Special Issue "Viscoelastic Solids: Mechanical Behaviour, Contact Mechanics, Fracture and Wear"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Carbone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Meccanica-Matematica-Management DMMM, Campus, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Interests: contact mechanics; tribology; wetting and interfaces; applied computational mathematics; automotive systems engineerin; rheology of materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Carmine Putignano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanics, Mathematics and Management, Politecnico di Bari, V.le Japigia 182, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: contact mechanics; tribology; applied mechanics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Assessing the mechanics and the physics of viscoelastic solids is a crucial issue in current engineering research and in applied science. Indeed, a variety of physical phenomena, including inter alia friction, adhesion, wear, are deeply influenced by viscoelasticity and determine in turn the behavior and the efficiency of a number of engineering systems, like adhesives, protective coatings, tires, seals, brakes, and clutches.

In all these cases, dealing with viscoelastic solids has intrinsically a high degree of complexity due to the strongly time-dependent constitutive stress-strain relations governing their response. Further intricacy is found when viscoelastic bodies get into contact and the problem is exacerbated by the geometry of the intimately mating surfaces.

The theoretical significance and the emergent novel applications strictly related as mentioned above have drawn the attention of a larger and interdisciplinary scientific community, involving expertise from engineering, physics and mathematics. The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a forum and a survey for the most recent advances in the field of viscoelastic mechanics addressing the challenges in modern engineering applications.

We invite authors to submit original research and review articles, which stimulate the continuing efforts to understand and improve the knowledge in these fields. We are particularly interested in contributions focusing on mechanical behavior, contact and fracture of macro-, micro-, and nano-systems. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • rheology and mechanical behavior of viscoelastic solids

  • fracture, fatigue and wear of viscoelastic materials

  • contact, lubrication and friction of viscoelastic randomly rough and micro- and nano-structured surfaces

  • contact failures of biomimetic materials and surfaces

  • adhesive contacts

  • advanced numerical techniques to study contact and friction of randomly rough surfaces

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Carbone
Dr. Carmine Putignano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • rheology and mechanical behavior of viscoelastic solids

  • fracture, fatigue and wear of viscoelastic materials

  • contact, lubrication and friction of viscoelastic randomly rough and micro- and nano-structured surfaces

  • contact failures of biomimetic materials and surfaces

  • adhesive contacts

  • advanced numerical techniques to study contact and friction of randomly rough surfaces

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Finite Element Modeling of an Aircraft Tire Rolling on a Steel Drum: Experimental Investigations and Numerical Simulations
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040593 - 10 Apr 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal evolution of an aircraft tire rolling at high velocities up to take off values. As this kind of experiment is difficult to realize on a real runway, experimental tests were realized on aircraft [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the thermal evolution of an aircraft tire rolling at high velocities up to take off values. As this kind of experiment is difficult to realize on a real runway, experimental tests were realized on aircraft tires rolling on a steel drum. The rotating drum facility allows to apply variable velocities beyond the take off limits, at fixed skidding angles and loadings. The rolling conditions, vertical loading, velocity and cornering conditions were adopted to correspond to the real conditions of an aircraft tire running or skidding on a flat runway. In the experimental part, the influence of skidding angle, velocity and loading on the thermal evolution of the tire tread were investigated. The thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of a pneumatic radial tire structure was performed taking into account the hyper-viscoelastic rubber behavior, with heating mechanisms developed by the inelastic deformation and by friction. Three-dimensional finite element simulations of an aircraft tire rolling on a steel drum were carried out using Abaqus/Standard finite element solver. The comparison of the temperature distribution on the tire tread between numerical results and the experimental data shows the same overall tendencies. The good correlation between numerical and experimental data shows that numerical simulation could predict the thermal evolution of the tire in critical situations. The authors would like to mention that for confidentiality reason, certain numerical data could not be revealed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Fatigue of Viscoelastic Materials Subjected to Pounding
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010117 - 15 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
The pounding tuned mass damper (PTMD) is a novel vibration control device that can be used for many different structures. The PTMD utilizes a viscoelastic delimiter to enhance its vibration control effectiveness and robustness though pounding between the tuned mass and the viscoelastic [...] Read more.
The pounding tuned mass damper (PTMD) is a novel vibration control device that can be used for many different structures. The PTMD utilizes a viscoelastic delimiter to enhance its vibration control effectiveness and robustness though pounding between the tuned mass and the viscoelastic material. However, the viscoelastic material is subjected to repeated poundings during its service life, which influences the property of the material and degrades its energy dissipation ability. Therefore, this study investigates the fatigue behavior of the viscoelastic material under impact loading. An experimental apparatus, which can generate and sense the lateral impacts, is designed and fabricated to facilitate the fatigue study of the viscoelastic material subject to impact loading. Based on experimental data, the pounding stiffness and the hysteresis loops are employed to characterize the behavior of the material. It is revealed that the impact fatigue process can be divided into two phases: the cyclic-hardening phases and the cyclic-softening phase. The energy dissipation is firstly reduced, and then increased, by the repeated impacts. In summary, with a total of 360,000 impacts, the viscous elastic material is still effective in dissipating impact energy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contact Pressure and Strain Energy Density of Hyperelastic U-shaped Monolithic Seals under Axial and Radial Compressions in an Insulating Joint: A Numerical Study
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7080792 - 04 Aug 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
In insulation joints, elastomeric U-shaped monolithic seals (UMSs) are replacing O-ring systems because of their enhanced sealing capabilities for the oil and gas industries. UMSs are compressed axially during assembly and radially when pressurized in operation. The reliability of UMSs due to the [...] Read more.
In insulation joints, elastomeric U-shaped monolithic seals (UMSs) are replacing O-ring systems because of their enhanced sealing capabilities for the oil and gas industries. UMSs are compressed axially during assembly and radially when pressurized in operation. The reliability of UMSs due to the displacement imposed during assembly and the internal pressure in operation is influenced by the axial compression ratio, thickness ratio (TR), and geometric complexity. In this study, the hyperelastic behavior of elastomeric UMSs under axial and radial compressions is investigated using axisymmetric finite-element analysis. Twelve examples of UMSs with three geometric restraints (open grooves on both sides (type 1), an open groove on one side only (type 2), and no groove (type 3)) and four thickness ratios (TR = 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 1.50) are evaluated. To analyze nonlinear elastomeric materials, neo-Hookean constitutive equations are applied and the UMSs are considered as being a nearly incompressible hyperelastic material with a Poisson’s ratio of 0.499. The failure and detachment risks of UMSs are analyzed in terms of the equivalent stress, gap distance, contact pressure, and strain energy density. It is advantageous that the smaller the TR, the smaller the stress distribution. However, the generation of broader detachment regions is observed. Type 1 symmetrically shows the lowest stress distribution and the smallest detachment region, whereas type 3 symmetrically shows the highest values. Type 3 (TR = 0.25) shows the broadest detachment region in the arc-length range from −15.7 to 15.7 mm, whereas the largest gap of 0.7 mm is observed in type 2 (TR = 0.5). For all types, the detachment region disappears completely at TR = 1.0 or higher, which implies that full sealing is occurring. The average contact pressure increases exponentially during axial compression (in assembly) and linearly during radial compression (in operation). The largest contact pressure of 31.5 MPa is observed in type 3 (TR = 1.5), while the lowest is observed in type 1 (TR = 0.25). As for the strain energy density, type 3 at TR = 0.25 shows the largest increase in the strain energy density with 1.75 MJ/m3, while type 1 shows the most stable values of all cases. In conclusion, the lowest risk of failure of a nonlinear hyperelastic UMS was investigated numerically with minor equivalent stress and detachment region with higher contact pressure, which can be taken into account to ensure the reliability of the UMS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bonded-Particle Model with Nonlinear Elastic Tensile Stiffness for Rock-Like Materials
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070686 - 04 Jul 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
The bonded-particle model (BPM) is a very efficient numerical method in dealing with initiation and propagation of cracks in rocks and can model the fracture processes and most of macro parameters of rocks well. However, typical discrete element method (DEM) underestimates the ratio [...] Read more.
The bonded-particle model (BPM) is a very efficient numerical method in dealing with initiation and propagation of cracks in rocks and can model the fracture processes and most of macro parameters of rocks well. However, typical discrete element method (DEM) underestimates the ratio of the uniaxial compressive strength to the tensile strength (UCS/TS). In this paper, a new DEM method with a nonlinear elastic tensile model embedded in BPM is proposed, which is named as nonlinear elastic tensile bonded particle model (NET-BPM). The relationships between micro parameters in NET-BPM and macro parameters of specimens are investigated by simulating uniaxial compression tests and direct tension tests. The results show that both the shape coefficient of the nonlinear elastic model and the bond width coefficient are important in predicting the value of UCS/TS, whose value ranging from 5 to 45 was obtained in our simulations. It is shown that the NET-BPM model is able to reproduce the nonlinear behavior of hard rocks such as Lac du Bonnet (LDB) granite and the quartzite under tension and the ratio of compressive Young’s modulus to tensile Young’s modulus higher than 1.0. Furthermore, the stress-strain curves in the simulations of LDB granite and the quartzite with NET-BPM model are in good agreement with the experimental results. NET-BPM is proved to be a very suitable method for modelling the deformation and fracture of rock-like materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Free Interface Model for Static/Flowing Dynamics in Thin-Layer Flows of Granular Materials with Yield: Simple Shear Simulations and Comparison with Experiments
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7040386 - 12 Apr 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
Flows of dense granular materials comprise regions where the material is flowing, and regions where it is static. Describing the dynamics of the interface between these two regions is a key issue to understanding the erosion and deposition processes in natural environments. A [...] Read more.
Flows of dense granular materials comprise regions where the material is flowing, and regions where it is static. Describing the dynamics of the interface between these two regions is a key issue to understanding the erosion and deposition processes in natural environments. A free interface simplified model for non-averaged thin-layer flows of granular materials has been previously proposed by the authors. It is a coordinate-decoupled (separated variables) version of a model derived by asymptotic expansion from an incompressible viscoplastic model with Drucker-Prager yield stress. The free interface model describes the evolution of the velocity profile as well as the position of the transition between static and flowing material. It is formulated using the coordinate Z in the direction normal to the topography and contains a source term that represents the opposite of the net force acting on the flow, including gravity, pressure gradient, and internal friction. In this paper we introduce two numerical methods to deal with the particular formulation of this model with a free interface. They are used to evaluate the respective role of yield and viscosity for the case of a constant source term, which corresponds to simple shear viscoplastic flows. Both the analytical solution of the inviscid model and the numerical solution of the viscous model (with a constant viscosity or the variable viscosity of the μ ( I ) rheology) are compared with experimental data. Although the model does not describe variations in the flow direction, it reproduces the essential features of granular flow experiments over an inclined static layer of grains, including the stopping time and the erosion of the initial static bed, which is shown to be closely related to the viscosity for the simple shear case. Full article
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