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Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2023) | Viewed by 20035

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Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Processi Chimico-Fisici, (CNR–IPCF), 98158 Messina, Italy
Interests: structure and interactuion in nano-colloids (polymers and block copolymers; dendrimers; lipids; proteins); self-assembly in nanostructured (and hybrid) materials; interaction of nanoparticles with model bio-membranes and biomaterials
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The “International Conference On Advances in Biological Science and Technology” (ICABST2021) will be held during September 28–30, 2021 as an online video conference. The conference, which is organized by Asia-Pacific Association of Natural Science and Engineering (APANSE), and co-organized by Hanoi National University of Education, Mahidol University, has been designed to provide an extensive platform for scientists, researchers and scholars to present their research results and newest findings in all fields of biological science and technology, especially in biotechnology and bioengineering, biomedical engineering, clinical medicine, biopharmaceuticals and pharmacology, animal and plant sciences and other related topics. The conference brings together scientists from different backgrounds (including physics, chemistry, biochemistry and biophysics, biomedicine engineering) involved in different aspects of interdisciplinary research and innovation, with the aim to discuss the practical challenges encountered recommend better solutions for biotechnology, biomedicine, biomedical engineering and related techniques. More information about the conference can be found at https://icabst.apanse.com/. Participants of the conference are cordially invited to contribute original research papers or reviews to this Special Issue of Applied Science. This Special Issue welcomes submission of previously unpublished manuscripts from original work on all aspects of biological science and technology. 

Dr. Domenico Lombardo
Guest Editor

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • bioengineering
  • biomedical engineering
  • biopharmaceuticals and pharmacology
  • animal and plant sciences

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1242 KiB  
Article
Difference of Two Antiseptic Gels for the Treatment of Peri-Implant Mucositis on Plaque Index and Bleeding Score: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study
by Stefano Storelli, Giulia Palandrani, Barbara Manfredi, Eugenio Romeo, Dario De Martis, Claudia Todaro, Ruggero Rodriguez y Baena and Saturnino Marco Lupi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031288 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Aim: To analyze and compare the effectiveness of two antibacterial gels in the treatment of mucositis. Methods: After signing the informed consent, in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, revised in 2000, 21 patients were included in the study and divided by [...] Read more.
Aim: To analyze and compare the effectiveness of two antibacterial gels in the treatment of mucositis. Methods: After signing the informed consent, in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, revised in 2000, 21 patients were included in the study and divided by randomization into two groups. At the baseline, the modified bleeding index (mBI) and plaque index (PI) values were measured, and an oral hygiene and implant disinfection session was carried out. The session was repeated at 7, 15, and 30 days and after 2 and 3 months from the baseline. Two products were used—a bioadhesive gel in the test group and a 1% chlorhexidine gel in the control group. Results: Due to three dropouts, the final sample was composed of 18 patients. An improvement in periodontal indices was observed, similar to mBI and PI values, in both groups. There were no complications except for the appearance of pigmentations in the control group. Conclusions: The antibacterial power and effectiveness of the two gels are comparable. Considering the small sample size of the study cohort, further studies are needed to validate the results obtained from this pilot study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology)
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32 pages, 5557 KiB  
Article
Probing the Interactions of LRP1 Ectodomain-Derived Peptides with Fibrillar Tau Protein and Its Impact on Cellular Internalization
by E. Josephine Boder, Beatriz G. Goncalves, Charlotta G. Lebedenko and Ipsita A. Banerjee
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020853 - 7 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Cellular internalization and the spreading of misfolded tau have become increasingly important for elucidating the mechanism of Tau pathology involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 1 (LRP1) has been implicated in the internalization of fibrillar tau. In this work, we [...] Read more.
Cellular internalization and the spreading of misfolded tau have become increasingly important for elucidating the mechanism of Tau pathology involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 1 (LRP1) has been implicated in the internalization of fibrillar tau. In this work, we utilized homology modeling to model the Cluster 2 domain of LRP1 and determined that a 23-amino-acid sequence is involved in binding to paired helical filaments (PHF) of Tau. Fourteen short peptide segments derived from this ectodomain region were then designed and docked with PHF Tau. Molecular dynamics studies of the optimal peptides bound to PHF Tau demonstrated that the peptides formed critical contacts through Lys and Gln residues with Tau. Based on the computational results, flow cytometry, AFM, SPR analysis and CD studies were conducted to examine binding and cellular internalization. The results showed that the peptide sequence TauRP (1–14) (DNSDEENCES) was not only associated with fibrillar Tau but was also able to mitigate its cellular internalization in LRP1-expressed HEK-293 cells. Preliminary docking studies with Aβ (1–42) revealed that the peptides also bound to Aβ (1–42). While this study focused on the CCR2 domain of LRP1 to design peptide sequences to mitigate Tau internalization, the work can be extended to other domains of the LRP1 receptor or other receptors to examine if the cellular internalization of fibrillar Tau can be deterred. These findings show that short peptides derived from the LRP1 receptor can alter the internalization of its ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology)
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9 pages, 489 KiB  
Article
Acute Impact of Proprioceptive Exercise on Proprioception and Balance in Athletes
by Pedro Harry-Leite, Manuel Paquete, José Teixeira, Miguel Santos, José Sousa, José António Fraiz-Brea and Fernando Ribeiro
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020830 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the acute effect of a proprioceptive exercise session and a non-specific exercise session on knee position sense, and the static and dynamic balance of athletes. Sixty male athletes (19.4 ± 1.2 years) participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures study. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the acute effect of a proprioceptive exercise session and a non-specific exercise session on knee position sense, and the static and dynamic balance of athletes. Sixty male athletes (19.4 ± 1.2 years) participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures study. Knee position sense in closed kinetic chain, and static (BESS test) and dynamic balance (Y-balance test) were measured before and after two exercise sessions, consisting of 10 min of non-specific exercise in a cycle-ergometer or proprioceptive exercise with an unstable platform. Overall, both exercise sessions significantly improved knee position sense, BESS score, and YBT composite score, and no differences were detected between proprioceptive and non-specific sessions (knee position sense, −6.9 ± 65.2% vs. −11.5 ± 75.0%, p = 0.680; BESS, −19.3 ± 47.7% vs. −29.03 ± 23.5%, p = 0.121; YBT, 2.6 ± 2.7% vs. 2.2 ± 2.2%, p = 0.305). Twenty athletes did not improve knee position sense after the exercise session (non-responders). When analyzing only the exercise responders, both sessions improved knee position sense, but the improvement was greater after the proprioceptive exercise session (56.4 ± 25.6% vs. 43.8 ± 18.9%, p = 0.023). In conclusion, a single proprioceptive, as well as non-specific, exercise session increased knee position sense and balance. The proprioceptive exercise seems to be more effective in improving joint position sense when considering only athletes who respond to the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology)
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Review

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14 pages, 1262 KiB  
Review
New Frontiers in Diagnosis and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): The Role of Dendritic Cells and Innovative High-Throughput Techniques
by Grazia Maria Virzì, Anna Clementi, Maria Mattiotti, Giovanni Giorgio Battaglia, Claudio Ronco and Monica Zanella
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4276; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074276 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Kidney diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), represent a general, public health urgency, causing a heavy burden to global health care systems. Moreover, AKI is a frequent complication of hospitalization, and it is associated with short-term morbidity and [...] Read more.
Kidney diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), represent a general, public health urgency, causing a heavy burden to global health care systems. Moreover, AKI is a frequent complication of hospitalization, and it is associated with short-term morbidity and mortality rate greater than 50%, as a result of its relationship with other severe complications. Furthermore, multiple pathophysiologic processes are involved in AKI, such as cellular death, apoptosis, mesenchymal transition, cellular infiltration, inflammation, cytokines release, coagulation, and complement activation. Since increasing evidence highlighted the central role of the immune system in AKI pathophysiology, several efforts have been made to delineate the link between this disease and the different population of immune cells. This narrative review aims to describe the role played by dendritic cells (DCs) in AKI, with a special focus on recent findings suggesting DCs suppression as a promising strategy to prevent AKI negative side effects and ameliorate renal injury and dysfunction. Furthermore, we briefly summarize the main characteristics of innovative high-throughput techniques, including as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in the context of AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology)
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19 pages, 1225 KiB  
Review
Review of Studies on Emotion Recognition and Judgment Based on Physiological Signals
by Wenqian Lin and Chao Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042573 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4867
Abstract
People’s emotions play an important part in our daily life and can not only reflect psychological and physical states, but also play a vital role in people’s communication, cognition and decision-making. Variations in people’s emotions induced by external conditions are accompanied by variations [...] Read more.
People’s emotions play an important part in our daily life and can not only reflect psychological and physical states, but also play a vital role in people’s communication, cognition and decision-making. Variations in people’s emotions induced by external conditions are accompanied by variations in physiological signals that can be measured and identified. People’s psychological signals are mainly measured with electroencephalograms (EEGs), electrodermal activity (EDA), electrocardiograms (ECGs), electromyography (EMG), pulse waves, etc. EEG signals are a comprehensive embodiment of the operation of numerous neurons in the cerebral cortex and can immediately express brain activity. EDA measures the electrical features of skin through skin conductance response, skin potential, skin conductance level or skin potential response. ECG technology uses an electrocardiograph to record changes in electrical activity in each cardiac cycle of the heart from the body surface. EMG is a technique that uses electronic instruments to evaluate and record the electrical activity of muscles, which is usually referred to as myoelectric activity. EEG, EDA, ECG and EMG have been widely used to recognize and judge people’s emotions in various situations. Different physiological signals have their own characteristics and are suitable for different occasions. Therefore, a review of the research work and application of emotion recognition and judgment based on the four physiological signals mentioned above is offered. The content covers the technologies adopted, the objects of application and the effects achieved. Finally, the application scenarios for different physiological signals are compared, and issues for attention are explored to provide reference and a basis for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology)
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26 pages, 1629 KiB  
Review
The Role of Iron in DNA and Genomic Instability in Cancer, a Target for Iron Chelators That Can Induce ROS
by Andrew Carter, Seth Racey and Stephany Veuger
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 10161; https://doi.org/10.3390/app121910161 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3347
Abstract
Iron is a key metal involved in several biological processes such as DNA replication and repair, cellular proliferation and cell cycle regulation. Excess volumes of labile iron are toxic and can lead to the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) via Fenton chemistry. [...] Read more.
Iron is a key metal involved in several biological processes such as DNA replication and repair, cellular proliferation and cell cycle regulation. Excess volumes of labile iron are toxic and can lead to the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) via Fenton chemistry. Due to this reactive nature, it can contribute to DNA damage and genomic instability. Therefore, excess iron in the labile iron pool is associated with cancer, which has made the labile iron pool a crucial target for anticancer therapy by targeting iron. This iron can be incorporated into essential enzymes such as ribonucleotide reductase (RnR). Over several decades of research, iron chelators function as more than just RnR inhibitors. Indeed, a plethora of iron chelator mechanisms can result in therapeutic properties that can target critical steps of cancer cells’ aberrant biological abilities such as proliferation, migration and metastasis. One such mechanism is the production of redox-active complexes that can produce toxic levels of ROS in cancer cells. Cancer cells are potentially more susceptible to ROS production or modulation of antioxidant levels. Understanding iron metabolism is vital in targeting cancer. For instance, Fe-S clusters have recently been shown to play crucial roles in cell signalling by ROS through their incorporation into essential DNA replication and repair enzymes. ROS can also degrade Fe-S clusters. Iron chelators that produce toxic levels of ROS, therefore, could also target Fe-S centres. Thus, the design of iron chelators is important, as this can determine if it will participate in redox cycling and produce ROS or if it is solely used to remove iron. This review focuses on alterations in cancer iron metabolism, iron’s role in genomic stability and how the design of chelators can use Fenton chemistry to their advantage to cause DNA damage in cancer cells and potentially inhibit Fe-S centres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology)
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Other

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10 pages, 4476 KiB  
Case Report
Fixation of Iliac Avulsion Fracture Using Additive Manufacturing Titanium Mesh after DCIA Flap Harvesting: Case Report
by Ye-Joon Jo, Yong-Jin Cho, Jun-Seong Kim, Jin Kim, Jae-Seak You, Ji-Su Oh and Seong-Yong Moon
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052855 - 23 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Jaw defects can have a variety of causes, including tumors, trauma, and osteomyelitis. The reconstruction of jaw defects has been improved with the free flap technique and sophisticated microvascular techniques. A deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap provides a large amount of bone [...] Read more.
Jaw defects can have a variety of causes, including tumors, trauma, and osteomyelitis. The reconstruction of jaw defects has been improved with the free flap technique and sophisticated microvascular techniques. A deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap provides a large amount of bone for the reconstruction of the mandible. However, various complications and side effects, such as abnormal hip contour, hernia, severe bleeding tendency, gait disturbance, and hypoesthesia, can occur. Iliac bone fracture is not a common complication after DCIA flap harvesting, because the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) can include the harvested flap. If an iliac avulsion fracture occurs, various treatment options exist. If severe dislocation of the bone fragment exists, open reduction and internal fixation are required. At this time, orthopedic implants composed of various materials can be used. Among these, when using a 3D-fabricated implant using a Ti6Al4V alloy, the accuracy of the size and shape is excellent, and it can have mechanical–biocompatible advantages. In this study, we report cases of iliac bone fracture after reconstruction of the jaw with a DCIA flap and the treatment modality using a 3D-printed, patient-specific titanium implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biological Science and Technology)
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