Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive System

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology and Metabolism Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 14019

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chair of Nutritional Physiology, Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), 159c Nowoursynowska Str., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: diet-related issues and sex steroids interactions; hormonal regulation of male reproductive system; environmental factors and gonadal functions; nutritional physiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chair of Nutritional Physiology, Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), 159c Nowoursynowska Str., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: hormonal regulation of male reproductive function; bioactive nutrients; environmental factors and metabolism; human physiology; nanotoxicology and male reproduction system; nutritional physiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chair of Nutritional Physiology, Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS-SGGW), 159c Nowoursynowska Str., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: reproductive toxicology; nanomaterials and testis function; human physiology; neurotoxicology; brain functions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Normal functioning of all organs is dependent on a wide range of signaling molecules, including hormones. The hypothalamic–pituitary–testis axis is crucial for the control of androgen biosynthesis and spermatogenesis. Steroid hormones are also involved in the regulation of of organ systems’ development, physiological processes, energy metabolism, and behavior, via molecular and cellular mechanisms. The scientific discoveries of recent years have also confirmed that the regulation of male reproductive functions depends on the action of other hormones synthetized by extragonadal tissues. Throughout  life, the effects of hormones on the organism change dynamically. Furthermore, the interplay between the hormones regulating the male reproductive system is complex and determines systemic homeostasis, however, imbalance between them and other regulatory factors contributes to pathological processes.

The Special Issue of “Hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system” will include high-quality original research articles, as well as review articles, addressing various aspects of pathological conditions related to hormonal regulation of male reproductive function, contributing to infertility and other disorders, as well as on therapeutics in endocrine dysfunctions. We welcome in vitro and animal model studies.

Dr. Michał Oczkowski
Dr. Katarzyna Dziendzikowska
Prof. Dr. Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • hormones
  • male fertility
  • male infertility
  • nanomaterials
  • hormonal regulation
  • therapeutics
  • sperm quality
  • hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis
  • spermatogenesis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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17 pages, 6012 KiB  
Article
Does Nanosilver Exposure Modulate Steroid Metabolism in the Testes?—A Possible Role of Redox Balance Disruption
by Michał Oczkowski, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Michał Rakowski and Marcin Kruszewski
Biomedicines 2024, 12(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12010073 - 28 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a popular engineered nanomaterial widely used in industry. Despite the benefits they bring to society, AgNPs are not neutral to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a popular engineered nanomaterial widely used in industry. Despite the benefits they bring to society, AgNPs are not neutral to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg body weight) of 20 nm AgNPs on steroid metabolism and redox balance in the testes of adult rats. The effects were evaluated 1 day or 28 days after intervention and compared with saline-treated animals. Decreased aromatase and estrogen receptor α levels (by 21% and 27%, respectively) were observed 1 day after AgNPs administration, while increased testosterone, increased dihydrotestosterone levels, higher androgen receptors and higher aromatase expression in Leydig cells (by 43%, 50%, 20% and 32%, respectively) as well as lower (by 35%) androgen receptor protein levels were observed 28 days after exposure to AgNPs compared to control groups. The AgNPs treatment resulted in decreased superoxide dismutase activity, decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased glutathione reductase activity (by 23%, 63% and 28%, respectively) compared to control animals, irrespective of the time of measurement. Increased (by 28%) intratesticular lipid hydroperoxides level was observed 1 day after AgNPs exposure, while decreased (by 70%) GSH and increased (by 43%) 7-ketocholesterol levels were observed 28 days after treatment compared to control animals. Conclusions: AgNPs exposure caused redox imbalance in the gonads shortly after AgNPs administration, while a longer perspective AgNPs exposure was associated with impaired androgen metabolism, probably due to increased oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive System)
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11 pages, 2252 KiB  
Article
Effect of High-Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome on the Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Male Rats
by Shih-Min Hsia, Yi-Fen Chiang, Hsin-Yuan Chen, Mohamed Ali, Paulus S. Wang and Kai-Lee Wang
Biomedicines 2022, 10(12), 3009; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10123009 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Plasma testosterone levels have been found to decrease in older insulin-resistant male patients. Both lower total testosterone levels and a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome have also been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-fructose diet-induced diabetes [...] Read more.
Plasma testosterone levels have been found to decrease in older insulin-resistant male patients. Both lower total testosterone levels and a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome have also been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-fructose diet-induced diabetes on both the testosterone release by Leydig cells and the activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in male rats. Male rats were fed with either standard chow (control group) or a high-fructose diet (fructose-fed group) for 21 weeks. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension were observed in the fructose-fed group. Moreover, plasma testosterone and LH levels decreased in the fructose-fed group compared to the control group. Sperm motility was also reduced by 15% in the fructose-fed rats. In contrast, the basal release of testosterone from rat Leydig cells was not altered by fructose feeding. Moreover, in vitro studies showed that the testosterone release, in response to different stimulants, including forskolin (an adenylyl cyclase activator, 10−5 M), 8-Br-cAMP (a permeable analog of cAMP, 10−5 M), A23187 (a calcium ionophore, 10−5 M), or 25-hydroxy-cholesterol (water-soluble cholesterol, 10−5 M), did not significantly differ between the fructose-fed and control groups. Interestingly, the release of testosterone in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 0.05 IU/mL) was enhanced by eightfold in the control group, but elevenfold in the fructose-fed group. LH receptor expression in rat Leydig cells was also increased. Moreover, LH secretion from the anterior pituitary was altered in the fructose diet-fed group. These results suggest that fructose diet-fed rats have lower plasma testosterone levels, which can lead to a higher sensitivity of hCG in Leydig cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive System)
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16 pages, 1306 KiB  
Article
Stress Hormone Corticosterone Controls Metabolic Mitochondrial Performance and Inflammatory Signaling of In Vitro Cultured Sertoli Cells
by Ana M. Silva, Carina T. Ribeiro, Raquel L. Bernardino, Ivana Jarak, Rui A. Carvalho, M. A. Pereira-Sampaio, Diogo B. de Souza, Marco G. Alves and Pedro F. Oliveira
Biomedicines 2022, 10(9), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10092331 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
Stress, as a physiological response, is a major factor that affects several processes, including reproductive functions. The main hormonal players of stress are cortisol (humans) and corticosterone (rodents). Sertoli cells (SCs), as key contributors for the testicular homeostasis maintenance, are extensively challenged by [...] Read more.
Stress, as a physiological response, is a major factor that affects several processes, including reproductive functions. The main hormonal players of stress are cortisol (humans) and corticosterone (rodents). Sertoli cells (SCs), as key contributors for the testicular homeostasis maintenance, are extensively challenged by different hormones, with glucocorticoid corticosterone being the signaling modulator that may impact these cells at different levels. We aimed to characterize how corticosterone modulates SCs energy balance, putting the mitochondrial performance and signaling output in perspective as the cells can disperse to the surroundings. TM4 mouse SCs were cultured in the absence and presence of corticosterone (in nM: 20, 200, and 2000). Cells were assessed for extracellular metabolic fluxes, mitochondrial performance (cell respirometry, mitochondrial potential, and mitochondrial complex expressions and activities), and the expression of androgen and corticosteroid receptors, as well as interleukine-6 (IL-6) and glutathione content. Corticosterone presented a biphasic impact on the extracellular fluxes of metabolites. Low sub-physiological corticosterone stimulated the glycolytic activity of SCs. Still, no alterations were perceived for lactate and alanine production. However, the lactate/alanine ratio was decreased in a dose-dependent mode, opposite to the mitochondrial complex II activity rise and concurrent with the decrease of IL-6 expression levels. Our results suggest that corticosterone finely tuned the energetic profile of mouse SCs, with sub-physiological concentrations promoting glycolytic expenditure, without translating into cell redox power and mitochondrial respiratory chain performance. Corticosterone deeply impacted the expression of the pro-inflammatory IL-6, which may alter cell-to-cell communication in the testis, in the last instance and impact of the spermatogenic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive System)
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11 pages, 659 KiB  
Article
The Role of Adiponectin in the Resolution of Male-Obesity-Associated Secondary Hypogonadism after Metabolic Surgery and Its Impact on Cardiovascular Risk
by Pilar Cobeta, Roberto Pariente, Alvaro Osorio, Marta Marchan, Marta Cuadrado-Ayuso, David Pestaña, Julio Galindo and José I. Botella-Carretero
Biomedicines 2022, 10(8), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10082000 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Male-obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) is a very prevalent entity that may resolve after marked weight loss. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory properties that regulates metabolism. Low-circulating APN is associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk, along with circulating testosterone. We aimed [...] Read more.
Male-obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) is a very prevalent entity that may resolve after marked weight loss. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory properties that regulates metabolism. Low-circulating APN is associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk, along with circulating testosterone. We aimed to evaluate APN changes in men with MOSH (low circulating free testosterone (FT) with low or normal gonadotropins) and without it after metabolic surgery. We look for their possible association with cardiovascular risk measured by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). We included 60 men (20 submitted to lifestyle modification, 20 to sleeve gastrectomy, and 20 to gastric bypass) evaluated at baseline and 6 months after. The increase in APN at follow-up was reduction in patients with persistent MOSH (n = 10) vs. those without MOSH (n = 30) and MOSH resolution (n = 20), and the former did not achieve a decrease in cIMT. The increase in APN correlated positively with FT (r = 0.320, p = 0.013) and inversely with cIMT (r = −0.283, p = 0.028). FT inversely correlated with cIMT (r = −0.269, p = 0.038). In conclusion, men without MOSH or with MOSH resolution showed a high increase in APN after weight loss with beneficial effects on cIMT. Those without MOSH resolution failed to attain these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive System)
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22 pages, 3412 KiB  
Article
Modulatory Effects of Estradiol and Its Mixtures with Ligands of GPER and PPAR on MAPK and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways and Tumorigenic Factors in Mouse Testis Explants and Mouse Tumor Leydig Cells
by Ewelina Gorowska-Wojtowicz, Michal Duliban, Malgorzata Kotula-Balak and Barbara Bilinska
Biomedicines 2022, 10(6), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061390 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
The present study was designed to evaluate how estradiol alone or in combination with G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) agonists and GPER and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists alter the expression of tumor growth factor β (TGF-β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to evaluate how estradiol alone or in combination with G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) agonists and GPER and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists alter the expression of tumor growth factor β (TGF-β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse testis explants and MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells. In order to define the hormone-associated signaling pathway, the expression of MAPK and PI3K/Akt was also examined. Tissue explants and cells were treated with estradiol as well as GPER agonist (ICI 182,780), GPER antagonist (G-15), PPARα antagonist (GW6471), and PPARγ antagonist (T00709072) in various combinations. First, we showed that in testis explants GPER and PPARα expressions were activated by the GPER agonist and estradiol (either alone or in mixtures), whereas PPARγ expression was activated only by GPER agonist. Second, increased TGF-β expression and decreased COX-2 expression were found in all experimental groups of testicular explants and MA-10 cells, except for up-regulated COX-2 expression in estradiol-treated cells, compared to respective controls. Third, estradiol treatment led to elevated expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, while their lower levels versus control were noted in the remaining groups of explants. Finally, we demonstrated the up-regulation of MAPK and PI3Kp85/Akt expressions in estradiol-treated groups of both ex vivo and in vitro models, whereas estradiol in mixtures with compounds of agonistic or antagonistic properties either up-regulated or down-regulated signaling kinase expression levels. Our results suggest that a balanced estrogen level and its action together with proper GPER and PPAR signaling play a key role in the maintenance of testis homeostasis. Moreover, changes in TGF-β and COX-2 expressions (that disrupted estrogen pathway) as well as disturbed GPER-PPAR signaling observed after estradiol treatment may be involved in testicular tumorigenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive System)
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25 pages, 858 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Association between Vitamin D and the Components of Male Fertility: A Systematic Review
by Daria Adamczewska, Jolanta Słowikowska-Hilczer and Renata Walczak-Jędrzejowska
Biomedicines 2023, 11(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11010090 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4514
Abstract
Objective: Previous systematic reviews of the effects of vitamin D on the components of male fertility have been inconclusive. This article systematically reviews the latest research to examine the relationship between vitamin D, semen quality parameters, and sex hormones production. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane, [...] Read more.
Objective: Previous systematic reviews of the effects of vitamin D on the components of male fertility have been inconclusive. This article systematically reviews the latest research to examine the relationship between vitamin D, semen quality parameters, and sex hormones production. Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched using the appropriate keywords. Results: Observational studies indicate significant correlation between vitamin D levels and sperm parameters, with a particular emphasis on sperm motility, and partially suggest a relationship between higher serum testosterone and vitamin D levels. Additionally, interventional studies confirmed that vitamin D supplementation has a positive effect on sperm motility, especially progressive. However, most randomized clinical trials indicate that vitamin D treatment does not have any significant effect on testosterone or other hormone levels. Conclusions: Although our findings add to the discussion regarding the effect of vitamin D on male fertility, there is still no solid evidence to support the use of vitamin D supplementation to improve the outcomes of patients with impaired sperm parameters and hormonal disorders. Additional dedicated clinical studies are needed to clarify the relationship between vitamin D and male fertility, along with its components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Regulation of Male Reproductive System)
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