In-Depth Study of Carbon Nitrides: Synthesis, Composites and Catalysis

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Catalytic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2023) | Viewed by 3796

Special Issue Editors


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School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Bio-fibers and Eco-textiles, Collaborative Innovation Center of Shandong Marine Bio-based Fibers and Ecological textiles, Qingdao University, 308 NingXia Road, Qingdao 266071, China
Interests: photocatalysis; heterogeneous catalysis; environmental catalytic materials; organic transformation driven by photocatalysis

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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, China
Interests: photocatalysis; photoelectrocatalysis; heterogeneous catalysis; semiconductor photocatalytic materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Key Laboratory of Health Risk Factors for Seafood of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Innovation & Application, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China
Interests: nanotechnology for environmental remediation; semiconductor-mediated photocatalysis; CO2 photoreduction; H2 production
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the pioneering work contributed by Domen and X. C. Wang, graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has attracted intensive attention from global researchers of energy as well environmental fields due to its suitable visible light absorption, chemical stability, non-toxicity, straightforward synthesis, and versatility. Therefore, single or combined technologies such as photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photo-electro-catalysis and thermal catalysis based on g-C3N4 have obtained unprecedented innovation and application in many sub-fields: For example, in the field of energy, hydrogen evolution from pure water/seawater, CO2 reduction to multi-carbon products, nitrogen fixation, hydrogen peroxide production and organic synthesis of fine chemicals. In the field of environment, the degradation and utilization of various harmful gases, water bodies, garbage solid wastes and micro-plastics, the inactivation of viruses and bacteria, and the recovery of toxic metal cations in water. In the biological field, tumor cell therapy based on g-C3N4, bacterial killing and biological fluorescence probe molecular application, etc. Simultaneously, a series of modification strategies have been designed to solve the problems of serious recombination of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. The nanoarchitecture design, molecular architecture modulation and heterostructural engineering proved to be effective strategies to suppress carriers’ recombination and boost the separation and transfer of photoinduced charges.

This Special Issue is devoted to the modification strategies of g-C3N4, g-C3N4 photocatalytic mechanisms and reactions, and applications in energy, environmental and biological processes. Pilot and full-scale applications are also welcome. Reviews and original research papers are invited from fundamental to industrial application on g-C3N4 material. The potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Reviews related to g-C3N.
  • Modification strategies of g-C3N4 (including but not limited to elemental doping, copolymerization, heterostructure, nano architect, etc.).
  • Heterogeneous g-C3N4 photo-catalysis, electro-catalysis, photo-electro-catalysis, thermal catalysis.
  • g-C3N4 photocatalytic mechanisms and reactions.
  • g-C3N4 environmental catalysis.
  • g-C3N4 energy catalysis.
  • g-C3N4 fine chemicals synthesizing.
  • g-C3N4 biological application.
  • Device based on g-C3N4.
  • Pilot and full-scale catalytic applications related to g-C3N.

Dr. Xiaolong Yang
Prof. Dr. Xibao Li
Dr. Shijie Li
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • g-C3N4 (graphite-like carbon nitride)
  • modification strategies
  • catalytic mechanisms and reactions
  • environmental catalysis
  • energy catalysis
  • organic synthesis
  • biological application
  • g-C3N4 Device
  • industrial applications related with g-C3N4

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2966 KiB  
Article
Catalytic Hydrogenation Property of Methyl Benzoate to Benzyl Aldehyde over Manganese-Based Catalysts with Appropriate Oxygen Vacancies
by Pengxiang Gao, Xiaoran Liu, Xindong Mu and Yan Zhang
Catalysts 2024, 14(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal14010027 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1470
Abstract
The synthesis of benzaldehyde, a compound widely utilized in food, medicine, and cosmetics, was achieved through a one-step catalytic hydrogenation using the cost-effective raw material, methyl benzoate. This process aligns with the principles of atom economy and green production. Despite the development of [...] Read more.
The synthesis of benzaldehyde, a compound widely utilized in food, medicine, and cosmetics, was achieved through a one-step catalytic hydrogenation using the cost-effective raw material, methyl benzoate. This process aligns with the principles of atom economy and green production. Despite the development of numerous high-performance catalysts by scholars, the challenge remains in achieving lower reaction temperatures, ideally below 400 °C. In this study, a series of MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were meticulously prepared using the precipitation-impregnation method. These catalysts featured supports calcined at various temperatures and distinct manganese active components. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physical adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) were employed to analyze the structure and surface properties of the catalysts. Notably, the optimized reaction temperature was found to be 360 °C. The catalyst exhibited the most favorable performance when the calcination temperature of the support was 500 °C and the Mn/Al molar ratio reached 0.18. Under these conditions, the catalyst demonstrated the most suitable oxygen vacancy concentration, yielding impressive results: a conversion rate of 87.90% and a benzaldehyde selectivity of 86.1%. These achievements were attained at 360 °C, atmospheric pressure, a hydrogen to methyl benzoate molar ratio of 40:1, and a Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) of 800 h−1. This research underscores the potential for optimizing catalysts to enhance the efficiency and sustainability of benzaldehyde synthesis. Full article
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19 pages, 6460 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ruthenium Modification of g-C3N4 in the Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Reduction of Cr(VI)
by Truong Nguyen Xuan, Dien Nguyen Thi, Tue Nguyen Ngoc, Khanh Dang Quoc, Miklós Németh, Shoaib Mukhtar and Ottó Horváth
Catalysts 2023, 13(6), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal13060964 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a promising heterogeneous photocatalyst in the visible range. It can be used, among others, for reductive conversion of the toxic hexavalent chromium occurring in various wastewaters. Its photocatalytic efficiency, however, has to be improved, [...] Read more.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a promising heterogeneous photocatalyst in the visible range. It can be used, among others, for reductive conversion of the toxic hexavalent chromium occurring in various wastewaters. Its photocatalytic efficiency, however, has to be improved, which can be realized by modification with different dopants or co-catalysts forming heterojunctions. In our work, ruthenium-modified g-C3N4 has been prepared by ultrasonic impregnation of the pristine g-C3N4, which was synthesized from thiourea. The morphology, microstructure, and optical properties of the photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TEM, XPS, and DRS. Their compositions were analyzed by EDS and XPS measurements, indicating 0.5% and 1.4% Ru, due to the different penetrating depths. XPS study showed mainly +2 for the oxidation state of Ru. DRS analysis indicated a slight change in both the CB (from −1.14 to −1.22 eV) and the VB (from 1.49 to 1.56 eV) energies of Ru/g-C3N4, compared to those of g-C3N4. The photocatalytic Cr(VI) reduction efficacy increased from 50.1 to 96.8%. Low pH (=2) was preferred for the photocatalytic Cr(VI) reduction due to the favorable surface charge and E(Cr(VI)/Cr(III)) redox potential. Ru modification proved to be promising for improving the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4. Full article
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