advantage of the Quarantine to Develop Healthy Habits? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Spanish COVID-19 Situation by Gender
by Miguel Corbí, Mario Del Líbano, Almudena Alonso-Centeno and Aida Gutiérrez-García
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070844 - 4 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
The confinement caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in people’s lifestyles, which in part provided an opportunity to develop habits at home. The aims were: (1) to verify if the psychological well-being (PWB) of people related to healthy habits, and if [...] Read more.
The confinement caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in people’s lifestyles, which in part provided an opportunity to develop habits at home. The aims were: (1) to verify if the psychological well-being (PWB) of people related to healthy habits, and if physical activity (PA) and diet mediated this relationship; (2) to test if there were differences in this model of relationships between women and men; (3) to analyze if there were differences in healthy habits, PA, diet, and PWB depending on gender; (4) to test if there were differences in healthy habits, PA, diet, and PWB depending on living area; (5) and to assess if there were interaction effects of gender and living area in healthy habits, PA, diet, and PWB. Using a cross-sectional design, we obtained a sample of 1509 participants (18–78 years, 1020 women). Diet and PA fully mediated the relationship between PWB and healthy habits, and women developed more healthy habits than men, whereas men had higher levels of PA and PWB. We also found that people who lived in rural areas during confinement practiced more PA and had lower PWB levels than those who lived in urban areas. These results can help in the planning of strategies to promote healthy habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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10 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Health Information Related to Cardiovascular Diseases Broadcast on Chinese Television Health Programs
by Lei Yang and Jeroen Jansz
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070802 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2323
Abstract
This study aims to add to the knowledge about information depicted in television health programs in China. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in the country. The threat it poses is particularly notable among the Hui ethnic minority people, who [...] Read more.
This study aims to add to the knowledge about information depicted in television health programs in China. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in the country. The threat it poses is particularly notable among the Hui ethnic minority people, who have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Little research has been conducted thus far on content concerning CVDs in Chinese television health programs, and this study aims to fill this lacuna. Qualitative content analysis was conducted to analyze The Doctor Is In and Health Body Light. The results revealed that these two programs presented information about what CVDs and CVRFs are, how the former are treated, and what strategies are used to communicate health information. A new topic also stood out: discussions on how traditional Chinese medicine prevents and cures these diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
14 pages, 442 KiB  
Article
Residents’ Physical Activities in Home Isolation and Its Relationship with Health Values and Well-Being: A Cross-Sectional Survey during the COVID-19 Social Quarantine
by Yifan Zuo, Mu Zhang, Jiayu Han, Kevin W. Chen and Zhanbing Ren
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070795 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between residents’ physical activity, health values, and well-being during isolation. On the basis of the physical activity rating scale, health values scale, subjective well-being scale, and the satisfaction with life scale, we [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between residents’ physical activity, health values, and well-being during isolation. On the basis of the physical activity rating scale, health values scale, subjective well-being scale, and the satisfaction with life scale, we collected 505 valid questionnaires online from 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China. A series of multiple linear regression models were established to study the relationship between variables, and the bootstrap confidence interval was selected to test the mediating effect. The results showed that during the period of isolation, physical activity directly (b = 0.463, p < 0.001) or indirectly (b = 0.358, p < 0.001) had a positive impact on residents’ well-being through the mediating effect of health values. There was a positive correlation between physical activity and health values (b = 0.710, p < 0.001), while health values had a direct positive association on well-being (b = 0.504, p < 0.001). In addition, a moderate amount of physical activity was found to be more associated with the well-being of residents during home isolation compared to small and large amounts of physical activity. This study shows the importance of residents’ physical activities in home isolation. Moderate exercise at home and regular physical activity are beneficial to our physical and mental health, especially in terms of improving overall well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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13 pages, 577 KiB  
Article
How Do Location-Based Augmented Reality Games Improve Physical and Mental Health? Evaluating the Meanings and Values of Pokémon Go Users’ Experiences through the Means-End Chain Theory
by Gordon Chih-Ming Ku, I-Wei Shang and Meng-Fan Li
Healthcare 2021, 9(7), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9070794 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3587
Abstract
New technology has dramatically changed online games and blurred the boundary between active and passive activities. This study aims to explore the meanings and values of augmented reality online games by examining users’ Pokémon Go experiences through the means-end chain theory. Using data [...] Read more.
New technology has dramatically changed online games and blurred the boundary between active and passive activities. This study aims to explore the meanings and values of augmented reality online games by examining users’ Pokémon Go experiences through the means-end chain theory. Using data from interviews with 34 Pokémon Go users, this study adopts the soft laddering method to identify Pokémon Go’s potential attributes, consequences, and values, and to construct a hierarchical value map. The results indicated that Pokémon Go users pursue social relationships through play, and these relationships are triggered by the benefits of making new friends, maintaining current relationships with friends and family, and the attributes of prevalence, childhood memory, game design, and augmented reality. Subsequently, this study describes how Pokémon Go can be considered an active leisure activity because of its social, mental, and physical benefits and assesses the implications of its findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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9 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Influence of Frailty Syndrome on Kinesiophobia According to the Gender of Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
by Martyna Kluszczyńska, Agnieszka Młynarska and Wioletta Mikulakova
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060730 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
(1) Background: Kinesiophobia is associated with fear of movement, general fitness exercises, and physical or mental discomfort. In patients with frailty syndrome, in addition to coexisting conditions, the postoperative recovery period may be longer than in patients without frailty; (2) Methods: The study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Kinesiophobia is associated with fear of movement, general fitness exercises, and physical or mental discomfort. In patients with frailty syndrome, in addition to coexisting conditions, the postoperative recovery period may be longer than in patients without frailty; (2) Methods: The study included 108 people over 60 years of age, qualified for CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting). The Tilburg Frailty Index was used to assess frailty syndrome and the kinesiophobia scale was to assess fear of physical activity; (3) Results: Frailty syndrome was diagnosed among 19.44% of respondents. The social components of frailty were more intense in the group of women p = 0.009. The mean results for the biological and psychological domain on the scale of kinesiophobia were 1.94 and 1.6. The level of kinesiophobia was higher among women than among men taking into account the psychological domain (p = 0.006) and the subdomains: motor skills self-assessment (p = 0.042) and body care (p = 0.011); (4) Conclusions: Frailty syndrome does not affect kinesiophobia among patients after CABG. The level of kinesiophobia was higher among women than among men, taking into account the psychological domain. The greater the energy resources, the lower the level of frailty and its physical components in the group of women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
10 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Structural Relationship between Physical Self-Concept, Occupational Instability, and Retirement Intention among South Korean Minor League Baseball Players
by Seungman Lee
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050595 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
This study aimed to verify the structural relationship between physical self-concept, occupational instability, and retirement intention among South Korean minor league baseball players. Snowball sampling was used to recruit 180 minor league players who belonged to the South Korean professional baseball team and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to verify the structural relationship between physical self-concept, occupational instability, and retirement intention among South Korean minor league baseball players. Snowball sampling was used to recruit 180 minor league players who belonged to the South Korean professional baseball team and were active as of December 2020; data were collected through an online survey. Frequency analysis, psychometric validation, descriptive statistical analysis, and path analysis were performed. The results revealed that for these participants, (1) physical self-concept had a significant negative effect on their occupational instability; (2) physical self-concept did not directly affect their retirement intention; and (3) occupational instability had a significant positive effect on their retirement intentions. These results suggest the need to devise a plan addressing the practical difficulties experienced by professional minor league baseball players and improve the physical self-concept of these players to adapt to involuntary retirement. Additionally, a supportive environment should be created to reduce mental health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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14 pages, 691 KiB  
Article
Indices of Cardiovascular Health, Body Composition and Aerobic Endurance in Young Women; Differential Effects of Two Endurance-Based Training Modalities
by Kemal Idrizovic, Gentiana Beqa Ahmeti, Damir Sekulic, Ante Zevrnja, Ljerka Ostojic, Sime Versic and Natasa Zenic
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040449 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
Endurance training (ET) has multiple beneficial effects on cardiovascular health (CVH), but there is an evident lack of knowledge on differential effects of various types of ET on indices of CVH in women. The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness [...] Read more.
Endurance training (ET) has multiple beneficial effects on cardiovascular health (CVH), but there is an evident lack of knowledge on differential effects of various types of ET on indices of CVH in women. The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of two different types of ET on changes in indicators of CVH in apparently healthy adult women. The sample included 58 women (24 ± 3 years; height: 165 ± 6 cm, mass: 66.7 ± 7.2 kg, BMI: 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2, at baseline) divided into one control non-exercising group (n = 19), and two exercising experimental groups (EE). The first EE participated in choreographed aerobic-endurance training (CAT; n = 19), while the second participated in treadmill-based endurance exercise (TEE; n = 20) during the experimental protocol (8 weeks, 24 training sessions). The testing included pre- and post-exercise protocols and measures of anthropometric/body composition indices, lipid panel, and endurance capacity. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements with consecutive post hoc analysis was applied to the “group” and “measurement” variables. The main significant ANOVA effects found for measurement, and “Group x Measurement” interaction (p < 0.05) were found for all variables but body height. The EE induced positive changes in lipid panel variables, anthropometric/body-build status, and endurance capacity. However, TEE improved endurance capacity to a greater extent than CAT. The results suggest that that the optimal exercise intensity and self-chosen type of physical-activity may result in positive effects on indices of CVH, even in women of young age and good health status. Full article
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8 pages, 224 KiB  
Article
Person-Centered Health Promotion: Learning from 10 Years of Practice within Long Term Conditions
by John Downey, Saul Bloxham, Ben Jane, Joseph D. Layden and Sam Vaughan
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040439 - 8 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
The utilization of person-centered care is highlighted as essential for health promotion, yet implementation has been inconsistent and multiple issues remain. There is a dearth of applied research exploring the facets of successful implementation. In this paper, a person-centered wellbeing program spanning various [...] Read more.
The utilization of person-centered care is highlighted as essential for health promotion, yet implementation has been inconsistent and multiple issues remain. There is a dearth of applied research exploring the facets of successful implementation. In this paper, a person-centered wellbeing program spanning various groups is discussed, outlining the central principles that have allowed for successful outcomes. Ten years of pragmatic pre–post service evaluation have shown consistent improvement in measures of functional capacity and wellbeing. The method for this paper is a reflective exploration of the theory and practices that can explain the continual improvement the clinics have achieved over 10 years. Core principles relate to connecting with people, connecting through groups, and connecting with self. The operationalization and theoretical explanation of these principles is outlined. The discussion of these principles posits essential factors to prioritize to advance the implementation of person-centered care in health promotion for long-term conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
12 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Effect of Integrated Neuromuscular Exercise in Physical Education Class on Health-Related Fitness in Female Children
by Marijana Sinđić, Draženka Mačak, Nikola Todorović, Bianka Purda and Maja Batez
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030312 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
Integrated neuromuscular training (INT) showed benefits for improving fundamental movement skills (FMS). However, the INT health-related fitness (HRF) effects are lacking. The current study aimed to determine the effects of INT implemented during physical education (PE) in a primary school in the Republic [...] Read more.
Integrated neuromuscular training (INT) showed benefits for improving fundamental movement skills (FMS). However, the INT health-related fitness (HRF) effects are lacking. The current study aimed to determine the effects of INT implemented during physical education (PE) in a primary school in the Republic of Serbia on HRF in female children. The sample consisted of 72 healthy girls who were divided into the intervention (EG: n = 37; mean ± SD: age = 8.17 ± 0.31) and control (CG: n = 35; age = 8.11 ± 0.31) groups. The EG and CG performed the INT program and traditional PE activities two times per week within the first ~15 min of PE class, respectively. The Fitnessgram battery tests assessed the HRF (body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and flexibility) before and after the program. After eight weeks, the EG significantly reduced all fat measures, while the CG decreased only triceps skinfold but to a smaller extent (F = 5.92, p < 0.02, ŋ2 = 0.09). Both groups significantly improved the performance of almost all muscular fitness tests (curl-ups, trunk lift, push-ups); however, the EG increased the push-ups more than the CG (F = 9.01, p < 0.01, ŋ2 = 0.14). The EG additionally improved the modified pull-ups (F = 14.09, p < 0.01, ŋ2 = 0.19) and flexed arm hang (F = 28.82, p < 0.01, ŋ2 = 0.33) tests. The flexibility and cardiorespiratory endurance of both groups did not significantly change after eight weeks. This approach of exercise showed positive acceptance and relatively good results after only eight weeks. Full article
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11 pages, 1493 KiB  
Article
Effects of Individualized Low-Intensity Exercise and Its Duration on Recovery Ability in Adults
by Doowon Lee, Ju-Yeon Son, Hyo-Myeong Ju, Ji-Hee Won, Seung-Bo Park and Woo-Hwi Yang
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030249 - 1 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4422
Abstract
Exercise is recommended to increase physical health and performance. However, it is unclear how low-intensity exercise (LIE) of different durations may affect or improve recovery ability. This study aimed to investigate how LIE-duration with the same volume affects recovery ability in adults. Twenty [...] Read more.
Exercise is recommended to increase physical health and performance. However, it is unclear how low-intensity exercise (LIE) of different durations may affect or improve recovery ability. This study aimed to investigate how LIE-duration with the same volume affects recovery ability in adults. Twenty healthy male adults participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to the 30-min (n = 10) or the 1-h LIE group (n = 10). The intervention included sixteen exercise sessions/four weeks with a 30-min LIE group, and eight exercise sessions/four weeks with a 1-h LIE group. Heart rate (HR) corresponding to <2 mmol∙L−1 blood lactate (La) was controlled for LIE. Pre- and post-testing was conducted before and after 4-week LIE and tests included jogging/running speed (S), HR, and differences (delta; ∆) in HR and S between pre- and post-testing at 1.5, 2.0, and 4.0 mmol∙L−1 La. Only the HR at 2.0 mmol∙L−1 La of the 30-min LIE group was decreased in the post-test compared to the pre-test (p = 0.043). The jogging/running speed of the 1-h LIE group was improved in the post-test compared to the pre-test (p < 0.001, p = 0.006, p = 0.002, respectively). ∆HR at 2.0 and ∆S between the 30-min and 1-h LIE group at 1.5, 2.0, and 4.0 mmol∙L−1 La were significantly different (p = 0.023, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.019, respectively). Furthermore, moderate to high positive correlations between ∆HR and ∆S of all subjects at 1.5 (r = 0.77), 2.0 (r = 0.77), and 4.0 (r = 0.64) mmol∙L−1 La were observed. The 1-h LIE group showed improved endurance not only in the low-intensity exercise domain, but also in the beginning of the moderate to high-intensity exercise domain while the 30-min LIE group was not affected by the 4-week LIE intervention. Therefore, LIE (<2.0 mmol∙L−1) for at least 1-h, twice a week, for 4 weeks is suggested to improve recovery ability in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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8 pages, 837 KiB  
Case Report
VLCKD in Combination with Physical Exercise Preserves Skeletal Muscle Mass in Sarcopenic Obesity after Severe COVID-19 Disease: A Case Report
by Elisabetta Camajani, Alessandra Feraco, Sabrina Basciani, Lucio Gnessi, Luigi Barrea, Andrea Armani and Massimiliano Caprio
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030573 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3306
Abstract
The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity is increasing worldwide, with a strong impact on public health and the national health care system. Sarcopenic obesity consists of fat depot expansion and associated systemic low-grade inflammation, exacerbating the decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Dietary [...] Read more.
The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity is increasing worldwide, with a strong impact on public health and the national health care system. Sarcopenic obesity consists of fat depot expansion and associated systemic low-grade inflammation, exacerbating the decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Dietary approach and physical exercise represent essential tools for reducing body weight and preserving muscle mass and function in subjects with sarcopenic obesity. This case report describes the effects of a dietary intervention, based on a Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) combined with physical exercise, on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and muscle strength in a woman with sarcopenic obesity, two weeks after hospitalization for bilateral interstitial pneumonia due to COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe the efficacy of a combined approach intervention including VLCKD along with physical exercise, in reducing fat mass, improving metabolic profile, and preserving skeletal muscle performance in a patient with obesity, soon after severe COVID-19 disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promotion of Health and Exercise)
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