Special Issue "Frequency Stability and Control in Future Power Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Lucian Toma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Power Systems, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: frequency control and stability in power systems; voltage stability and control in power systems; application of power electronic in power systems (FACTS and HVDC); electricity markets; microgrids architecture and control; integration of electric vehicles; energy storage systems; smart homes and buildings; congestions management; state estimation; load forecasting
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The planned transition from fossil fuel-based power generation to renewables-based power generation is a burdensome challenge for the power system operators as regards the estimation and scheduling of the power balancing and frequency control resources in interconnected power systems. Currently, the frequency control and stability are ensured by predictable synchronous generators, inherited with mechanical inertia. While the turbogenerators, which are driven by large steam or gas turbines, are the best in providing frequency containment (fast frequency response), the hydraulic power plants are more appropriate for both automatic and manual frequency restoration.

With an increased share of generation from renewable energy sources, the natural inertia is reduced. Under these conditions, new solutions are sought for frequency control and stability. The new solutions may involve more advanced frequency measurement and calculation equipment, communication infrastructure, control techniques and strategies. Some topics covered in this Special Issue are:

  • Adapted strategies of the hierarchical frequency control
  • New solutions for TSO-DSO interaction for active power balancing and frequency control
  • The role of energy storage systems in the frequency control and stability
  • PMU-based frequency monitoring and control
  • Evaluation of the minimum mechanical and synthetic inertia required to support system stability
  • Integration of virtual power plants and microgrids in the frequency control schemes
  • Real-time monitoring of mechanical and synthetic inertia
  • Adapting the ancillary services and balancing markets to deal within the future power generation context
  • Control schemes of wind and photovoltaic systems

You are kindly invited to submit your relevant work in the field of “Frequency Stability and Control in Future Power Systems” to be published in this special edition of the Energies journal.

Prof. Dr. Lucian Toma
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • Frequency control
  • Frequency stability
  • Energy storage systems
  • Phasor measurement units
  • Mechanical inertia
  • Synthetic inertia

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Central Tunicate Swarm NFOPID-Based Load Frequency Control of the Egyptian Power System Considering New Uncontrolled Wind and Photovoltaic Farms
Energies 2021, 14(12), 3604; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14123604 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 389
This paper presents load frequency control of the 2021 Egyptian power system, which consists of multi-source electrical power generation, namely, a gas and steam combined cycle, and hydro, wind and photovoltaic power stations. The simulation model includes five generating units considering physical constraints [...] Read more.
This paper presents load frequency control of the 2021 Egyptian power system, which consists of multi-source electrical power generation, namely, a gas and steam combined cycle, and hydro, wind and photovoltaic power stations. The simulation model includes five generating units considering physical constraints such as generation rate constraints (GRC) and the speed governor dead band. It is assumed that a centralized controller is located at the national control center to regulate the frequency of the grid. Four controllers are applied in this research: PID, fractional-order PID (FOPID), non-linear PID (NPID) and non-linear fractional-order PID (NFOPID), to control the system frequency. The design of each controller is conducted based on the novel tunicate swarm algorithm at each operating condition. The novel method is compared to other widely used optimization techniques. The results show that the tunicate swarm NFOPID controller leads the Egyptian power system to a better performance than the other control schemes. This research also presents a comparison between four methods to self-tune the NFOPID controller at each operating condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frequency Stability and Control in Future Power Systems)
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