Global Warming and Extreme Drought

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 6362

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Natural Resources Institute - IRN, Federal University of Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais 37500-903, Brazil
Interests: climate; climate modeling; synoptic meteorology
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Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas - IAG, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090, Brazil
Interests: climate; climate modeling; synoptic meteorology
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GCISC, Ministry of Climate Change, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
Interests: climate; climate change and health; climate change and media
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Weather and climate extreme events are becoming more frequent, intense, and lasting under the influence of climate change. Droughts are one of these extremes that cause a lot of injures for ecosystems, agriculture, energy, and human health. Droughts force people to migrate, which can lead to mental health problems. Thus, this Special Issue on “Global Warming and Extreme Drought” aims to present up-to-date knowledge on the physical drivers of droughts around the world, projection of droughts in scenarios of climate change, compound events, impacts on health, and other related themes. In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Michelle Simões Reboita
Prof. Dr. Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha
Dr. Shaukat Ali
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • droughts
  • climate change
  • compound events
  • case studies
  • climate indices
  • impacts on health

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

29 pages, 15892 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Precipitation and Hydrological Droughts in South America through Statistically Downscaled CMIP6 Projections
by Glauber Willian de Souza Ferreira, Michelle Simões Reboita, João Gabriel Martins Ribeiro and Christie André de Souza
Climate 2023, 11(8), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11080166 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
Drought events are critical environmental threats that yield several socioeconomic impacts. Such effects are even more relevant for South America (SA) since different activities essential for the continent, such as agriculture and energy generation, depend highly on water resources. Thus, this study aimed [...] Read more.
Drought events are critical environmental threats that yield several socioeconomic impacts. Such effects are even more relevant for South America (SA) since different activities essential for the continent, such as agriculture and energy generation, depend highly on water resources. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate future changes in precipitation and hydrological drought occurrence in SA through climate projections from eight global climate models (GCMs) of CMIP6. To this end, statistical downscaling was applied to the projections obtained using the quantile delta mapping technique, and the method proved to be efficient in reducing systematic biases and preserving GCMs’ trends. For the following decades, the results show considerable and statistically significant reductions in precipitation over most of SA, especially during the austral spring, with the most intense signal under the SSP5-8.5 forcing scenario. Furthermore, GCMs showed mixed signals about projections of the frequency and intensity of drought events. Still, they indicated agreement regarding the increased duration and severity of events over the continent and a substantial proportion of moderate and severe events over most of Brazil during the 21st century. These results can be helpful for better management of water resources by decision-makers and energy planners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Warming and Extreme Drought)
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16 pages, 4488 KiB  
Article
Hydrological and Precipitation Extremes and Trends over the Paraiba do Sul River Basin, Brazil
by Débora Martins de Oliveira, Vanessa Silveira Barreto Carvalho, Benedito Cláudio da Silva, Michelle Simões Reboita and Bruno de Campos
Climate 2023, 11(7), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11070138 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1610
Abstract
The Paraiba do Sul River Basin (PSRB) is a vital source of water resources in Brazil, providing water for human consumption, industry, agriculture, and hydroelectric energy generation. As part of one of the most developed areas of the country, in the Southeast of [...] Read more.
The Paraiba do Sul River Basin (PSRB) is a vital source of water resources in Brazil, providing water for human consumption, industry, agriculture, and hydroelectric energy generation. As part of one of the most developed areas of the country, in the Southeast of Brazil, the region is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, with evidence of extreme events such as droughts and floods affecting the availability and quality of water. Hence, this study analyzes precipitation and streamflow rates data from the PSRB between 1939–2020 to investigate the spatial variability of average patterns and extreme events, trends, and their relationship with urban growth and socioeconomic development. The analysis reveals significant spatial variations in precipitation and runoff rates, with higher altitude areas, such as the Serra da Mantiqueira, exhibiting higher average values. Moreover, the Mann–Kendall trend results showed in most of the sites no significant trend regarding precipitation data; however, about 50% of the sites in the PSRB presented a decreasing trend of runoff rates. Since the precipitation does not explain identified changes in the hydrological patterns, the evaluation of the area’s urban growth and socioeconomic development throughout the decades suggested that human activities, such as those associated with urbanization, have played a significant role in altering the runoff patterns in the basin. These findings highlight the importance of sustainable land-use planning and water resource-management practices in the PSRB to mitigate the negative impacts of urbanization on the hydrological cycle and to enhance the resilience of the region’s water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Warming and Extreme Drought)
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15 pages, 5008 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Association between Changing Crop Types and Water Scarcity: A Case Study over West-Central India
by Sneha Kulkarni, Vinay Kumar, Vinayak Bhanage and Shirishkumar Gedam
Climate 2023, 11(5), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli11050093 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1859
Abstract
In recent years, semi-arid regions of India, especially Marathwada, have been continuously under the grip of drought. Increasing water scarcity and depleting ground water levels have accentuated the agrarian crisis with an increased number of farmers committing suicide in this region. To understand [...] Read more.
In recent years, semi-arid regions of India, especially Marathwada, have been continuously under the grip of drought. Increasing water scarcity and depleting ground water levels have accentuated the agrarian crisis with an increased number of farmers committing suicide in this region. To understand this issue, the present paper deals with the roots of the drought severities concerning the summer monsoon rainfall and changing crop types over the districts of the Marathwada region, India, from 1996 to 2018. In this study, drought severities were quantified using station-based rainfall, groundwater level, and crop data (10 most cultivated crops) collected from various national agencies. The increasing rainfall trends over the Latur, Beed, and Aurangabad districts depict positive signs for agriculture. In contrast, other districts were under decreasing rainfall trends, but these declining rates were not statistically significant. The alarming fall of ground water level from 4 to 5 m during the considered period was noticed over most of the region, which is a cause for concern. The significant changes in agricultural practices from low-water-requirement crops such millet (bajra), sorghum (jowar), and wheat to high-water-requirement crops such as sugarcane and cotton were observed over Beed, Latur, Osmanabad, and Parbhani. An increase in the yield of cash crops demands an augmented water supply, which is becoming responsible for the rapidly declining ground water level. Therefore, this study claims that more than rainfall vagaries, the severe impact of droughts is a reflection of changing agricultural practices and poor management of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Warming and Extreme Drought)
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