Special Issue "Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Chang Shu
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Interests: development of new numerical methods; simulation of multiphase flows, fluid-structure-interactions and moving boundary flows; lattice boltzmann flux solver; gas kinetic flux solver; immersed boundary method
Dr. Yan Wang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Interests: numerical methods; multiphase flows; fluid-structure-interactions; lattice boltzmann flux solver

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Guest Editors are inviting submissions for a Special Issue in Applied Sciences on the subject area of “Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows”. Based on the gas kinetic theory, a variety of kinetic solvers have been developed and applied in computational fluid dyanimcs in recent years. As compared to the conventional Navier-Stokes solvers, the kinetic solvers can be well applied to simulate flows from continuum regime to non-continuum regime. Currently, the state-of-the-art development in this area is very fast. The kinetic solvers have been effectively applied to solve many challeging flow problems such as those in incompressible flows, compressible flows, thermal flows, multiphase flows, rarefied flows and moving boundary flows. Due to their physical features in solving flow problems, the kinetic solvers have been receiving more and more attention. Many researchers put efforts to develop and apply these new solver for their respective problems. We believe that it is timely to have this special issue, which collects articles in latest development from top researchers in the area. The issue will have a great impact in the community.

This Special Issue will focus on the development and application of kinetic solvers for various flow problems. Topics of interest for publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Lattice Boltzmann method/flux solver;
  • Gas kinetic flux solver/scheme;
  • Unified gas kinetic scheme;
  • Discrete unified gas kinetic scheme;
  • Discre velocity method;
  • Applications of kinetic solvers/schemes for various flow problems.
Prof. Dr. Chang Shu
Dr. Yan Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Lattice Boltzmann method
  • Lattice Boltzmann flux solver
  • Gas kinetic scheme
  • Gas kinetic flux solver
  • Unified gas kinetic scheme
  • Discrete unified gas kinetic scheme
  • Continuum flows
  • Rarefied flows.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Red Blood Cell Cytoplasmic Viscosity Contrasts on Single Cell and Bulk Transport Behaviour
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091616 - 11 Sep 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
In-silico cellular models of blood are invaluable to gain understanding about the many interesting properties that blood exhibits. However, numerical investigations that focus on the effects of cytoplasmic viscosity in these models are not very prevalent. We present a parallelised method to implement [...] Read more.
In-silico cellular models of blood are invaluable to gain understanding about the many interesting properties that blood exhibits. However, numerical investigations that focus on the effects of cytoplasmic viscosity in these models are not very prevalent. We present a parallelised method to implement cytoplasmic viscosity for HemoCell, an open-source cellular model based on immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann methods, using an efficient ray-casting algorithm. The effects of the implementation are investigated with single-cell simulations focusing on the deformation in shear flow, the migration due to wall induced lift forces, the characteristic response time in periodic stretching and pair collisions between red blood cells and platelets. Collective transport phenomena are also investigated in many-cell simulations in a pressure driven channel flow. The simulations indicate that the addition of a viscosity contrast between internal and external fluids significantly affects the deformability of a red blood cell, which is most pronounced during very short time-scale events. Therefore, modelling the cytoplasmic viscosity contrast is important in scenarios with high velocity deformation, typically high shear rate flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows)
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Article
Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Evaporating Thin Liquid Film for Vapor Generation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050798 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
Thin film evaporation (TFE) plays an important role in many industrial applications, such as power generation, cooling, and thermal management. Effective evaporation takes place in the thin liquid film region with relatively low film thickness and low intermolecular forces. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
Thin film evaporation (TFE) plays an important role in many industrial applications, such as power generation, cooling, and thermal management. Effective evaporation takes place in the thin liquid film region with relatively low film thickness and low intermolecular forces. In this paper, a numerical approach based on the thermal lattice Boltzmann method (TLBM) is employed to investigate the heat and mass transfer phenomena in TFE. The TLBM approach is validated by simulating some benchmark problems, and is then used to study a vapor generation problem where TFE is involved. Specifically, vapor is generated from evaporating pores, the solid walls of which are hydrophilic. Factors that affect the overall vapor generation efficiency are investigated via the numerical approach. Methods that can improve the overall efficiency are further proposed. Simulations reveal that distributed scenarios (using distributed small pores instead of a big one) and hydrophobic pore ends render more efficient vapor generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows)
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Article
A Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme for Transport and Collision Effects in Plasma
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050746 - 09 May 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
In this study, the Boltzmann equation with electric acceleration term is discretized and solved by the unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS). The charged particle transport driven by electric field is included in the electric acceleration term. To capture non-equilibrium distribution function, the probability distribution [...] Read more.
In this study, the Boltzmann equation with electric acceleration term is discretized and solved by the unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS). The charged particle transport driven by electric field is included in the electric acceleration term. To capture non-equilibrium distribution function, the probability distribution functions of gas is discretized in a discrete velocity space. After discretization, the numerical flux for distribution function is computed to update the microscopic and macroscopic states. The flux is decided by an integral solution of Boltzmann equation based on characteristic problem. An electron-ion collision model is introduced in the Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. This finite volume method for the UGKS couples the free transport and long-range interaction between particles. For simplicity, the electric field induced by charged particles is controlled by the Poisson’s equation, which is solved using the Green’s function for two dimensional plasma system subjected to the symmetry or periodic boundary conditions. Two numerical cases, linear Landau damping and Gaussian beam, are carried out to validate the proposed method. The linear electron plasma wave damping is simulated based on electron-ion collision operator. Comparison results show good accuracy and higher efficiency than particle based methods. Difference between Poisson’s equation and complete electromagnetic Maxwell equation is presented by numerical results based on the two models. Highly non-equilibrium and rarefied plasma flows, such as electron flows driven by electromagnetic field, can be simulated easily. The UGKS-Poisson model is proved to be promising in plasma flow simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows)
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Article
A Gas-Kinetic BGK Scheme for Natural Convection in a Rotating Annulus
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050733 - 05 May 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
In this paper, a gas-kinetic Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) scheme is developed for simulating natural convection in a rotating annulus, which arises in many scientific and engineering fields. Different from most existing methods for the solution of the incompressible Navier–Stokes (N–S) equations with the Boussinesq [...] Read more.
In this paper, a gas-kinetic Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) scheme is developed for simulating natural convection in a rotating annulus, which arises in many scientific and engineering fields. Different from most existing methods for the solution of the incompressible Navier–Stokes (N–S) equations with the Boussinesq approximation, compressible full N–S equations with allowable density variation are concerned. An appropriate BGK model is constructed for the macroscopic equations defined in a rotating frame of reference. In particular, in order to account for the source (non-inertial) effects in the BGK model, a microscopic source term is introduced into the modified Boltzmann equation. By using the finite volume method and assuming the flow is smooth, the time-dependent distribution function is simply obtained, from which the fluxes at the cell interface can be evaluated. For validation, a closed rotating annulus with differentially heated cylindrical walls is studied. A conventional N–S solver with the preconditioner is used for comparison. The numerical results show that the present method can accurately predict the variation of the Nusselt number with the Rayleigh number, but no preconditioning is required due to its delicate dissipation property. The computed instantaneous streamlines and temperature contours are also investigated, and it is verified that the Rayleigh–Bénard convection in a rotating annulus is very similar to that in a classical stationary horizontal enclosure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows)
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Article
Heat Transfer in Non-Newtonian Flows by a Hybrid Immersed Boundary–Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Difference Method
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040559 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
A hybrid immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann and finite difference method for fluid–structure interaction and heat transfer in non-Newtonian flow is presented. The present numerical method includes four parts: fluid solver, heat transfer solver, structural solver, and immersed boundary method for fluid–structure interaction and heat [...] Read more.
A hybrid immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann and finite difference method for fluid–structure interaction and heat transfer in non-Newtonian flow is presented. The present numerical method includes four parts: fluid solver, heat transfer solver, structural solver, and immersed boundary method for fluid–structure interaction and heat transfer. Specifically, the multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method is adopted for the dynamics of non-Newtonian flow, with a geometry-adaptive technique to enhance the computational efficiency and immersed boundary method to achieve no-slip boundary conditions. The heat transfer equation is spatially discretized by a second-order up-wind scheme for the convection term, a central difference scheme for the diffusion term, and a second-order difference scheme for the temporal term. The structural dynamics is numerically solved using a finite difference method. The major contribution of this work is the integration of spatial adaptivity, thermal finite difference method, and fluid flow immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. Several benchmark problems including the developing flow of non-Newtonian fluid in a channel, non-Newtonian fluid flow and heat transfer around a stationary cylinder and flow around a stationary cylinder with a detached filament are used to validate the present method and developed solver. The good agreements achieved by the present method with the published data show that the present extension is an efficient way for fluid–structure interaction and heat transfer involving non-Newtonian fluid. The heat transfer around an oscillating cylinder in non-Newtonian fluid flow at Reynolds number of 100 is also numerically studied using the present solver, considering the effects of the oscillating frequency and amplitude. The results may be used to expand the currently limited database of fluid–structure interaction and heat transfer benchmark studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows)
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Article
A Lattice Boltzmann Method and Asynchronous Model Coupling for Viscoelastic Fluids
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030352 - 28 Feb 2018
Viewed by 1723
Abstract
The numerical algorithms of viscoelastic flows can appear a tremendous challenge as the Weissenberg number (Wi) enlarged sufficiently. In this study, we present a generalized technique of time-stably advancing based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method, in order to improve the [...] Read more.
The numerical algorithms of viscoelastic flows can appear a tremendous challenge as the Weissenberg number (Wi) enlarged sufficiently. In this study, we present a generalized technique of time-stably advancing based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method, in order to improve the numerical stability of simulations at a high Wi number. The mathematical models of viscoelastic fluids include both the equation of the solvent and the Oldroyd-B constitutive equation of the polymer. In the two-dimensional (2D) channel flow, the coupled method shows good agreements between the corresponding exact results and the numerical results obtained by our method. In addition, as the Wi number increased, for the viscoelastic flows through contractions, we show that the prediction of our presented method can reproduce the same numerical results that were reported by previous studies. The main advantage of current method is that it can be applied to simulate the complex phenomena of the viscoelastic fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Applications of Kinetic Solvers for Complex Flows)
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