A Modern Approach to Cardiometabolic Diseases: Mechanisms, Biomarkers, and Therapeutic Strategies

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Endocrinology and Metabolism Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 17585

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DIMIS), Università degli Studi di Palermo UNIPA, 90100 Palermo, Italy
Interests: cardiovascular risk; lipids; diabetes; prevention; therapy; metabolic syndrome; metabolism; lipoproteins; incretins; nutraceuticals
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Guest Editor
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Gulhane School of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey
Interests: obesity; type 2 diabetes; dyslipidemia; diabetic nephropathy

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Guest Editor
University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: cardiometabolic disease; personalized medicine; epigenetics; vascular risk; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular prevention
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world has been facing an escalation of cardiometabolic diseases, which are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. The immense health expenditure caused by cardiometabolic diseases and related complications accounts for a significant proportion of the health budgets of many countries. Altered living environments, nutritional misbehaviors, sedentary lifestyles, endocrine disruptors, and epigenetic factors are among the many factors responsible for the increased burden of cardiometabolic diseases. While the risk factors are not uniform across the different regions of the globe, the socioeconomical and demographic characteristics are uniformly among the significant determinants of the outcomes of cardiometabolic diseases.

There is great urgency for researchers all over the world to better understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases in order to establish more effective prevention and management strategies. There is also a growing need for sensitive biomarkers for the earlier diagnosis of cardiometabolic diseases and their complications. This Special Issue, “A Modern Approach to Cardiometabolic Diseases: Mechanisms, Biomarkers, and Therapeutic Strategies” will provide insights for scientists and physicians who strive to find evidence-based and effective prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods for cardiometabolic diseases.

We cordially invite authors to submit original articles and reviews papers to this Special Issue of Biomedicines.

Prof. Dr. Manfredi Rizzo
Prof. Dr. Alper Sonmez
Prof. Dr. Francesco Paneni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • insulin resistance
  • metabolic syndrome
  • non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • dyslipidemia
  • hypertension
  • heart failure
  • coronary artery disease
  • chronic kidney disease

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
Plasma Levels of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Are Inversely Associated with N-Terminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Older Men and Women
by Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Roberta Galeazzi, Anna Passarelli, Serena Re, Chiara Di Pentima, Massimiliano Allevi, Paolo Magni and Riccardo Sarzani
Biomedicines 2022, 10(8), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10081961 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Background and Aims: Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) exert several metabolic effects, including some on lipid metabolism. Higher NPs levels are likely to be associated with a favorable lipid profile. In in vitro studies, NPs have been found to modulate low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) [...] Read more.
Background and Aims: Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) exert several metabolic effects, including some on lipid metabolism. Higher NPs levels are likely to be associated with a favorable lipid profile. In in vitro studies, NPs have been found to modulate low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) trafficking by preventing proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) overexpression. The aim of our study is to investigate a possible association between plasma levels of PCSK9 and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in vivo. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on 160 consecutive older male and female patients hospitalized for medical conditions. Patients taking lipid-lowering drugs and patients with an admission diagnosis of acute heart failure were excluded. Fasting blood samples were collected after clinical stabilization of the acute illness, the day before discharge. Results: The mean age was 87.8 ± 6.4 years with a female prevalence (62.5%). The median NT-proBNP was 2340 (814–5397) pg/mL. The mean plasma PCSK9 was 275.2 ± 113.2 ng/mL. We found an inverse correlation between plasma PCSK9 and NT-proBNP (r = −0.280; p = 0.001). This association was confirmed after taking into account NT-proBNP tertiles (plasma PCSK9 levels: 317.4 ± 123.6 ng/mL in the first tertile, 283.3 ± 101.8 ng/mL in the second tertile, 231.3 ± 99.0 ng/mL in the third tertile, p = 0.001) and even after an adjustment for confounding factors (beta = −0.361, p = 0.001 for ln(NT-proBNP); beta = −0.330, p = 0.001 for NT-proBNP tertiles). The strength of the correlation between plasma PCSK9 and NT-proBNP was likely greater in patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (r = −0.483; p = 0.006) and in male patients (r = −0.431, p = 0.001). Conclusion: The inverse association found between PCSK9 and NT-proBNP plasma levels in our real-life clinical study supports the hypothesis that NPs may play a role in cholesterol metabolism, possibly through an inhibitory action on circulating PCSK9 concentrations, thus increasing the availability of LDLR. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 854 KiB  
Review
Advances in the Pharmacological Management of Diabetic Nephropathy: A 2022 International Update
by Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Angelo Maria Patti, Ali Abbas Rizvi, Anca Panta Stoian, Marcello Ciaccio, Nikolaos Papanas, Andrej Janez, Alper Sonmez, Maciej Banach, Amirhossein Sahebkar and Manfredi Rizzo
Biomedicines 2023, 11(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11020291 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5039
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Its pathogenesis encompasses functional alterations involving elevated intraglomerular and systemic pressure, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress, and the eventual development of renal fibrosis. The management [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Its pathogenesis encompasses functional alterations involving elevated intraglomerular and systemic pressure, increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and oxidative stress, and the eventual development of renal fibrosis. The management of DN involves the optimization of blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose targets. However, treatment of these risk factors slows down but does not stop the progression of DN. Innovative pharmacologic therapies for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could play a key role in bridging this gap and attenuating the residual risk of DN beyond traditional risk factor management. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is), and inhibitors of mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated sodium reabsorption are recently introduced drug classes that have been shown to have positive effects on kidney function in individuals with T2DM. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the therapeutic options available in order to prevent or slow the onset and progression of DN in diabetic patients. Full article
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20 pages, 741 KiB  
Review
Role of Chemerin in Cardiovascular Diseases
by Mirjana T. Macvanin, Manfredi Rizzo, Jelena Radovanovic, Alper Sonmez, Francesco Paneni and Esma R. Isenovic
Biomedicines 2022, 10(11), 2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10112970 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
(1) Background: Obesity is closely connected to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Excess fat accumulation is associated with metabolic malfunctions that disrupt cardiovascular homeostasis by activating inflammatory processes that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and reduce nitric oxide levels, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Obesity is closely connected to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Excess fat accumulation is associated with metabolic malfunctions that disrupt cardiovascular homeostasis by activating inflammatory processes that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and reduce nitric oxide levels, resulting in increased blood pressure, endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. Adipose tissue produces adipokines, such as chemerin, that may alter immune responses, lipid metabolism, vascular homeostasis, and angiogenesis. (2) Methods: We performed PubMed and MEDLINE searches for articles with English abstracts published between 1997 (when the first report on chemerin identification was published) and 2022. The search retrieved original peer-reviewed articles analyzed in the context of the role of chemerin in CVDs, explicitly focusing on the most recent findings published in the past five years. (3) Results: This review summarizes up-to-date findings related to mechanisms of chemerin action, its role in the development and progression of CVDs, and novel strategies for developing chemerin-targeting therapeutic agents for treating CVDs. (4) Conclusions: Extensive evidence points to chemerin’s role in vascular inflammation, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation, which opens up exciting perspectives for developing chemerin-targeting therapeutic agents for the treatment of CVDs. Full article
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13 pages, 590 KiB  
Review
Usefulness of Complete Blood Count (CBC) to Assess Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases in Clinical Settings: A Comprehensive Literature Review
by In-Ho Seo and Yong-Jae Lee
Biomedicines 2022, 10(11), 2697; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10112697 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 7138
Abstract
Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common blood tests requested by clinicians and evaluates the total numbers and characteristics of cell components in the blood. Recently, many investigations have suggested that the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), arteriosclerosis, type [...] Read more.
Complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common blood tests requested by clinicians and evaluates the total numbers and characteristics of cell components in the blood. Recently, many investigations have suggested that the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), arteriosclerosis, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome can be predicted using CBC components. This review introduces that white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are useful markers to predict CVD and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, we would like to support various uses of CBC by organizing pathophysiology that can explain the relationship between CBC components and diseases. Full article
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