Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Tract Disease

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 1448

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, RJ, Brazil
Interests: gastroenterology; gastrointestinal diseases; cancer; mucosal inflammation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract encompass a wide range of disorders that affect the digestive system, and they have attracted the attention of researchers and health professionals around the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, peptic ulcer, celiac disease, gastrointestinal motility disorders, liver diseases, and others, are diverse and involve various components of the gastrointestinal tract. Papers addressing gastrointestinal comorbidities are also welcome in this Special Issue. Cell targets are present in the epithelial barriers, mucosal tissues, accessory glands, immune system, enteric nervous system, neuromuscular junctions, and others. Molecular signaling includes mechanisms that regulate inflammation (cytokines and chemokines), fibrosis, aberrant immune responses, genetic susceptibility, abnormalities in the gut–brain axis, visceral hypersensitivity, pathogens, disruption of mucosa, cancer, smooth muscle abnormalities, and others. Understanding these cellular and molecular mechanisms is crucial for developing targeted therapies, diagnostic tools, and interventions for the diverse array of gastrointestinal diseases resulting in precision medicine and personalized treatment approaches. Studies in this area involve the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. This Special Issue aims to improve both preventive and therapeutic protocols and methodologies for precision diagnosis. Advances in molecular and cell biology in gastrointestinal diseases continue to enhance our understanding of these mechanisms and drive innovation in medical research and healthcare. Papers on other topics linked to gastrointestinal tract diseases not included here, however, will also be considered by the editorial team.

Dr. Felipe Leite De Oliveira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cellular mechanisms
  • molecular mechanisms
  • diagnosis
  • treatment
  • experimental models
  • signaling pathways
  • comorbidities

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 5019 KiB  
Article
First Application of a Mixed Porcine–Human Repopulated Bioengineered Liver in a Preclinical Model of Post-Resection Liver Failure
by Philipp Felgendreff, Seyed Mohammad Hosseiniasl, Anna Minshew, Bruce P. Amiot, Silvana Wilken, Boyukkhanim Ahmadzada, Robert C. Huebert, Nidhi Jalan Sakrikar, Noah G. Engles, Peggy Halsten, Kendra Mariakis, John Barry, Shawn Riesgraf, Chris Fecteau, Jeffrey J. Ross and Scott L. Nyberg
Biomedicines 2024, 12(6), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12061272 - 7 Jun 2024
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Abstract
In this study, a mixed porcine–human bioengineered liver (MPH-BEL) was used in a preclinical setup of extracorporeal liver support devices as a treatment for a model of post-resection liver failure (PRLF). The potential for human clinical application is further illustrated by comparing the [...] Read more.
In this study, a mixed porcine–human bioengineered liver (MPH-BEL) was used in a preclinical setup of extracorporeal liver support devices as a treatment for a model of post-resection liver failure (PRLF). The potential for human clinical application is further illustrated by comparing the functional capacity of MPH-BEL grafts as assessed using this porcine PRLF model with fully human (FH-BEL) grafts which were perfused and assessed in vitro. BEL grafts were produced by reseeding liver scaffolds with HUVEC and primary porcine hepatocytes (MPH-BEL) or primary human hepatocytes (FH-BEL). PRLF was induced by performing an 85% liver resection in domestic white pigs and randomized into the following three groups 24 h after resection: standard medical therapy (SMT) alone, SMT + extracorporeal circuit (ECC), and SMT + MPH-BEL. The detoxification and metabolic functions of the MPH-BEL grafts were compared to FH-BEL grafts which were perfused in vitro. During the 24 h treatment interval, INR values normalized within 18 h in the MPH-BEL therapy group and urea synthesis increased as compared to the SMT and SMT + ECC control groups. The MPH-BEL treatment was associated with more rapid decline in hematocrit and platelet count compared to both control groups. Histological analysis demonstrated platelet sequestration in the MPH-BEL grafts, possibly related to immune activation. Significantly higher rates of ammonia clearance and metabolic function were observed in the FH-BEL grafts perfused in vitro than in the MPH-BEL grafts. The MPH-BEL treatment was associated with improved markers of liver function in PRLF. Further improvement in liver function in the BEL grafts was observed by seeding the biomatrix with human hepatocytes. Methods to reduce platelet sequestration within BEL grafts is an area of ongoing research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Tract Disease)

Review

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13 pages, 1605 KiB  
Review
Progastrin: An Overview of Its Crucial Role in the Tumorigenesis of Gastrointestinal Cancers
by Rodanthi Fioretzaki, Panagiotis Sarantis, Nikolaos Charalampakis, Konstantinos Christofidis, Adam Mylonakis, Evangelos Koustas, Michalis V. Karamouzis, Stratigoula Sakellariou and Dimitrios Schizas
Biomedicines 2024, 12(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12040885 - 17 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Defining predictive biomarkers for targeted therapies and optimizing anti-tumor immune response is a main challenge in ongoing investigations. Progastrin has been studied as a potential biomarker for detecting and diagnosing various malignancies, and its secretion has been associated with cell proliferation in the [...] Read more.
Defining predictive biomarkers for targeted therapies and optimizing anti-tumor immune response is a main challenge in ongoing investigations. Progastrin has been studied as a potential biomarker for detecting and diagnosing various malignancies, and its secretion has been associated with cell proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract that may promote tumorigenesis. Progastrin is a precursor molecule of gastrin, synthesized as pre-progastrin, converted to progastrin after cleavage, and transformed into amidated gastrin via biosynthetic intermediates. In cancer, progastrin does not maturate in gastrin and becomes a circulating and detectable protein (hPG80). The development of cancer is thought to be dependent on the progressive dysregulation of normal signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, thus conferring a growth advantage to the cells. Understanding the interaction between progastrin and the immune system is essential for developing future cancer strategies. To that end, the present review will approach the interlink between gastrointestinal cancers and progastrin by exploring the underlying molecular steps involved in the initiation, evolution, and progression of gastrointestinal cancers. Finally, this review will focus on the clinical applications of progastrin and investigate its possible use as a diagnostic and prognostic tumor circulating biomarker for disease progression and treatment effectiveness, as well as its potential role as an innovative cancer target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Gastrointestinal Tract Disease)
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