Special Issue "Particulate Matters Emission in Poland"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Majewski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 166 St., 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: air pollution; indoor air quality; particulate matter; mercury; PAHs; chemical element; health risk assessment; air pollution modeling; meteorological conditions
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. The Main School of Fire Service, Faculty of Fire Safety Engineering, 52/54 Słowackiego St., 01-629 Warsaw, Poland;
2. Institute of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowskiej-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze, Poland
Interests: aerosol chemistry and physics; particulate matter; air pollution modeling; exposure assessment; risk analysis; environmental statistics; indoor air quality; PM and fires; fire safety engineering; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; toxic elements

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Poland is said to be outstanding in respect of both emission and concentration of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous precursors of PM. Similar to other European regions, the PM concentration in ambient air over Poland is determined by transport and industrial and energy production, to a large extent. As shown by research in the last decade, the energy sector has contributed to increase the PM concentration over the regions of Poland more than in other developed European countries. Energy production, that is based mainly on hard and brown coal, is the source not only of PM but also of its gaseous precursors, mainly selected organic compounds such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as ammonia. A particular problem in Poland is represented by the so-called municipal emissions, especially in the suburbs and in the centers of southern cities. It is related to coal combustion in small, low-efficiency household furnaces. Taking into account the fact that the air is not subject to any limits, it becomes clear that the above-mentioned problem is truly local to a degree but pertains to the whole continent as well. The air pollution emitted in Poland, especially the persistent one, is freely spread to other regions, contributing to their contamination. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the quantity and the quality of PM and of its gaseous precursors emitted over Poland, as well as the effects of their emission.

This Special Issue aims at gathering the available information on:

- PM sources in Poland;

- qualitative and quantitative analysis of the emitted PM and gaseous pollutants;

- the environmental impacts related to the emission of PM and gaseous pollutants (also on human health) on a local and a global scale;

-short- and long-range transport of emitted pollutants in the environment (including source, air, soil, water migration);

- technical, legal, and economic aspects of limiting PM emission in Poland.

We cordially invite you to submit research findings regarding not only Poland but also the rest of the world. We believe that experience in the field of PM emissions, including their effects and their potential reduction, resulting from the research of authors from other countries will enrich this Special Issue with valuable material for a wide range of readers. Therefore, regardless of the title of this Special Issue, we hope that we will be able to include papers devoted to similar problems of PM emissions as those faced by Poland, regarding other countries. In particular, the focus is on the following problems (and how to solve them):
- Municipal emissions in the sense of local heating of houses and flats through inefficient combustion of low-quality fuels or even garbage,

- Emissions related to road transport, especially in the centers of large cities,

- Short- and long-term smog episodes in periods of increased PM emissions and gaseous precursors of PM.

We also invite researchers to discuss or numerically describe the global effects of PM emissions in Poland. Finally, we invite submissions from everyone who deals with the issue of balancing and forecasting emissions, especially concerning the assessment of PM derived from the transformation of gaseous precursors and the assessment of the amount of priority substances emitted into the air, such as selected persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals (including mercury).

Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Majewski
Prof. Dr. Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Particulate matter/atmospheric aerosol sources and PM source apportionment
  • Mass/number size distribution and chemical composition of PM from various sources
  • Primary and secondary aerosol and gaseous precursors of PM
  • Soot and organic/elemental carbon in exhaust and flue gases, fly ash, slug, bottom ash, dusts
  • Toxic metals release (i.e., mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, arsenic)
  • Persistent organic pollutants emission and monitoring (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
  • Fossil fuels, natural gas, gasoline, crude oil, power and heating plant, domestic stoves/furnace
  • Biomass burning, exhaust and non-exhaust traffic emission, emission from road, air, marine and rail transport
  • Forest fires, waste burning and incineration
  • Technical methods in air treatment, biogas, biofuels, biofiltration
  • Environmental regulation, policies and trends
  • Long-range transport of air pollutants
  • Regional and global air quality modelling

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Spatial Analysis (Measurements at Heights of 10 m and 20 m above Ground Level) of the Concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0) and Gaseous Pollutants (H2S) on the University Campus: A Case Study
Atmosphere 2021, 12(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12010062 - 01 Jan 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Spatial analysis of the distribution of particulate matter PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas pollution was performed in the area around a university library building. The reasons for the subject matter were reports related to the perceptible odor characteristic [...] Read more.
Spatial analysis of the distribution of particulate matter PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas pollution was performed in the area around a university library building. The reasons for the subject matter were reports related to the perceptible odor characteristic of hydrogen sulfide and a general poor assessment of air quality by employees and students. Due to the area of analysis, it was decided to perform measurements at two heights, 10 m and 20 m above ground level, using measuring equipment attached to a DJI Matrice 600 unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The aim of the measurements was air quality assessment and investigate the convergence of the theory of air flow around the building with the spatial distribution of air pollutants. Considerable differences of up to 63% were observed in the concentrations of pollutants measured around the building, especially between opposite sides, depending on the direction of the wind. To explain these differences, the theory of aerodynamics was applied to visualize the probable airflow in the direction of the wind. A strong convergence was observed between the aerodynamic model and the spatial distribution of pollutants. This was evidenced by the high concentrations of dust in the areas of strong turbulence at the edges of the building and on the leeward side. The accumulation of pollutants was also clearly noticeable in these locations. A high concentration of H2S was recorded around the library building on the side of the car park. On the other hand, the air turbulence around the building dispersed the gas pollution, causing the concentration of H2S to drop on the leeward side. It was confirmed that in some analyzed areas the permissible concentration of H2S was exceeded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Matters Emission in Poland)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Inversion and Particulate Matter Concentration in Wrocław in Winter Season
Atmosphere 2020, 11(12), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11121351 - 12 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 364
Abstract
Studies on air quality frequently adopt clustering, in particular the k-means technique, owing to its simplicity, ease of implementation and efficiency. The aim of the present paper was the assessment of air quality in a winter season (December–February) in the conditions of temperature [...] Read more.
Studies on air quality frequently adopt clustering, in particular the k-means technique, owing to its simplicity, ease of implementation and efficiency. The aim of the present paper was the assessment of air quality in a winter season (December–February) in the conditions of temperature inversion using the k-means method, representing a non-hierarchical algorithm of cluster analysis. The air quality was assessed on the basis of the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5). The studies were conducted in four winter seasons (2015/16, 2016/17, 2017/18, 2019/20) in Wrocław (Poland). As a result of the application of the v-fold cross test, six clusters for each fraction of PM were identified. Even though the analysis covers only four winter seasons, the applied method has unequivocally revealed that the characteristics of surface-based (SBI) and elevated inversions (ELI) affect the concentration level of both fractions of particulate matter. In the case of PM10, the average lowest daily concentration (15.5 µg·m−3) was recorded in the conditions of approx. 205 m in thickness, 0.5 °C intensity of the SBI and at the height of the base of the ELI at approx. 1700 m a.g.l., a thickness of 148 m and an intensity of 1.2 °C. In turn, the average highest concentration (136 µg·m−3) was recorded at a thickness of SBI of approx. 400 m and an intensity of 1.4 °C. Such high concentration occurred when the lowest location of ELI formed at 764 m a.g.l. with a thickness of 308 m and an intensity of 0.96 °C. A marked role of the thickness of the SBI and ELI as well as the height of the base of the lowest location of ELI was also manifested with respect to PM2.5 concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Matters Emission in Poland)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Low-Cost and Optical Particulate Matter Sensors for Ambient Monitoring
Atmosphere 2020, 11(10), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11101040 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
This article presents a long-term evaluation of low-cost particulate matter (PM) sensors in a field measurements campaign. Evaluation was performed in two phases. During the first five months of the campaign, two PM sensors were simultaneously compared with the results from the reference [...] Read more.
This article presents a long-term evaluation of low-cost particulate matter (PM) sensors in a field measurements campaign. Evaluation was performed in two phases. During the first five months of the campaign, two PM sensors were simultaneously compared with the results from the reference air quality monitoring station in various atmospheric conditions—from the days with freezing cold (minimum temperature below −10 °C) and high relative humidity (up to 95%) to the days with the maximum temperature above 30 °C and low relative humidity (at the level of 25%). Based on the PM10 measurements, the correlation coefficients for both devices in relation to the reference station were determined (r = 0.91 and r = 0.94, respectively), as well as the impact of temperature and relative humidity on measurements from the low-cost sensors in relation to the reference values. The correction function was formulated based on this large set of low-cost PM10 measurements and referential values. The effectiveness of the corrective function was verified during the second measurement campaign carried out in the city of Nowy Sącz (located in southern Poland) for the same five months in the following year. The absolute values of the long-term percentage errors obtained after adjustment were reduced to a maximum of about 20%, and the average percentage errors were usually around 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Matters Emission in Poland)
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Open AccessArticle
Ambient Air Quality as a Condition of Effective Healthcare Therapy on the Example of Selected Polish Health Resorts
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080882 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 726
Abstract
This article discusses the importance of air quality for the organization and functioning of health resorts. Ten different types of resorts located in various regions of Poland were compared in terms PM10 concentration. Additionally, comparative analysis of the high-PM10 episodes was [...] Read more.
This article discusses the importance of air quality for the organization and functioning of health resorts. Ten different types of resorts located in various regions of Poland were compared in terms PM10 concentration. Additionally, comparative analysis of the high-PM10 episodes was performed in three urban agglomerations located near the analyzed health resorts. The article also discusses formal, legal, and economic instruments that are the basis for legislative actions as tools for managing the air quality in the selected resorts. The analysis of the average annual concentrations in 2015–2019 did not show any exceedances of the PM10 limit value for any of the health resorts studied. High PM10 concentration values in 2018 were recorded for the number of days in exceedance of the limit value, especially in the health resorts of Uniejów, Ciechocinek, and Szczawno-Zdrój. Health resorts located in the south of Poland were identified as the most at risk in terms of the occurrence of limit value exceedances, information, and alert thresholds. It was concluded that the implementation of the so called “anti-smog” resolutions, including the development of financial support for changing the heating system to eliminate coal boilers and furnaces, is absolutely necessary for air quality improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Matters Emission in Poland)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of Road Traffic Reorganization on Air Quality: A Street Canyon Case Study
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070695 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
One of the elements of strategy aimed at minimizing the impact of road transport on air quality is the introduction of its reorganization resulting in decreased pollutant emissions to the air. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal strategy of [...] Read more.
One of the elements of strategy aimed at minimizing the impact of road transport on air quality is the introduction of its reorganization resulting in decreased pollutant emissions to the air. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal strategy of corrective actions in terms of the air pollutant emissions from road transport. The study presents the assessment results of the emission reduction degree of selected pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and NOx) as well as the impact evaluation of this reduction on their concentrations in the air for adopted scenarios of the road management changes for one of the street canyons in Krakow (Southern Poland). Three scenarios under consideration of the city authorities were assessed: narrowing the cross-section of the street by eliminating one lane in both directions, limiting the maximum speed from 70 km/h to 50 km/h, and allowing only passenger and light commercial vehicles on the streets that meet the Euro 4 standard or higher. The best effects were obtained for the variant assuming banning of vehicles failing to meet the specified Euro standard. It would result in a decrease of the yearly averaged PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations by about 8–9% and for NOx by almost 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Matters Emission in Poland)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Carbonaceous Matter in Aerosol from Selected Urban and Rural Areas of Southern Poland
Atmosphere 2020, 11(7), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11070687 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to obtain a detailed picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of carbonaceous matter in southern Poland. Particulate matter (PM) samples from eight selected urban and rural background sites were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to obtain a detailed picture of the spatial and seasonal variability of carbonaceous matter in southern Poland. Particulate matter (PM) samples from eight selected urban and rural background sites were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) (thermal-optical method, “eusaar_2” protocol), and the content of secondary (SOC) and primary organic carbon (POC) was estimated. The OC and EC dynamics were further studied using each of the thermally-derived carbon fractions (OC1–4, PC, and EC1–4). Clear spatiotemporal variability of carbonaceous compounds concentrations was observed, with higher levels recorded during the heating season. The considered measurement sites differed particularly in the shares of SOC and POC, with higher values of POC contents especially in rural areas. In terms of the content of carbon fractions, the analyzed sites showed roughly the same characteristics, with PC, OC4, and OC2 as dominant fractions of OC and with clear dominance of EC3 and EC2 over other EC fractions. The results obtained as part of this work may be a valuable source of information about the actual status of the carbonaceous matter, which remains one of the least known components of atmospheric PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Matters Emission in Poland)
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Open AccessArticle
Selected Metals in Urban Road Dust: Upper and Lower Silesia Case Study
Atmosphere 2020, 11(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030290 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
In this study, urban road dust (URD) samples were collected in two populated agglomerations of Wrocław and Katowice (Lower and Upper Silesia) in Poland. Both the total concentrations of URD-bound Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Ba, Cr, Mg, and Al and concentrations [...] Read more.
In this study, urban road dust (URD) samples were collected in two populated agglomerations of Wrocław and Katowice (Lower and Upper Silesia) in Poland. Both the total concentrations of URD-bound Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Ba, Cr, Mg, and Al and concentrations of their water-soluble fraction were determined. The contamination characteristics and health risk related to these elements were assessed. Contamination level assessment was done by Pollution Load Index (PLI), which indicated much higher pollution of Katowice agglomeration than Wrocław. The enrichment factor values (EF) showed that the most elements in both Katowice and Wrocław orginated from anthropogenic sources. The calculations of geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that Zn and As are the key pollutants in Katowice; and in the Wrocław region, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni are. The principle component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis provide information about the potential sources of metals. Additionally, a positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed and four factors in PMF analysis were found and then interpreted by comparing to the source profiles. Three contamination sources were revealed: fossil fuel combustion, road traffic and industrial emissions. Although the main source of studied metals in Lower Silesia is road traffic, in Upper Silesia, domestic heating with the use of hard and brawn coal and industrial activity predominates. Human exposure to individual toxic metals through road dust was assessed for both children and adults. By calculating the average daily dose (ADD) via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact, it was found that ingestion and then dermal contact were the greatest exposure pathways for humans in Katowice and Wrocław. Children had greater health risks than adults. According to the health risk assessment, the overall non-carcinogenic risks in both urban areas was rather low. The only exception was As bound to urban road dust in Katowice agglomeration, which indicates risk for children when ingested. The total excess cancer risk (ECR) was also lower than the acceptable level (10−6–10−4) for both adults and children, although ECR for Katowice was closer to this limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particulate Matters Emission in Poland)
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