Special Issue "Environmental Toxicology – Toxic Effects, Mechanisms, and Risk Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Sustainable Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kyunghee Ji
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Environmental Science, Yongin University, Yongin, 17092, Korea
Interests: alternative compounds; bisphenols; ecotoxicology; endocrine disrupting chemicals; mixture toxicity; molecular toxicology; reproduction; thyroid hormones; persistent organic pollutants; pharmaceuticals; risk assessment
Dr. Sunmi Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chemical Safety Research Center, Chemical Platform Technology Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, Korea
Interests: Environmental & human health risk assessment; exposure assessment; biomonitoring; persistent organic pollutants (POPs); phthalates; bisphenols; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; consumer products; environmental epidemiology; multiple chemical exposure; thyroid hormones; ecotoxicology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will describe the toxic effects, mechanisms, and risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have been detected in the environment recently. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A and its alternatives, flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pharmaceuticals, phthalates, and others have been frequently detected in the environment and biota. However, there is only limited information available on their toxicological effects and risk assessment. To fill these knowledge gaps, this Special Issue aims to include a range of topics with the goal of linking toxic effects and underlying mechanisms for various endocrine-disrupting chemicals and approaches critical to support risk assessment and management. Manuscripts will be considered in areas such as:

  1. Hazard characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals;
  2. Toxic effects of individual chemicals or mixtures at different organizational levels;
  3. Investigations of the toxicological mechanism of endocrine disrupting chemicals;
  4. New strategies in risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals including in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods.
Prof. Kyunghee Ji
Dr. Sunmi Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bisphenol A and its alternatives
  • Ecotoxicity
  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals
  • Flame retardants
  • Mixture toxicity
  • Perfluoroalkyl acids
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Phthalates
  • Toxic effects and underlying mechanism
  • Risk assessment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Chronic Exposure to Pesticide Methomyl on Antioxidant Defense System in Testis of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Its Recovery Pattern
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3332; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083332 - 08 Apr 2021
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Abstract
The chronic effect of environmental methomyl on the antioxidant system in testis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and its recovery pattern was investigated. Tilapia were exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.2, 2, 20 and 200 μgL−1 methomyl for 30 days [...] Read more.
The chronic effect of environmental methomyl on the antioxidant system in testis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and its recovery pattern was investigated. Tilapia were exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.2, 2, 20 and 200 μgL−1 methomyl for 30 days and thereafter moved to methomyl-free water for 18 days. Antioxidant levels in testis, including glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione were measured every 6 days during the period of exposure, and at 18 days after being transferred to methomyl-free water. The results showed that lower methomyl concentration (0.2 μgL−1) had no effect on the above antioxidants, thus 0.2 μgL−1 could be seen as NOAEL for methomyl to tilapia. However, higher methomyl concentration of 2, 20 and 200 μgL−1 could significantly influence the above antioxidants. Glutathione peroxidase and oxidized glutathione increased significantly. On the contrary, reduced glutathione decreased significantly. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase increased at lower methomyl (2 and 20 μgL−1), but decreased at higher methomyl (200 μgL−1). The recovery test showed that oxidative damage caused by lower methomyl of 2 and 20 μgL−1 was reversible, and oxidative damage caused by higher methomyl of 200 μgL−1 was irreversible within 18 days of recovery period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Chronic Intoxication in Rats Exposed to Cadmium and Mercury
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 8066; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10228066 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 433
Abstract
Cadmium and mercury are widespread and non-biodegradable pollutants of great concern to human and animal health. In this study, the influence of exposure to low doses of cadmium and mercury on Wistar rats was investigated. The experiments aimed to identify suitable markers of [...] Read more.
Cadmium and mercury are widespread and non-biodegradable pollutants of great concern to human and animal health. In this study, the influence of exposure to low doses of cadmium and mercury on Wistar rats was investigated. The experiments aimed to identify suitable markers of chronic intoxication with heavy metals in rats. The subjects were 48 naive young rats (24 females and 24 males), four weeks old, grouped randomly into three distinct groups—control group, group exposed to cadmium and group exposed to mercury. The control group received sham treatment—clean untreated water. Cd exposed group received water containing cadmium chloride dihydrate and Hg exposed group received water with mercury dichloride. Both cadmium and mercury were administered to experimental rats in drinking water in concentrations exceeding the maximum acceptable concentration of these metals 500 times, i.e., 0.5 mg Hg and 2.5 mg Cd per liter of water. The results were evaluated quarterly during the experiment (52 weeks). Selected physiological parameters (life span, body weight changes and intake of food and water), reproductive parameters (number of births (litters), number of born pups and number of raised pups) and toxicological parameters (average daily dose, total dose received and the amount of toxic metal received) were studied. The results of the experiments indicate differences between both individual groups and between males and females, which confirmed that these parameters are essential in such experiments of chronic exposure to subtoxic doses of heavy metals. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Systematic Review of Exposure to Bisphenol A Alternatives and Its Effects on Reproduction and Thyroid Endocrine System in Zebrafish
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041837 - 19 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has been banned from use in plastic baby bottles because of concerns regarding endocrine disruption. Substances with similar chemical structures have been used as BPA alternatives; however, limited information [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has been banned from use in plastic baby bottles because of concerns regarding endocrine disruption. Substances with similar chemical structures have been used as BPA alternatives; however, limited information is available on their toxic effects. In the present study, we reviewed the endocrine disrupting potential in the gonad and thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish after exposure to BPA and its alternatives (i.e., bisphenol AF, bisphenol C, bisphenol F, bisphenol S, bisphenol SIP, and bisphenol Z). Most BPA alternatives disturbed the endocrine system by altering the levels of genes and hormones involved in reproduction, development, and growth in zebrafish. Changes in gene expression related to steroidogenesis and sex hormone production were more prevalent in males than in females. Vitellogenin, an egg yolk precursor produced in females, was also detected in males, confirming that it could induce estrogenicity. Exposure to bisphenols in the parental generation induced a decrease in the hatchability associated with offspring generation. In zebrafish exposed to bisphenols, significant decreases in thyroxine concentrations and increases in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were commonly observed. Alternative compounds used to replace a chemical of concern are believed to be less toxic than the original compound; however, several BPA alternatives appear to have similar or greater effects on the endocrine system in zebrafish. Since endocrine systems interact with each other, further studies are needed to assess the primary target of BPA alternatives among the endocrine axes. Full article
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