Special Issue "Investigation of Duplex Stainless Steel"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kornél Májlinger
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary
Interests: duplex stainless steel (DSS) welding; high-strength austenitic steel welding; role of nitrogen in DSS welding; role of nitrogen in austenitic steel welding, ultrahigh-strength steel (UHSS) welding; microstructure investigations
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) have outstanding corrosion properties, tensile strength, and high ductility in addition to being able to be produced at sufficient yield. The optimal component austenite-to-ferrite ratio (A/F ratio) for conferring these properties is approx. 50–50. After processing (forming, heat treatment, welding, etc.) this ratio can shift either way to the detriment of the beneficial properties. In addition, due to the high alloying content, several detrimental precipitation events can occur during thermal cycles, influencing the resulting mechanical and chemical properties. Therefore, it is crucial to control the A/F ratio and to restrain the formation of different precipitates. For microstructural characterization, papers dealing with the accurate quantification of A/F ratio and different conditions leading to precipitation are encouraged. In particular, microstructure investigations with novel methods or commercial equipment with new measurement protocols for the newly developed DSS grades are of great importance.

Papers are also invited in the field of additive manufacturing, especially wire and arc additive manufacturing, as numerous phase transformations can occur in DSS whose circumstances have not yet been extensively researched.

Manuscripts dealing with the determination of the processability (e.g., via machining, forming, welding, etc.) of newly developed DSS grades are also encouraged.

Submitted papers should establish a correlation between microstructure and mechanical and/or corrosion properties with an emphasis on possible industrial uses.

Dr. Kornel Majlinger
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • duplex stainless steel (DSS)
  • lean duplex steel (LDX)
  • super duplex steel (SDSS)
  • additive manufacturing
  • microstructure characterization
  • electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD)
  • magnetic measurements
  • corrosion measurements

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Phase-Specific Strain Hardening and Load Partitioning of Cold Rolled Duplex Stainless Steel X2CrNiN23-4
Crystals 2020, 10(11), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10110976 - 27 Oct 2020
Abstract
Multi-phase materials often times consist of constituents with high contrasts in phase-specific mechanical properties. Here, even after homogeneous plastic deformation phase-specific residual stresses develop that may affect the components behaviour in service. For numerical simulation of phase-specific residual stresses, knowledge of the particular [...] Read more.
Multi-phase materials often times consist of constituents with high contrasts in phase-specific mechanical properties. Here, even after homogeneous plastic deformation phase-specific residual stresses develop that may affect the components behaviour in service. For numerical simulation of phase-specific residual stresses, knowledge of the particular phase-specific strain hardening behaviour is essential. In this study, the strain hardening of ferrite and austenite in cold rolled duplex stainless steel of type X2CrNiN23-4 is investigated. By means of X-ray diffraction, the phase-specific load partitioning and residual stress evolution are analysed for uniaxial load application in three directions within the sheets plane, taking into account the sheet metals phase specific anisotropy. In order to assess the necessity for experimental determination of anisotropic phase specific behaviour, the strain hardening parameters, derived from only one loading direction, are implemented in a mean-field approach for prediction of phase-specific stresses. A simplified simulation approach is applied that only considers macroscopic plastic anisotropy and results are compared to experimental findings. For all investigated loading directions, it was observed that austenite is the high-strength phase. This load partitioning behaviour was confirmed by the evolution of phase-specific residual stresses as a result of uniaxial elasto-plastic loading. With the simplified and fast numerical approach, satisfying results for prediction of anisotropic phase-specific (residual) stresses are obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Duplex Stainless Steel)
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Open AccessCommunication
Characteristics of Flakes Stacked Cr2N with Many Domains in Super Duplex Stainless Steel
Crystals 2020, 10(11), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10110965 - 24 Oct 2020
Abstract
This study mainly observed the Cr2N (chromium nitride) nucleation and growth in SAF 2507 duplex stainless steel. However, the investigation revealed that Cr2N has a complex substructure separated into many regions. In SAF 2507 duplex stainless steel, Cr2 [...] Read more.
This study mainly observed the Cr2N (chromium nitride) nucleation and growth in SAF 2507 duplex stainless steel. However, the investigation revealed that Cr2N has a complex substructure separated into many regions. In SAF 2507 duplex stainless steel, Cr2N nucleated at the dislocations and the precipitates were composed of many Cr2N flakes gathered together when aged at 600 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Duplex Stainless Steel)
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Open AccessArticle
Large Delta T Thermal Cycling Induced Stress Accelerates Equilibrium and Transformation in Super DSS
Crystals 2020, 10(11), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10110962 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Based on the predicted phase diagram of super duplex stainless steel (DSS) calculated by Thermo-Calc, the maximum peak temperature 1100 °C was selected to ensure no σ phase existence. This target temperature fell into the two-phase solid solution (SS) region. A [...] Read more.
Based on the predicted phase diagram of super duplex stainless steel (DSS) calculated by Thermo-Calc, the maximum peak temperature 1100 °C was selected to ensure no σ phase existence. This target temperature fell into the two-phase solid solution (SS) region. A series of different thermal cycling tests were carried out with the notations of 2SS, 2SS + 3 cycles, 2SS + 7 cycles, 2SS + 13 cycles, and 2SS + 20 cycles. It was found that the trend of two-phase volume ratio variation by thermal cycling followed the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium trend. After 2SS + 7 cycles, the ratio of two-phase δ/γ tended toward the ideal 1:1. According to the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the δ phase crystal orientation changed from the most frequent directions of <001> and <111> of the as-received sample to the most frequent orientation of <113> after two SS treatments. While the γ phase grain always remained at <101> orientation. The grain boundary misorientation angles of the γ grains were relatively stable, ranging from 53° to 63°, but those of the δ grains were widely distributed actively presuming the lattice rotation. The Kernel Average Misorientation (KAM) value of the local strain in face center cubic (fcc) γ grains was varied and greater than that of the body center cubic (bcc) δ phase, indicating that the former, with a large grain boundary misorientation had larger local deformation than the latter, which possesses wide random misorientation angle distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Duplex Stainless Steel)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Thermally Induced Deterioration Processes in Cold Worked SAF 2507 Type Duplex Stainless Steel by DTA
Crystals 2020, 10(10), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10100937 - 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
Thermally induced deterioration processes were studied in cold worked (up to 60% deformation) SAF 2507 type super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) by differential thermal analysis (DTA). DTA results revealed two transformations. Parent and inherited phases of these transformations were examined by other methods too, [...] Read more.
Thermally induced deterioration processes were studied in cold worked (up to 60% deformation) SAF 2507 type super-duplex stainless steel (SDSS) by differential thermal analysis (DTA). DTA results revealed two transformations. Parent and inherited phases of these transformations were examined by other methods too, such as micro-hardness tests, optical metallography and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, these transformations were identified as the formation of α’- and σ-phases. Formation of strain-induced martensite (SIM) and recrystallization were not experienced until 1000 °C, despite high degree of cold working. Activation energies of the σ-phase precipitation and α’-phase formation were determined from the Kissinger plot, through DTA measurements—they are 275 and 220 kJ/mol, respectively—in good agreement with the values found in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Duplex Stainless Steel)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Evolution of dislocation tangled with nucleated Cr2N precipitates in super duplex stainless steel
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