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Open AccessReview

Exercise-Induced Myokines can Explain the Importance of Physical Activity in the Elderly: An Overview

Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, GangNeung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung 25440, Korea
Department of Pathology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri 11923, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 378;
Received: 9 September 2020 / Revised: 25 September 2020 / Accepted: 27 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Rehabilitation & Prevention in Sports Injuries)
Physical activity has been found to aid the maintenance of health in the elderly. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle contractions lead to the production and secretion of many small proteins and proteoglycan peptides called myokines. Thus, studies on myokines are necessary for ensuring the maintenance of skeletal muscle health in the elderly. This review summarizes 13 myokines regulated by physical activity that are affected by aging and aims to understand their potential roles in metabolic diseases. We categorized myokines into two groups based on regulation by aerobic and anaerobic exercise. With aging, the secretion of apelin, β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), decorin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), interleukin-15 (IL-15), irisin, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), sestrin, secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) decreased, while that of IL-6 and myostatin increased. Aerobic exercise upregulates apelin, BAIBA, IL-15, IL-6, irisin, SDF-1, sestrin, SPARC, and VEGF-A expression, while anaerobic exercise upregulates BMP-7, decorin, IGF-1, IL-15, IL-6, irisin, and VEGF-A expression. Myostatin is downregulated by both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. This review provides a rationale for developing exercise programs or interventions that maintain a balance between aerobic and anaerobic exercise in the elderly. View Full-Text
Keywords: myokine; elderly; exercise; physical activity; aerobic; anaerobic myokine; elderly; exercise; physical activity; aerobic; anaerobic
MDPI and ACS Style

Kwon, J.H.; Moon, K.M.; Min, K.-W. Exercise-Induced Myokines can Explain the Importance of Physical Activity in the Elderly: An Overview. Healthcare 2020, 8, 378.

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