Feature Review Papers in "Earth Sciences and Geography" Section

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 October 2024 | Viewed by 19502

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DISAT), University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 4, 20126 Milano, Italy
Interests: isotope geochemistry (mainly light noble gas and CO2) in gases, waters, minerals/rocks (fluid inclusions) from volcanic/geothermal areas and lithospheric mantle; application of isotope geochemistry to volcano monitoring

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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Interests: transport and transformation of contaminants in natural porous media; soil and groundwater remediation; colloid and nanoparticle transport; ISCO; SEAR
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Interests: data fusion; downscaling; climate simulation; climate extremes; spatial analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the Editorial Board Members of the section Earth Sciences and Geography, we are glad to announce the Special Issue “Feature Review Papers in the ‘Earth Sciences and Geography’ Section”. This Special Issue aims to collect high-quality reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses from the field of earth sciences and geography (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci/sections/earth_sciences_geography).

We hope all published papers will be widely read and highly influential in the field. The topics of interest for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  • Remote sensing;
  • Geohazards;
  • Geochemistry;
  • Geophysics;
  • Geotechnical engineering;
  • Marine geoscience;
  • Stratigraphic geology or stratigraphy;
  • Hydrological and hydrogeological sciences;
  • Environmental contamination;
  • Climate studies.

Dr. Andrea L. Rizzo
Prof. Dr. Hua Zhong
Dr. Na Zhao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Remote sensing
  • Geoinformatics
  • Geohazards
  • Geochemistry
  • Geophysics
  • Geology
  • Geosciences
  • Mineral Resources
  • Geotechnical engineering
  • Marine geoscience
  • Hydrological and hydrogeological sciences
  • Environmental contamination
  • Climate studies
  • Big Data
  • Artificial Intelligence

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

15 pages, 1975 KiB  
Review
A Brief Review of Machine Learning Algorithms in Forest Fires Science
by Ramez Alkhatib, Wahib Sahwan, Anas Alkhatieb and Brigitta Schütt
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8275; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148275 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6499
Abstract
Due to the harm forest fires cause to the environment and the economy as they occur more frequently around the world, early fire prediction and detection are necessary. To anticipate and discover forest fires, several technologies and techniques were put forth. To forecast [...] Read more.
Due to the harm forest fires cause to the environment and the economy as they occur more frequently around the world, early fire prediction and detection are necessary. To anticipate and discover forest fires, several technologies and techniques were put forth. To forecast the likelihood of forest fires and evaluate the risk of forest fire-induced damage, artificial intelligence techniques are a crucial enabling technology. In current times, there has been a lot of interest in machine learning techniques. The machine learning methods that are used to identify and forecast forest fires are reviewed in this article. Selecting the best forecasting model is a constant gamble because each ML algorithm has advantages and disadvantages. Our main goal is to discover the research gaps and recent studies that use machine learning techniques to study forest fires. By choosing the best ML techniques based on particular forest characteristics, the current research results boost prediction power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in "Earth Sciences and Geography" Section)
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37 pages, 2862 KiB  
Review
Review of Photogrammetric and Lidar Applications of UAV
by Ľudovít Kovanič, Branislav Topitzer, Patrik Peťovský, Peter Blišťan, Marcela Bindzárová Gergeľová and Monika Blišťanová
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6732; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116732 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4790
Abstract
Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) combined with various sensors brings the benefits associated with fast, automatic, and contactless spatial data collection with high resolution and accuracy. The most frequent application is the possibility of effectively creating spatial models based on photogrammetric and lidar [...] Read more.
Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) combined with various sensors brings the benefits associated with fast, automatic, and contactless spatial data collection with high resolution and accuracy. The most frequent application is the possibility of effectively creating spatial models based on photogrammetric and lidar data. This review analyzes the current possibilities of UAVs. It provides an overview of the current state of the art and research on selected parameters regarding their history and development, classification, regulation, and application in surveying with creating spatial models. Classification and regulation are based on national sources. The importance and usability of this review are also carried out by analyzing the UAV application with selected photogrammetric and lidar sensors. The study explores and discusses results achieved by many authors in recent years, synthesizing essential facts. By analyzing the network of co-occurring High-Frequency Words, in addition, we visualized the importance of the primary keyword UAV in the context of other keywords in the literary sources processed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in "Earth Sciences and Geography" Section)
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13 pages, 6295 KiB  
Review
Calcareous Tufa: Deposition and Erosion during Geological Times
by Giandomenico Fubelli and Francesco Dramis
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4410; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074410 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1973
Abstract
There is a general agreement in referring the deposition of calcareous tufa to climatic causes. Warm climates are believed to favor calcareous tufa formation due to higher concentrations of biogenic CO2 in soils, enhancing the dissolution rates of CaCO3 and the [...] Read more.
There is a general agreement in referring the deposition of calcareous tufa to climatic causes. Warm climates are believed to favor calcareous tufa formation due to higher concentrations of biogenic CO2 in soils, enhancing the dissolution rates of CaCO3 and the broader development of aquatic plants that remove CO2 from spring waters. Conversely, cold climates are considered less favorable because of the reduced biological activity of soils and the lesser development of aquatic plants. Dry climates are also considered unfavorable to the deposition of calcareous tufa due to scarcity of rainwater and the consequent reduction of water circulating in the ground and spring discharge contrary to humid climates, which, besides allowing abundant water infiltration and emergence, favor the spreading of vegetation cover, the development of biogenic processes in the soils, and the growth of aquatic plants. An additional factor controlling calcareous tufa deposition may be the temperature difference between the ground surface and the aquifer in connection with major climatic changes due to the low thermal conductivity of the limestone bedrock. With climate warming, the infiltrating water, made highly acidic when crossing the soil due to the elevated partial pressure of biogenic CO2 present therein, percolating through the progressively colder levels of the aquifer, induces a relevant dissolution of CaCO3, definitely higher than in normal conditions. At emergence, because of the higher surface temperatures, running water turbulence, photosynthetic activity of mosses and algae, and evaporation of spray droplets, the groundwater loses CO2, becoming oversaturated with CaCO3 and causing tufa deposition, even at a great distance from the spring. Opposite effects, such as the deposition of dissolved carbonate in the upper bedrock layers and the emergence of spring waters undersaturated with CaCO3, capable of further dissolution, are expected to occur with major climatic changes to cold conditions. This model appears to be confirmed by the deposition/erosion stages of calcareous tufa, which repeatedly occurred during the Holocene and the late Pleistocene in different parts of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in "Earth Sciences and Geography" Section)
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22 pages, 3871 KiB  
Review
Quaternary Evolution of Ischia: A Review of Volcanology and Geology
by Gemma Aiello and Mauro Caccavale
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3554; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063554 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1683
Abstract
Ischia shows intriguing and complex geology, which has been deeply investigated. In this paper, a reappraisal of the Quaternary geologic evolution of Ischia based on literature data is advised, concentrating on the volcanology of the island, based on field data and geochemistry, due [...] Read more.
Ischia shows intriguing and complex geology, which has been deeply investigated. In this paper, a reappraisal of the Quaternary geologic evolution of Ischia based on literature data is advised, concentrating on the volcanology of the island, based on field data and geochemistry, due to the happening of active fumarolic systems on the island and the marine geology and geophysics, which are intensively studied in the frame of the CARG Project. The literature studies have been incorporated with the geological interpretation of high-resolution seismic profiles, partly previously published and herein reorganized with the aim to highlight the geologic evolution of the different sectors of the island (northern Ischia, southern Ischia). The outcrop data have shown the deposits of ten explosive eruptions: among them, we focused on the S. Angelo Tephra. The laccolith model has been described in order to explain the resurgence of Ischia starting from 55 ky B.P. Geochemical information has been synthesized to reconstruct the volcano-tectonic development of Ischia during the last 55 ky B.P. Different models of block resurgence of Ischia have been discussed, based on literature studies. These aspects have supplemented the Quaternary geologic evolution of Ischia. While the northern Ischia offshore shows complex stratigraphic relationships between buried volcanic edifices, the southern Ischia offshore has been mainly commanded by erosional activities, progressive next to a dense system of submarine channels, and by the volcano-tectonic activities, which have triggered off the location of the Ischia Debris Avalanche. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in "Earth Sciences and Geography" Section)
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20 pages, 822 KiB  
Review
Activation of Persulfate for Groundwater Remediation: From Bench Studies to Application
by Yan Li, Guansheng Liu, Jinping He and Hua Zhong
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031304 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3401
Abstract
Persulfate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been increasingly used for the remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. In recent years, there have been numerous studies in the literature on all aspects of the activation of persulfate for contaminant removal at the laboratory [...] Read more.
Persulfate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been increasingly used for the remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. In recent years, there have been numerous studies in the literature on all aspects of the activation of persulfate for contaminant removal at the laboratory scale, including the ways and mechanisms for the activation, the pathways of contaminant degradation, the factors associated with the activation performance, the methods characterizing the processes, etc. In contrast, studies in the literature on the practical use of the activated persulfate at the field scale are fewer, and at the same time have not been reviewed in an organized way. This review was initiated to summarize on the current research on the applications of activated persulfate for actual site remediation, and to extract the knowledge necessary for the formation of applicable technologies. The remediation efficiency and mechanism of activated persulfates by heat, alkaline, metal-based, and electrokinetic activated technologies are described. The major factors including pH, the persistence of persulfate, and the radius of influence and soil property during ISCO remediation applications were presented and discussed. Finally, the rebound process and impact towards microbial communities after in-situ chemical oxidation on site application were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Review Papers in "Earth Sciences and Geography" Section)
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