Advances in Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Gels (ISSN 2310-2861). This special issue belongs to the section "Gel Chemistry and Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 15815

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
Interests: laser dermatological application; hydrogel dermatological application

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel is widely used in biomedicine due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and nontoxic properties.

The mechanical and rheological properties of hydrogels depend on different parameters selected during the production process, and these characteristics justify the use of different formulations in different anatomical areas and layers.

Since the aim of this Special Issue “Advances in Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications” is to evaluate the specific flow, deformation properties and interaction with a cell environment of HA hydrogels and their possible applications in the dermatological and aesthetical fields, we encourage scientists, chemists, or clinical investigators to contribute with papers reflecting the latest progress in their research fields. The topics include, without being limited to:

  • Injectable crosslinked hydrogels;
  • Injectable non-crosslinked hydrogels;
  • The mechanism and effect of physical/chemical crosslinked injectable hydrogels;
  • Immune-regulated injectable gels.

Dr. Nicola Zerbinati
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Gels is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • injectable crosslinked hydrogel
  • dermatological field
  • aesthetic field
  • mechanical properties
  • crosslinking agent
  • preclinical study
  • clinical study

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 6374 KiB  
Article
Microsponge-Based Gel Loaded with Immunosuppressant as a Simple and Valuable Strategy for Psoriasis Therapy: Determination of Pro-Inflammatory Response through Cytokine IL-2 mRNA Expression
by Yasir Mehmood, Hira Shahid, Umar Inzamam ul Huq, Hamza Rafeeq, Hafiz Muhammad Bilal Khalid, Mohammad N. Uddin and Mohsin Kazi
Gels 2023, 9(11), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9110871 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Tacrolimus (TL) is a topical calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressive drug widely used to manage various skin disorders. Herein, we report a TL-loaded microsphere gel formulation with severe atopic dermatitis effects that are required to manage skin disorders. The current study adopted a modified emulsion [...] Read more.
Tacrolimus (TL) is a topical calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressive drug widely used to manage various skin disorders. Herein, we report a TL-loaded microsphere gel formulation with severe atopic dermatitis effects that are required to manage skin disorders. The current study adopted a modified emulsion solvent evaporation technique to synthesize TL-loaded microspheres, which were further converted into gels for skin use. Characterization of the synthesized formulation was performed by differential dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and drug release. A Franz diffusion cell was used to study the diffusion of TL for up to 8 h at pH 6.8 and 5.5. Evaluation of cell viability was determined by MTT assay and showed higher IC50 values compared to the plain drug. RNA extraction, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), and reverse transcription were also performed to determine the expression levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-2. Particle size determination was performed by a zeta sizer, and the TL microsphere size was 1745 ± 70 nm with a good polydispersity (0.337 ± 0.12). The drug entrapment efficiency was also very good at 60% ± 10, and the drug release was 93.9% ± 3.5 within 8 h. An in vitro diffusion study of the formulation also showed improved permeability at both pH values (4.5 and 5.5). The findings of the hemolytic tests demonstrated that TL-MG at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL did not produce any hemolysis. A dose-dependent pattern of cytotoxicity was found during the cell viability assay, with an IC50 value of 787.55 ± 12.78 µg/mL. There was a significant decrease in the IL-2 level in the TL-MG group compared to the other groups. TL-MG microspheres were nontoxic carriers for tacrolimus delivery, with greater loading capacity, a significant release profile, and enhanced cellular uptake with improved permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications)
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9 pages, 2835 KiB  
Communication
Restoring Adipose Tissue Homeostasis in Response to Aging: Initial Clinical Experience with Profhilo Structura®
by Daniel Cassuto, Clara Cigni, Gilberto Bellia and Chiara Schiraldi
Gels 2023, 9(8), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9080614 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
The aim of the case series was to determine the efficacy of a new medical device developed for adipose tissue restoration in the face. The medical device used the patented NAHYCO® Hybrid Technology to deliver 45 mg of high- (1400 ± 200 [...] Read more.
The aim of the case series was to determine the efficacy of a new medical device developed for adipose tissue restoration in the face. The medical device used the patented NAHYCO® Hybrid Technology to deliver 45 mg of high- (1400 ± 200 kDa) and 45 mg of low- (100 ± 20 kDa) molecular-weight hyaluronan, in 2 mL. Patients and methods: Twenty-two volunteers, aged 36–60 years. Two mL of Profhilo® Structura was injected using a 25 G cannula for each hemiface, into superficial fat compartment along the line from the preauricular area to the mandibular angle. Two injections were performed, and Profhilo Structura’s effect on restoring adipose tissue was evaluated immediately after treatment, and over a 6-month follow-up. The studied medical device revealed a pseudoplastic behavior and consistency that allowed easy extrusion from a syringe. It showed a lower viscosity compared to dermal fillers, based on crosslinked HA. Clinically, the soft tissue thickness increased immediately after injection, and the clinical improvement persisted across a 6-month follow-up. The self-reported satisfaction with the treatment showed an amelioration in the midface of all the subjects enrolled, with no adverse effects. Profhilo® Structura demonstrated a peculiar fat compartment integration, with a regenerating effect on adipose tissue senescence. The skin thickening and compaction effects were similar to those obtained using chemically crosslinked dermal fillers, while a natural look was preserved, and the use of crosslinking agents was avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications)
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13 pages, 2141 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Safety of Neauvia Stimulate Injectable Product in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Based on Histopathological Examinations and Retrospective Analysis of Medical Records
by Paweł Kubik, Daniela Gallo, Maria Laura Tanda, Jerzy Jankau, Raffaele Rauso, Wojciech Gruszczyński, Aleksandra Pawłowska, Paweł Chrapczyński, Maciej Malinowski, Dariusz Grzanka, Marta Smolińska, Paulina Antosik, Maria-Luiza Piesiaków, Bartłomiej Łukasik, Agnieszka Pawłowska-Kubik, Giorgio Stabile, Stefania Guida, Łukasz Kodłubański, Tom Decates and Nicola Zerbinati
Gels 2023, 9(6), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9060440 - 26 May 2023
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the effect of hyaluronic acid cross-linked with polyethylene glycol containing micronized portions of calcium hydroxyapatite (Neauvia Stimulate) on both local tissue and systemic consequences, which are crucial from the perspective of long-term safety, in patients [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to test the effect of hyaluronic acid cross-linked with polyethylene glycol containing micronized portions of calcium hydroxyapatite (Neauvia Stimulate) on both local tissue and systemic consequences, which are crucial from the perspective of long-term safety, in patients suffering from Hashimoto’s disease. This most common autoimmune disease is a frequently mentioned contraindication to the use of fillers based on hyaluronic acid as well as biostimulants based on calcium hydroxyapatite. Broad-spectrum aspects of histopathology were analyzed to identify key features of inflammatory infiltration before the procedure and 5, 21, and 150 days after the procedure. A statistically significant effect on the reduction of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltration in the tissue in relation to the state before the procedure was demonstrated, combined with a reduction in the occurrence of both antigen-recognizing (CD4) and cytotoxic (CD8) T lymphocytes. With complete statistical certainty, it was demonstrated that the treatment with Neauvia Stimulate had no effect on the levels of these antibodies. All this corresponds with the risk analysis that showed no alarming symptoms during the time of observation. The choice of hyaluronic acid fillers cross-linked with polyethylene glycol should be considered justified and safe in the case of patients suffering from Hashimoto’s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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11 pages, 2912 KiB  
Review
The Application of Hyaluronic Acid Injections in Functional and Aesthetic Andrology: A Narrative Review
by Nicolò Schifano, Paolo Capogrosso, Gabriele Antonini, Sara Baldini, Fabrizio Scroppo, Andrea Salonia, Nicola Zerbinati and Federico Dehò
Gels 2023, 9(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9020118 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8103
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan widely utilised in different fields of medicine. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific evidence on the use of HA in andrology. A review of the literature to identify pertinent studies concerning the use [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan widely utilised in different fields of medicine. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific evidence on the use of HA in andrology. A review of the literature to identify pertinent studies concerning the use of HA in andrology was carried out on the Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases, with no time restriction up to December 2022. Penile girth enlargement (PGE) using HA proved to be safe and effective in enhancing the diameter of the penis, with durable and satisfactory outcomes in long-term follow-up. Injection of HA in the glans seems to represent an alternative treatment option for those patients with premature ejaculation (PE) who fail to respond to conventional medications. HA intra-plaque injections represent a valid option which may contribute to restore sexual activity in patients with Peyronie’s disease (PD). The adoption of HA filler injections should always be tailored to the patient’s peculiar anatomy and underlying condition. More robust evidence is required to achieve a uniformed consensus regarding the use of HA in andrology, and further efforts should continue to improve the current injection techniques and HA products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications)
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Other

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14 pages, 2869 KiB  
Protocol
A LC-QTOF Method for the Determination of PEGDE Residues in Dermal Fillers
by Giuseppe Alonci, Anna Boussard, Martina Savona, Fabiana Cordella, Gaetano Angelici, Roberto Mocchi, Sabrina Sommatis and Damiano Monticelli
Gels 2023, 9(5), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9050409 - 13 May 2023
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Abstract
Hyaluronic acid is one of the most important ingredients in dermal fillers, where it is often cross-linked to gain more favorable rheological properties and to improve the implant duration. Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) has been recently introduced as a crosslinker because of [...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid is one of the most important ingredients in dermal fillers, where it is often cross-linked to gain more favorable rheological properties and to improve the implant duration. Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) has been recently introduced as a crosslinker because of its very similar chemical reactivity with the most-used crosslinker BDDE, while giving special rheological properties. Monitoring the amount of the crosslinker residues in the final device is always necessary, but in the case of PEGDE, no methods are available in literature. Here, we present an HPLC-QTOF method, validated according to the guidelines of the International Council on Harmonization, which enables the efficient routine examination of the PEGDE content in HA hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications)
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