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Special Issue "Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Sandra Eriksson

Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: permanent magnet synchronous machines, generator design, FEM simulations, alternative permanent magnet materials, electrical systems, control strategies, wind turbines, wave power, electric propulsion systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interest in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) is continuously increasing in the world. With the growing global energy demand and awareness of climate aspects, electrification is increasing in several areas. Permanent magnet synchronous generators are in demand for wind power, as well as for novel renewable energy technologies such as wave power and tidal power. Another emerging market for permanent magnet machines is as electric motors, mainly for cars but also for heavier road transport, as well as electrification of ships and aircraft.

This Special Issue will focus on PMSMs and the electrical systems they are connected to. Papers are invited in all different areas of PMSMs, as machines are a multidisciplinary topic involving research areas such as electromagnetism, mechanical design, thermal management, and material issues, as well as economical and environmental aspects. Both theoretical and experimental work, and, especially, the combination of these, are welcomed. Recently, an interest in reducing the use of rare earth metals has been raised, and therefore papers exploring substitution and reduction of rare earth metals in PM machines are encouraged.

Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Permanent magnet synchronous machine design
  • Modelling of PM machines
  • Innovative designs of PM machines
  • Drive systems for PM motors
  • Electrical systems and control strategies for PM generators
  • Substitution or reduction of rare earth metals in PM machines
  • Demagnetization risk for PMs in synchronous machines
  • Thermal design and losses
  • Mechanical design
  • PM pilot exciters
  • PM assisted synchronous reluctance machines

Assoc. Prof. Sandra Eriksson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • permanent magnet synchronous generator
  • permanent magnet synchronous motor
  • electric propulsion systems
  • renewable energy
  • energy conversion

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Node Mapping Criterion for Highly Saturated Interior PMSMs Using Magnetic Reluctance Network
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092294
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM) are high torque density machines that usually work under heavy load conditions, becoming magnetically saturated. To obtain properly their performance, this paper presents a node mapping criterion that ensure accurate results when calculating the performance of a
[...] Read more.
Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (IPMSM) are high torque density machines that usually work under heavy load conditions, becoming magnetically saturated. To obtain properly their performance, this paper presents a node mapping criterion that ensure accurate results when calculating the performance of a highly saturated IPMSM via a novel magnetic reluctance network approach. For this purpose, a Magnetic Circuit Model (MCM) with variable discretization levels for the different geometrical domains is developed. The proposed MCM caters to V-shaped IPMSMs with variable magnet depth and angle between magnets. Its structure allows static and dynamic time stepping simulations to be performed by taking into account complex phenomena such as magnetic saturation, cross-coupling saturation effect and stator slotting effect. The results of the proposed model are compared to those obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM) for a number of IPMSMs obtaining excellent results. Finally, its accuracy is validated comparing the calculated performance with experimental results on a real prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quantitative Comparisons of Six-Phase Outer-Rotor Permanent-Magnet Brushless Machines for Electric Vehicles
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082141
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
PDF Full-text (4638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiphase machines have some distinct merits, including the high power density, high torque density, high efficiency and low torque ripple, etc. which can be beneficial for many industrial applications. This paper presents four different types of six-phase outer-rotor permanent-magnet (PM) brushless machines for
[...] Read more.
Multiphase machines have some distinct merits, including the high power density, high torque density, high efficiency and low torque ripple, etc. which can be beneficial for many industrial applications. This paper presents four different types of six-phase outer-rotor permanent-magnet (PM) brushless machines for electric vehicles (EVs), which include the inserted PM (IPM) type, surface PM (SPM) type, PM flux-switching (PMFS) type, and PM vernier (PMV) type. First, the design criteria and operation principle are compared and discussed. Then, their key characteristics are addressed and analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM). The results show that the PMV type is quite suitable for the direct-drive application for EVs with its high torque density and efficiency. Also, the IPM type is suitable for the indirect-drive application for EVs with its high power density and efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines)
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Open AccessArticle Stability Analysis of Deadbeat-Direct Torque and Flux Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives with Respect to Parameter Variations
Energies 2018, 11(8), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082027
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a stability analysis and dynamic characteristics investigation of deadbeat-direct torque and flux control (DB-DTFC) of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives with respect to machine parameter variations. Since a DB-DTFC algorithm is developed based on a machine model and
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a stability analysis and dynamic characteristics investigation of deadbeat-direct torque and flux control (DB-DTFC) of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives with respect to machine parameter variations. Since a DB-DTFC algorithm is developed based on a machine model and parameters, stability with respect to machine parameter variations should be evaluated. Among stability evaluation methods, an eigenvalue (EV) migration is used in this paper because both the stability and dynamic characteristics of a system can be investigated through EV migration. Since an IPMSM drive system is nonlinear, EV migration cannot be directly applied. Therefore, operating point models of DB-DTFC and CVC (current vector control) IPMSM drives are derived to obtain linearized models and to implement EV migration in this paper. Along with DB-DTFC, current vector control (CVC), one of the widely used control algorithms for motor drives, is applied and evaluated at the same operating conditions for performance comparison. For practical analysis, the US06 supplemental federal test procedure (SFTP), one of the dynamic automotive driving cycles, is transformed into torque and speed trajectories and the trajectories are used to investigate the EV migration of DB-DTFC and CVC IPMSM drives. In this paper, the stability and dynamic characteristics of DB-DTFC and CVC IPMSM drives are compared and evaluated through EV migrations with respect to machine parameter variations in simulation and experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: HRE-free Hot-deformed Magnets with High Magnetic Properties and Their Application for Traction Motor Mounted on Hybrid Vehicles
Author: Shingo Soma and Atushi Hattori
Abstract: The traction motors of hybrid and electric vehicles generally use Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets with heavy rare-earth (HRE) elements which are added to increase heat resistance. However heavy rare earth elements are scarce resources and produced from limited areas of the world. In order to decrease the heavy rare earth content in these Nd-Fe-B magnets, it is necessary to improve the coercivity in some other ways and it is well known that decreasing the grain size is an effective one. Therefore, our research was focused on the rapidly-quenched and hot-deformed magnets which have finer grains than the sintered magnets. The magnetic properties of the developed magnets were boosted by the reduction of the hot-deformation temperature, the optimized deformation speed and the proper design of chemical compositions. These approaches made it possible to develop an HRE-free magnet applicable to mass-production vehicles. In addition to the improvements in the magnets, by modifying the motor designs, Honda and Daido Steel have succeeded in making the traction motors completely free from using any heavy rare-earth elements.

Title: MULTIPHYSICS DESIGN, MANUFACTURE, AND PERFORMANCE VALIDATION OF AN INTERIOR PM SYNCHRONOUS TRACTION MOTOR FOR A FORMULA-ELECTRIC-STUDENT RACING CAR
Author: João Sarrico, João Fernandes and Paulo Branco
Abstract: The Formula Electric Student is a different and vigorously competition for engineering students with a common goal: design, manufacture, and racing with a single-seat electric car. The need for a specifically designed traction motor to consider the main characteristics of the racing circuits of the Formula Electric Student competitions also to the extremely demanding dynamic characteristics of a race car is an obligation. In this context, it is presented the design, construction, and experimental tests of a new PM synchronous motor with a flux concentration configuration, which is optimized to those competitions using genetic algorithms as: 1) Traction motor must be fixed in the wheels suspension system, thus restricting its volume and weight; 2) Regulation of the competitions limits the maximum traction power of the car to 80kW; 3) Cooling fluid must be water; and 4) Taking into account a racing track steady-state simulation carried out by our team, with the ideal car and driver, the motor must have a nominal power of 20kW, a maximum torque of 20 Nm, a maximum speed of 12.000 rpm, maximum voltage of 400V AC, a nominal current of 20A and peak current of 100A.

In the design phase and after taking into account the material and manufacturing methods selected, a multiobjective optimization based on genetic algorithm coupled to an electromechanical-thermal finite element model (Comsol Multiphysics) is developed. The objective is to identify the best parameters and design of the magnetic circuit regarding the torque generation while complying with the relevant constraints. Also, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in order to increase motor robustness and manufacturability. The main manufacturing methods used for the traction motor and test bench manufacturing included laser cutting, water-jet, CNC milling and lathe turning methods. Preliminary coil tests were done to validate the winding layout producing a Back-Electromotive Force capable of reaching 12 000 RPM and a maximum torque of 20 Nm without reaching the thermal limits. Subsequently, the final winding layout, performance and efficiency tests were performed. The design requirements values were reached, although a few limitations and issues have compromised some of the results as it will be discussed.

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