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Review

Effects of Polyphenols in Tea (Camellia sinensis sp.) on the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Human Trials and Animal Studies

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Nutrition & Dietetics, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Terengganu 21300, Malaysia
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Academic Editors: Emanuele Rinninella and Julio Plaza-Díaz
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 202-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020018
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 29 April 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
A diet high in polyphenols is associated with a diversified gut microbiome. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world, after water. The health benefits of tea might be attributed to the presence of polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids (e.g., catechins and epicatechins), theaflavins, and tannins. Although many studies have been conducted on tea, little is known of its effects on the trillions of gut microbiota. Hence, this review aimed to systematically study the effect of tea polyphenols on the stimulation or suppression of gut microbiota in humans and animals. It was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Articles were retrieved from PubMed and Scopus databases, and data were extracted from 6 human trials and 15 animal studies. Overall, large variations were observed in terms of microbiota composition between humans and animals. A more consistent pattern of diversified microbiota was observed in animal studies. Tea alleviated the gut microbiota imbalance caused by high-fat diet-induced obesity, diabetes, and ultraviolet-induced damage. The overall changes in microbiota composition measured by beta diversity analysis showed that tea had shifted the microbiota from the pattern seen in animals that received tea-free intervention. In humans, a prebiotic-like effect was observed toward the gut microbiota, but these results appeared in lower-quality studies. The beta diversity in human microbiota remains intact despite tea intervention; supplementation with different teas affects different types of bacterial taxa in the gut. These studies suggest that tea polyphenols may have a prebiotic effect in disease-induced animals and in a limited number of human interventions. Further intervention is needed to identify the mechanisms of action underlying the effects of tea on gut microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: Camellia sinensis; tea polyphenols; gut microbiota; gastrointestinal bacteria; systematic review Camellia sinensis; tea polyphenols; gut microbiota; gastrointestinal bacteria; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khairudin, M.A.S.; Mhd Jalil, A.M.; Hussin, N. Effects of Polyphenols in Tea (Camellia sinensis sp.) on the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Human Trials and Animal Studies. Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12, 202-216. https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020018

AMA Style

Khairudin MAS, Mhd Jalil AM, Hussin N. Effects of Polyphenols in Tea (Camellia sinensis sp.) on the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Human Trials and Animal Studies. Gastroenterology Insights. 2021; 12(2):202-216. https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khairudin, Mus A.S., Abbe M. Mhd Jalil, and Napisah Hussin. 2021. "Effects of Polyphenols in Tea (Camellia sinensis sp.) on the Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Human Trials and Animal Studies" Gastroenterology Insights 12, no. 2: 202-216. https://doi.org/10.3390/gastroent12020018

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