Biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/ECV/Microparticles

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology Applications in Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 14403

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Surgical Biotechnology, Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, London, UK
Interests: nanomedicine; regenerative medicine; drug delivery; biosensing

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Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, Kolkata, India
Interests: Clinical biotechnology; Haematology; Platelet Biology; Nanobiotechnology; Microparticles; Exosomes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The primary goal of this Special Issue is to develop a platform for researchers and readers to concisely investigate all aspects of recent advancements in biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/Extra Cellular Vesicles (ECV)/Microparticles. This issue will illuminate important perspectives of clinically relevant ‘nano to micro’ sized bio-derived and bio-mediated particles, especially for their therapeutic and diagnostic applications. For the successful implementation of these particles, key areas, such as controlled biogenesis or biosynthesis, surface engineering or tuning, cargo loading, isolation and purification, and payload and carrier characterizations, will also be featured. After the increased applications of nanomedicines (e.g., vaccines) during the COVID19 pandemic, development of nanosystems is emerging as a thriving field; however, many translational challenges still need to be overcome. The important questions, such as rational characterization for clinical applications, bio-toxic effect as a therapeutic cargo, and precautions during synthesis and the isolation process, increase its bioavailability and should be investigated.

Therefore, this Special Issue on the “Biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/Extra Cellular Vesicles (ECV)/Microparticles” is open for submission of original papers and reviews that discuss crucial elements of ‘nano to micro’ sized particles synthesis mediated by biosystems, their isolation, and potential applications, as well as related challenges. It is expected that this issue will create a comprehensive account for future researchers in this field.

The detail topics for this issue will include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Controlled bio-synthesis or biogenesis of ‘nano to micro sized particles’ from different source.
  • Comparative isolation process and their related pros and cons.
  • Challenges related to routine characterization for their clinical applications.
  • Surface engineering and tuning to increase their bioavailability, target specificity, and reduced toxicity.
  • Reconstruction and purification after cargo loading.
  • Advanced research on their clinical applications.
  • Innovative ideas on ‘nano to micro sized particles’ based personalized treatment procedures.

Dr. Hirak Patra
Dr. Suryyani Deb
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Bioengineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2692 KiB  
Article
Self-Reporting Theranostic: Nano Tool for Arterial Thrombosis
by Suryyani Deb, Mohammad Azharuddin, Sofia Ramström, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Santiswarup Singha, Thobias Romu and Hirak Kumar Patra
Bioengineering 2023, 10(9), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10091020 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Arterial thrombosis (AT) originates through platelet-mediated thrombus formation in the blood vessel and can lead to heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases. Restricting the thrombus growth and its simultaneous monitoring by visualisation is an unmet clinical need for a better AT prognosis. [...] Read more.
Arterial thrombosis (AT) originates through platelet-mediated thrombus formation in the blood vessel and can lead to heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases. Restricting the thrombus growth and its simultaneous monitoring by visualisation is an unmet clinical need for a better AT prognosis. As a proof-of-concept, we have engineered a nanoparticle-based theranostic (combined therapy and monitoring) platform that has the potential to monitor and restrain the growth of a thrombus concurrently. The theranostic nanotool is fabricated using biocompatible super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a core module tethered with the anti-platelet agent Abciximab (ReoPro) on its surface. Our in vitro feasibility results indicate that ReoPro-conjugated SPIONS (Tx@ReoPro) can effectively prevent thrombus growth by inhibiting fibrinogen receptors (GPIIbIIIa) on the platelet surface, and simultaneously, it can also be visible through non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for potential reporting of the real-time thrombus status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/ECV/Microparticles)
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13 pages, 2441 KiB  
Article
Green Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Ag/Fe2O3 Nanocomposite Using Buddleja lindleyana Extract
by Fatimah A. M. Al-Zahrani, Salem S. Salem, Huda A. Al-Ghamdi, Laila M. Nhari, Long Lin and Reda M. El-Shishtawy
Bioengineering 2022, 9(9), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9090452 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 3004
Abstract
In the study reported in this manuscript, silver/iron oxide nanocomposites (Ag/Fe2O3) were phytosynthesized using the extract of Buddleja lindleyana via a green, economical and eco-friendly strategy. The biosynthesized Ag/Fe2O3 nanocomposites were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, [...] Read more.
In the study reported in this manuscript, silver/iron oxide nanocomposites (Ag/Fe2O3) were phytosynthesized using the extract of Buddleja lindleyana via a green, economical and eco-friendly strategy. The biosynthesized Ag/Fe2O3 nanocomposites were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, XRD, TEM, DLS and SEM-EDX analyses. The particulates showed a triangular and spherical morphology having sizes between 25 and 174 nm. FTIR studies on the nanoparticles showed functional groups corresponding to organic metabolites, which reduce and stabilize the Ag/Fe2O3 nanocomposite. The antimicrobial efficacy of the phytosynthesized Ag/Fe2O3 against bacterial pathogens was assessed. In addition, Ag/Fe2O3 exhibited broad spectrum activities against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa with inhibition zones of 23.4 ± 0.75, 22.3 ± 0.57, 20.8 ± 1.6, and 19.5 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The Ag/Fe2O3 composites obtained showed promising antibacterial action against human bacterial pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa), making them candidates for medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/ECV/Microparticles)
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18 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Mycosynthesis of Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus niger and Their Antimicrobial and Photocatalytic Activities
by Ebrahim Saied, Salem S. Salem, Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar, Fathy M. Elkady, Amr A. Arishi and Amr H. Hashem
Bioengineering 2022, 9(8), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9080397 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanomaterials (NMs) are now widely used in a variety of applications, including medicine, solar energy, drug delivery, water treatment, and pollution detection. Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (Hem-NPs) were manufactured in this work by utilizing a cost-effective and [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanomaterials (NMs) are now widely used in a variety of applications, including medicine, solar energy, drug delivery, water treatment, and pollution detection. Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (Hem-NPs) were manufactured in this work by utilizing a cost-effective and ecofriendly approach that included a biomass filtrate of A. niger AH1 as a bio-reducer. The structural and optical properties of Hem-NPs were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and UV-visible and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The results revealed that all of the studied parameters, as well as their interactions, had a significant impact on the crystallite size. The average diameter size of the biosynthesized Hem-NPs ranged between 60 and 80 nm. The antimicrobial and photocatalytic activities of Hem-NPs were investigated. The antimicrobial results of Hem-NPs revealed that Hem-NPs exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. mutans with MICs of 125, 31.25, and 15.62 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, Hem-NPs exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. fumigatus, where the MICs were 2000 and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively. The efficiency of biosynthesized Hem-NPs was determined for the rapid biodegradation of crystal violet (CV) dye, reaching up to 97 percent after 150 min. Furthermore, Hem-NPs were successfully used more than once for biodegradation and that was regarded as its efficacy. In conclusion, Hem-NPs were successfully biosynthesized using A. niger AH1 and demonstrated both antimicrobial activity and photocatalytic activity against CV dye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/ECV/Microparticles)
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16 pages, 3162 KiB  
Communication
Peptide-Functionalized Nanoemulsions as a Promising Tool for Isolation and Ex Vivo Culture of Circulating Tumor Cells
by Nuria Carmona-Ule, Noga Gal, Carmen Abuín Redondo, María De La Fuente Freire, Rafael López López and Ana Belén Dávila-Ibáñez
Bioengineering 2022, 9(8), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9080380 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2619
Abstract
Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are shed from primary tumors and travel through the blood, generating metastases. CTCs represents a useful tool to understand the biology of metastasis in cancer disease. However, there is a lack of standardized protocols to isolate and culture them. [...] Read more.
Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are shed from primary tumors and travel through the blood, generating metastases. CTCs represents a useful tool to understand the biology of metastasis in cancer disease. However, there is a lack of standardized protocols to isolate and culture them. In our previous work, we presented oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NEs) composed of lipids and fatty acids, which showed a benefit in supporting CTC cultures from metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we present Peptide-Functionalized Nanoemulsions (Pept-NEs), with the aim of using them as a tool for CTC isolation and culture in situ. Therefore, NEs from our previous work were surface-decorated with the peptides Pep10 and GE11, which act as ligands towards the specific cell membrane proteins EpCAM and EGFR, respectively. We selected the best surface to deposit a layer of these Pept-NEs through a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (QCM-D) method. Next, we validated the specific recognition of Pept-NEs for their protein targets EpCAM and EGFR by QCM-D and fluorescence microscopy. Finally, a layer of Pept-NEs was deposited in a culture well-plate, and cells were cultured on for 9 days in order to confirm the feasibility of the Pept-NEs as a cell growth support. This work presents peptide-functionalized nanoemulsions as a basis for the development of devices for the isolation and culture of CTCs in situ due to their ability to specifically interact with membrane proteins expressed in CTCs, and because cells are capable of growing on top of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/ECV/Microparticles)
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19 pages, 3819 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Plant-Mediated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles with Their Significant Biomedical Properties
by Muhanad Alhujaily, Salim Albukhaty, Mohammad Yusuf, Mustafa K. A. Mohammed, Ghassan M. Sulaiman, Hassan Al-Karagoly, Amal A. Alyamani, Jawaher Albaqami and Faizah A. AlMalki
Bioengineering 2022, 9(10), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9100541 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 4102
Abstract
Compared to traditional physical and chemical approaches, nanobiotechnology and plant-based green synthesis procedures offer significant advantages, as well as having a greater range of medical and biotechnological applications. Nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) have recently been recognized as a promising option for [...] Read more.
Compared to traditional physical and chemical approaches, nanobiotechnology and plant-based green synthesis procedures offer significant advantages, as well as having a greater range of medical and biotechnological applications. Nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) have recently been recognized as a promising option for many industries, including optics, electrics, packaged foods, and medicine, due to their biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and cost-effectiveness. Several studies have shown that zinc ions are important in triggering cell apoptosis by promoting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and releasing zinc ions (Zn2+), which are toxic to cells. The toxic nature of the chemicals used in the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles limits their clinical utility. An overview of recent developments in green ZnO NP synthesis is presented in this review, emphasizing plant parts as reducing agents and their medical applications, including their antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as key mechanisms of action for these applications to facilitate further research on the biomedical fields in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Nanoparticle/Exosome/ECV/Microparticles)
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