Special Issue "CO2 Capture and / or Its Transformation into Fuels or Valuable Chemicals"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Catalysis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Benoît Louis
Website
Guest Editor
Directeur de recherches CNRS, ICPEES - Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l'Énergie, l'Environnement et la Santé, Energy and Fuels for a Sustainable Environment Team, UMR 7515 CNRS - Université de Strasbourg - ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel F-67087 Strasbourg cedex 2, France
Interests: acid catalysis; CO2 capture; sustainable fuels; catalysis; zeolites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Qiang Wang
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Guest Editor
Environmental Functional Nanomaterials (EFN) Lab, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, P.O. Box 60, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China
Interests: CO2 capture and utilization; environmental catalysis; functional materials; layered double hydroxide; nanocomposites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anne-Cécile Roger
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Guest Editor
Laboratoire des Matériaux, Surfaces et Procédés pour la Catalyse, LMSPC-ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
Interests: catalysis; mixed oxides; sustainable fuels, methanation, chemical engineering
Prof. Dr. Heriberto Pfeiffer
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Guest Editor
Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica y Reactividad de Superficies (LaFReS), Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, Mexico
Interests: catalysis; sustainable fuels; CO2 capture; pre-combustion processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last century, life expectancy has doubled, and most human-related activities have dramatically improved with respect to security and comfort. Unfortunately, despite the enormous benefits, industrial production schemes and consumption patterns are mostly based on nonrecycled sources of energy. Additionally, less than 0.1% of CO2 produced by anthropogenic means is recycled or mitigated.

The ever-increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere leading to global warming is one of the main problems that humankind has to face during the 21st century. To avoid the fact that sooner or later, humanity will directly start to suffer from it, there is an urgent need to reduce this CO2 level by its capture at the main sources of emissions, such as coal-fired power plants, and even better, to try to sequestrate it directly from the atmosphere.

In addition to CO2 capture, it is now mandatory to design efficient catalysts, in order to set new processes for its chemical valorization into either fuels (methane, methanol, dimethylether) or key building blocks like olefins, aromatics, epoxides, carbonates, etc.

This Special Issue is devoted to presenting the central catalytic role into the aforementioned topics, for example:

- CO2 capture;

- CO2 platform chemistry based on CO2 as a reactant: To produce as a formic acid, CO, methanol and methane, cyclic carbonates, etc.

- Reduction of gas emissions related to CO2 mitigation processes (NOx and SOx).

Dr. Benoît Louis
Prof. Qiang Wang
Prof. Dr. Anne-Cécile Roger
Prof. Dr. Heriberto Pfeiffer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • CO2 capture
  • CO2 conversion
  • solid sorbents
  • methanation
  • heterogeneous Catalysis
  • mitigation of greenhouse gases

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of CO2 Reforming of CH4 Reaction Using Ni,Pd,Pt/Mg1−xCex4+O and Ni/Mg1−xCex4+O Catalysts
Catalysts 2020, 10(11), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111240 - 27 Oct 2020
Abstract
Catalysts Ni/Mg1−xCex4+O and Ni,Pd,Pt/Mg1−xCex4+O were developed using the co-precipitation–impregnation methods. Catalyst characterization took place using XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, XPS, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), TGA TEM, and FE-SEM. Testing the catalysts for the dry [...] Read more.
Catalysts Ni/Mg1−xCex4+O and Ni,Pd,Pt/Mg1−xCex4+O were developed using the co-precipitation–impregnation methods. Catalyst characterization took place using XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, XPS, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), TGA TEM, and FE-SEM. Testing the catalysts for the dry reforming of CH4 took place at temperatures of 700–900 °C. Findings from this study revealed a higher CH4 and CO2 conversion using the tri-metallic Ni,Pd,Pt/Mg1−xCex4+O catalyst in comparison with Ni monometallic systems in the whole temperature ranges. The catalyst Ni,Pd,Pt/Mg0.85Ce4+0.15O also reported an elevated activity level (CH4; 78%, and CO2; 90%) and an outstanding stability. Carbon deposition on spent catalysts was analyzed using TEM and Temperature programmed oxidation-mass spectroscopy (TPO-MS) following 200 h under an oxygen stream. The TEM and TPO-MS analysis results indicated a better anti-coking activity of the reduced catalyst along with a minimal concentration of platinum and palladium metals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methanation of CO2 over Cobalt-Lanthanide Aerogels: Effect of Calcination Temperature
Catalysts 2020, 10(6), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10060704 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
High surface area cobalt-lanthanide bimetallic aerogels were successfully synthesized by the epoxide addition method. The bimetallic aerogels were calcined at two different temperatures and either bimetallic oxides containing oxychlorides, Co3O4.3LnOCl (Ln = La, Sm, Gd, Dy and Yb) or [...] Read more.
High surface area cobalt-lanthanide bimetallic aerogels were successfully synthesized by the epoxide addition method. The bimetallic aerogels were calcined at two different temperatures and either bimetallic oxides containing oxychlorides, Co3O4.3LnOCl (Ln = La, Sm, Gd, Dy and Yb) or perovskites, LnCoO3 (Ln = La, Sm, Gd and Dy) were obtained at 500 or 900 °C, respectively. The exceptions are the aerogels of cerium and ytterbium, which after oxidation at 500 and 900 °C, stabilize as sesquioxides: Co3O4.3CeO2 and 2Co3O4.3Yb2O3, the first at both temperatures and the second only at the highest temperature. The bimetallic cobalt-lanthanide oxychlorides or perovskites were tested as catalysts for the methanation of CO2. The cobalt catalytic activity is determined by the type and acid-base properties of the lanthanide oxide phase and by its pre-reduction under hydrogen. The best results were those obtained over the calcined aerogels pre-reduced under hydrogen. In particular, the highest values were those obtained over the Co-Ce aerogel calcined at 900 °C that in the same conditions present an activity comparable to that measured over a 5 wt.% Rh catalyst supported on alumina, one of the literature references. The activity and the selectivity increase with the catalysts’ basicity, showing an inverse dependence of the reduction temperature that decreases along the lanthanide series either for the aerogels calcined at 500 or 900 °C. In general, the basicity of the aerogels calcined at 900 °C (perovskites) is higher and they are more active but less selective than those calcined at 500 °C (oxychlorides), which to our knowledge is for the first time reported for the methanation of CO2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Continuous Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture Using Lysine and Tetrabutyl Phosphonium Lysinate Aqueous Mixtures in a Packed Tower
Catalysts 2020, 10(4), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10040426 - 14 Apr 2020
Abstract
The CO2 absorption process using aqueous solutions of lysine (Lys), the ionic liquid (IL) tetrabutyl phosphonium lysinate ([TBP][Lys]) and their mixtures was studied by means of a packed tower. The performance of these systems was evaluated through the volumetric overall mass transfer [...] Read more.
The CO2 absorption process using aqueous solutions of lysine (Lys), the ionic liquid (IL) tetrabutyl phosphonium lysinate ([TBP][Lys]) and their mixtures was studied by means of a packed tower. The performance of these systems was evaluated through the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient ( K G a V ) , conducting experiments under diverse conditions such as inlet CO2 concentration from 10 to 40 vol.%, gas and absorbent flow rates from 100 to 200 mL/min and from 3 to 5 mL/min, respectively, absorbent concentration from 5 to 15 wt.% and temperature from 15 to 40 °C. The obtained results for all the previous experimental conditions were better for the IL/Lys mixture than for the isolated components; the best performance was shown by the experiment varying the absorbent concentration, where the increasing K G a V was benefited by the IL/Lys synergistic effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CO2 Methanation over Hydrotalcite-Derived Nickel/Ruthenium and Supported Ruthenium Catalysts
Catalysts 2019, 9(12), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9121008 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this work, in-house synthesized NiMgAl, Ru/NiMgAl, and Ru/SiO2 catalysts and a commercial ruthenium-containing material (Ru/Al2O3com.) were tested for CO2 methanation at 250, 300, and 350 °C (weight hourly space velocity, WHSV, of 2400 mL [...] Read more.
In this work, in-house synthesized NiMgAl, Ru/NiMgAl, and Ru/SiO2 catalysts and a commercial ruthenium-containing material (Ru/Al2O3com.) were tested for CO2 methanation at 250, 300, and 350 °C (weight hourly space velocity, WHSV, of 2400 mLN,CO2·g−1·h−1). Materials were compared in terms of CO2 conversion and CH4 selectivity. Still, their performances were assessed in a short stability test (24 h) performed at 350 °C. All catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption at −196 °C, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and H2/CO chemisorption. The catalysts with the best performance (i.e., the hydrotalcite-derived NiMgAl and Ru/NiMgAl) seem to be quite promising, even when compared with other methanation catalysts reported in the literature. Extended stability experiments (240 h of time-on-stream) were performed only over NiMgAl, which was selected based on catalytic performance and estimated price criteria. This catalyst showed some deactivation under conditions that favor CO formation (high temperature and high WHSV, i.e., 350 °C and 24,000 mLN,CO2·g−1·h−1, respectively), but at 300 °C and low WHSV, excellent activity (ca. 90% of CO2 conversion) and stability, with nearly complete selectivity towards methane, were obtained. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ti3+ Defective SnS2/TiO2 Heterojunction Photocatalyst for Visible-Light Driven Reduction of CO2 to CO with High Selectivity
Catalysts 2019, 9(11), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9110927 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In recent years, defective TiO2-based composite nanomaterials have received much attention in the field of photocatalysis. In this work, TiB2 was used as a precursor to successfully prepare Ti3+ defective TiO2 (TiO2-B) with a truncated bipyramidal [...] Read more.
In recent years, defective TiO2-based composite nanomaterials have received much attention in the field of photocatalysis. In this work, TiB2 was used as a precursor to successfully prepare Ti3+ defective TiO2 (TiO2-B) with a truncated bipyramidal structure by a one-step method. Then, the SnS2 nanosheets were assembled onto the as-prepared TiO2-B through simple hydrothermal reaction. TiO2-B exhibits strong visible light absorption properties, but the recombination rate of the photo-generated electron-hole pair was high and does not exhibit ideal photocatalytic performance. Upon introducing SnS2, the heterojunction catalyst SnS2-Ti3+ defective TiO2 (SnS2/TiO2-B) not only possesses the strong light absorption from UV to visible light region, the lowest photo-generated charge recombination rate but also achieves a more negative conduction band potential than the reduction potential of CO2 to CO, and thereby, exhibits the significantly enhanced selectivity and yield of CO in photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Notably, SnS2/TiO2-B produces CO at a rate of 58 µmol·h−1·g−1 with CO selectivity of 96.3% under visible light irradiation, which is 2 and 19 times greater than those of alone TiO2-B and SnS2, respectively. Finally, a plausible photocatalytic mechanism on SnS2/TiO2-B was proposed that the electron transfer between TiO2 and SnS2 follows the Z-scheme mode. Our results present an effective way to gain highly efficient TiO2 based photocatalysts for CO2 reduction by combining different modification methods of TiO2 and make full use of the synergistic effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Biocathode in Bioelectrochemical CO2 Reduction
Catalysts 2019, 9(8), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9080683 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) biogas upgrading is done via reduction of carbon dioxide to methane through electroactive microbial catalysis. The baseline MES mode of operation showed about a 39% increase in the methane production rate compared to the open circuit mode of operation. MES [...] Read more.
Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) biogas upgrading is done via reduction of carbon dioxide to methane through electroactive microbial catalysis. The baseline MES mode of operation showed about a 39% increase in the methane production rate compared to the open circuit mode of operation. MES is capable of producing acetic acid at relatively more negative potential (−0.80 to –0.90 V vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)) than the potential at which it produces methane (−0.65 V vs. SHE). The optimum pH for enhancing the electroactive acetogens is found to be around 6.8–7.0 while a pH of around 7.0–7.5 enhances the electroactive methanogens performance. The biocathode adaptation test reveals that 45% of the methane was produced through the electrochemical pathway with a coulombic efficiency of 100% while maintaining heterotrophic efficiency above 99%. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Advances in Clean Fuel Ethanol Production from Electro-, Photo- and Photoelectro-Catalytic CO2 Reduction
Catalysts 2020, 10(11), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111287 - 05 Nov 2020
Abstract
Using renewable energy to convert CO2 to a clean fuel ethanol can not only reduce carbon emission through the utilization of CO2 as feedstock, but also store renewable energy as the widely used chemical and high-energy-density fuel, being considered as a [...] Read more.
Using renewable energy to convert CO2 to a clean fuel ethanol can not only reduce carbon emission through the utilization of CO2 as feedstock, but also store renewable energy as the widely used chemical and high-energy-density fuel, being considered as a perfect strategy to address current environment and energy issues. Developing efficient electrocatalysts, photocatalysts, and photoelectrocatalysts for CO2 reduction is the most crucial keystone for achieving this goal. Considerable progresses in CO2-based ethanol production have been made over the past decades. This review provides the general principles and summarizes the latest advancements in electrocatalytic, photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic CO2 conversion to ethanol. Furthermore, the main challenges and proposed future prospects are illustrated for further developments in clean fuel ethanol production. Full article
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