Special Issue "Delay-Tolerant Networking"

A special issue of Future Internet (ISSN 1999-5903). This special issue belongs to the section "Internet of Things".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sabrina Gaito
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I-20135 Milan, Italy
Interests: delay and opportunistic networks; edge computing; smart cities; human mobility; social media mining and network science
Prof. Dr. Vasco N. G. J. Soares
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco, 6000-084 Castelo Branco, Portugal; Instituto de Telecomunicações, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: smart cities; Internet of Things; delay/disruption-tolerant networks; vehicular networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Vasileios Karyotis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece
Interests: Internet-of-things; smart-cities; bundle (DTN2/ION) protocols; sensor networks; data fusion; scheduling; multiple-access protocols; cross-layer design; complex network analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Delay and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) is an active research topic that has attracted significant attention from researchers. A DTN is a network of challenged-networks that support long delays and data loss between and within challenged networks, with the potential for countless applications in various challenged scenarios and environments. These applications include interplanetary networking, military and tactical systems, disaster recovery networks, wildlife tracking/monitoring sensor networks, vehicular communication, communication in remote and rural areas and developing countries, and many more. In the advent of 5G networking combining many different radio access technologies and the proliferation of edge computing, DTN is expected to obtain considerable value, oftentimes serving as a convergence substrate above the network layer, allowing many different heterogeneous radio networks and applications to inter-operate. Furthermore, software-defined networks (SDNs) will enable flexible definitions of intelligence at the edge network, ranging from well optimized models to rather thin radio clients. DTN can again serve as a dynamic convergence substrate for all heterogeneous devices, computational models, and access networks, enabling interoperation in arbitrary scales of inter-device distances, that is, from the very short-range ones to the extremely long, even inter-planetary ones.

This Special Issue aims at bringing together researchers and practitioners to exchange their ideas, experiences, and latest research results on DTNs and their applications.

The topics of this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • DTN architectures, protocols, and algorithms
  • Security, privacy, and trust in DTNs
  • DTN data management and analytics
  • DTN prototypes, testbeds, and case studies
  • IoT applications over DTN
  • Social network analysis and DTN
  • Bundle protocols and applications
  • Data fusion, scheduling, and DTN
  • Store-carry-forward routing
  • Simulation and modelling of DTN
  • Cross-layer design and DTN

Prof. Sabrina Gaito
Prof. Vasco N. G. J. Soares
Dr. Vasileios Karyotis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Future Internet is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • delay-tolerant networks
  • disruption-tolerant networks (DTN)
  • network architecture
  • protocols
  • algorithms
  • security
  • data management
  • application scenarios
  • prototype
  • testbed
  • case study
  • data fusion
  • scheduling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
EmuCD: An Emulator for Content Dissemination Protocols in Vehicular Networks
Future Internet 2020, 12(12), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12120234 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
The development of protocols for mobile networks, especially for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs), presents great challenges in terms of testing in real conditions. Using a production network for testing communication protocols may not be feasible, and the use of small networks does not [...] Read more.
The development of protocols for mobile networks, especially for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs), presents great challenges in terms of testing in real conditions. Using a production network for testing communication protocols may not be feasible, and the use of small networks does not meet the requirements for mobility and scale found in real networks. The alternative is to use simulators and emulators, but vehicular network simulators do not meet all the requirements for effective testing. Aspects closely linked to the behaviour of the network nodes (mobility, radio communication capabilities, etc.) are particularly important in mobile networks, where a delay tolerance capability is desired. This paper proposes a distributed emulator, EmuCD, where each network node is built in a container that consumes a data trace that defines the node’s mobility and connectivity in a real network (but also allowing the use of data from simulated networks). The emulated nodes interact directly with the container’s operating system, updating the network conditions at each step of the emulation. In this way, our emulator allows the development and testing of protocols, without any relation to the emulator, whose code is directly portable to any hardware without requiring changes or customizations. Using the facilities of our emulator, we tested InterPlanetary File System (IPFS), Sprinkler and BitTorrent content dissemination protocols with real mobility and connectivity data from a real vehicular network. The tests with a real VANET and with the emulator have shown that, under similar conditions, EmuCD performs closely to the real VANET, only lacking in the finer details that are extremely hard to emulate, such as varying loads in the hardware. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delay-Tolerant Networking)
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Article
A Probabilistic VDTN Routing Scheme Based on Hybrid Swarm-Based Approach
Future Internet 2020, 12(11), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12110192 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
The probabilistic Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) routing has been adjusted for vehicular network (VANET) routing through numerous works exploiting the historic routing profile of nodes to forward bundles through better Store-Carry-and-Forward (SCF) relay nodes. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid swarm-inspired [...] Read more.
The probabilistic Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) routing has been adjusted for vehicular network (VANET) routing through numerous works exploiting the historic routing profile of nodes to forward bundles through better Store-Carry-and-Forward (SCF) relay nodes. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid swarm-inspired probabilistic Vehicular DTN (VDTN) router to optimize the next-SCF vehicle selection using the combination of two bio-metaheuristic techniques called the Firefly Algorithm (FA) and the Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO). The FA-based strategy exploits the stochastic intelligence of fireflies in moving toward better individuals, while the GSO-based strategy mimics the movement of glowworm towards better area for displacing and food foraging. Both FA and GSO are executed simultaneously on each node to track better SCF vehicles towards each bundle’s destination. A geography-based recovery method is performed in case no better SCF vehicles are found using the hybrid FA–GSO approach. The proposed FA–GSO VDTN scheme is compared to ProPHET and GeoSpray routers. The simulation results indicated optimized bundles flooding levels and higher profitability of combined delivery delay and delivery probability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delay-Tolerant Networking)
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Article
Data Exchange in Cluster Structure for Longevity of IoT
Future Internet 2020, 12(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi12020032 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
In the Internet of Things (IoT), the scope of wireless sensor nodes is extended to things deployed in a pervasive world. For various IoT service applications, things can gather and share their information with each other through self-decision-making. Therefore, we cannot apply the [...] Read more.
In the Internet of Things (IoT), the scope of wireless sensor nodes is extended to things deployed in a pervasive world. For various IoT service applications, things can gather and share their information with each other through self-decision-making. Therefore, we cannot apply the existing information aggregation methods of wireless sensor networks to the IoT environment, which aim to transmit the collected data to only a sink node or a central server. Moreover, since the existing methods involve all the sensor nodes in the process of data exchange, they can cause an increase in the network traffic, delay of data transmission, and amount of energy consumed by things. In this paper, we propose a clustering-property-based data exchange method for efficient energy consumption in IoT networks. First, the proposed method assigns properties to each thing according to the characteristics of the obtained data. Second, it constructs a cluster network considering the location of things and their energy consumption. Finally, the things in a cluster communicate with other things in a different cluster based on their properties. In the experiment, the proposed method exhibits a better performance than the existing method. Owing to the energy-saving effect, we demonstrate that the proposed method results in a more reliable network and improves the longevity of IoT networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delay-Tolerant Networking)
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Article
Mars to Earth Data Downloading: A Directory Synchronization Approach
Future Internet 2019, 11(8), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11080173 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
This paper aims to present a possible alternative to direct file transfer in “challenged networks”, by using DTNbox, a recent application for peer-to-peer directory synchronization between DTN nodes. This application uses the Bundle Protocol (BP) to tackle long delays and link intermittency typical [...] Read more.
This paper aims to present a possible alternative to direct file transfer in “challenged networks”, by using DTNbox, a recent application for peer-to-peer directory synchronization between DTN nodes. This application uses the Bundle Protocol (BP) to tackle long delays and link intermittency typical of challenged networks. The directory synchronization approach proposed in the paper consists of delegating the transmission of bulk data files to DTNbox, instead of modifying source applications to interface with the API of a specific BP implementation, or making use of custom scripts for file transfers. The validity of the proposed approach is investigated in the paper by considering a Mars to Earth interplanetary environment. Experiments are carried out by means of Virtual Machines running ION, the NASA-JPL implementation of DTN protocols. The results show that the directory synchronization approach is a valid alternative to direct transfer in interplanetary scenarios such as that considered in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delay-Tolerant Networking)
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