Authentication of Honey

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2022) | Viewed by 16474

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Food Science and Technology, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: quality of beehive products; food microbiology; meat science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to announce the opening of a new Special Issue in the Applied Sciences Journal.

The main topic of the issue will be honey authentication. Honey is more than sugar; it is mostly composed of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, but also contains a number of other constituents. Several of these are bioactive, including polyphenols, flavonoids, organic acids, Maillard reaction products, carotenoid derivatives, vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. Due to its high compositional complexity, the mechanisms underlying the health benefits of honey are still unclear. The focus on the beneficial properties of honey suggests that its effects are derived from its oligosaccharide content, although future work directly assessing these claims is still needed. Furthermore, honeys can differ in their sensory properties depending on geographical, seasonal, and processing conditions as well as floral source and storage conditions. Taking the above statements into account, the need for modernising the purity criteria of honey, moving beyond the basic quality requirements laid down in the current EU and FAO/WHO Codex legislation, is clear. Clearer product definitions are particularly needed for unifloral honeys.

It is essential to have decision criteria concerning honey authentication. A lack of such agreed criteria impedes regulatory follow-up and the fight against honey adulteration.

Generally, the laboratories are well-equipped for detecting conventional honey frauds, particularly for basic quality controls; however, there is a need for screening tools to cope with the huge number of samples that need to be tested in an economically feasible manner.

The purpose of this Special Issue was to publish high-quality papers with the aim of covering the state-of-the-art, recent progress and perspectives related to honey authentication.

 The following are some of the topics proposed for this Special Issue:

  • Critical review of the current definition of identity and purity criteria of honey;
  • Acceptance/rejection criteria for authenticating honey;
  • Development of accurate sensory profiles for unifloral honeys;
  • Screening methods developed to economise testing;
  • Analytical methods to detect emerging fraud;
  • Physicho-chemical and biological characteristics of genuine honeys;
  • Botanical and geographical characterization by Melissopalynological analysis.

Dr. Salud Serrano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • honey
  • sensory analysis
  • authentication
  • melissopalynological analysis
  • physicho-chemical properties
  • biological properties
  • unifloral
  • multifloral

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on Authentication of Honey
by Salud Serrano
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4467; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074467 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Honey is an appreciated and widely used product, not only due to its nutritional aspects, but also its medical properties [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authentication of Honey)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Sidr (Ziziphus spp.) Honey from Different Geographical Origins
by Ahmed G. Hegazi, Fayez M. Al Guthami, Mohamed F. A. Ramadan, Ahmed F. M. Al Gethami, A. Morrie Craig and Salud Serrano
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189295 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3169
Abstract
The current investigation was conducted to assess the melissopalynological, physicochemical, and biochemical properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities as well as total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 794 Sidr honey samples collected from the Saudi market that had been imported from 12 different [...] Read more.
The current investigation was conducted to assess the melissopalynological, physicochemical, and biochemical properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities as well as total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 794 Sidr honey samples collected from the Saudi market that had been imported from 12 different countries. Testing Sidr honey from different countries showed different levels of growth suppression observed against five drug resistant bacterial strains. The pathogenic strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity showed growth suppression levels which varied according to the origin of the honey. The comparative study of Sidr honeys revealed a strong correlation between total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and significant radical scavenging activities in particular Egyptian and Saudi Arabian honeys. The melissopalynological and physicochemical properties of different Sidr honeys complied with the recommendations of the WHO Codex Alimentarius, the European Union standards for honey quality, and the Gulf Technical Regulation on honey (GSO 147:2008-Standards Store-GCC Standardization Organization). It was concluded that Sidr honey from different geographical areas has the capacity to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria and perform significant radical scavenging activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authentication of Honey)
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10 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Carbohydrate Profile and Invertase Activity of Adulterated Honeys after Bee Feeding
by Dimitrios Kanelis, Vasilios Liolios, Chrysoula Tananaki and Maria-Anna Rodopoulou
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3661; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073661 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
The higher demand for honey from consumers, combined with its limited availability, has led to different types of honey adulteration, causing substantial economic as well as negative impacts on consumers’ nutrition and health. Therefore, a need has emerged for reliable and cost-effective quality [...] Read more.
The higher demand for honey from consumers, combined with its limited availability, has led to different types of honey adulteration, causing substantial economic as well as negative impacts on consumers’ nutrition and health. Therefore, a need has emerged for reliable and cost-effective quality control methods to detect honey adulteration to ensure both the safety and quality of honey. To simulate the process with those applied by beekeepers in real-time, bee colonies were fed with different types of bee feeding (sugar syrup, candy paste and commercial syrup). The produced samples were analyzed for their carbohydrate profile and their invertase activity with the aim to find the effects of bee feeding on the quality of the final product. Honey samples produced after feeding with commercial syrup presented low fructose (22.9 %) and glucose (31.7 %) concentrations and high content of maltose (20.1%), while the samples that came from bee feeding with sugar syrup and candy paste had high concentrations of sucrose (6.2 % and 3.2 %, respectively), exceeding in some cases the legislative limits. Moreover, the samples coming from sugar feeding had lower values of invertase activity, while the group with inverted syrup was clearly discriminated through multi-discriminant analysis. The invertase activity of control samples was found at 153.7 U/kg, which was significantly higher compared to the other groups. The results showed that bee feeding during honey production might lead to adulteration, which can be detected through routine analyses, including the carbohydrate profile and the invertase activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authentication of Honey)
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25 pages, 1573 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Volatile Compounds in Combination with Multivariate Analysis for the Characterization of Monofloral Honeys
by Chrysoula Tananaki, Vasilios Liolios, Dimitrios Kanelis and Maria Anna Rodopoulou
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010264 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
Lately there has been a growing demand for monofloral honeys with distinctive properties. Considering the limitations of pollen analysis, the volatile profile of honey has been proposed as a helpful supplementary tool for the confirmation of monoflorality; however, research remains regarding the volatile [...] Read more.
Lately there has been a growing demand for monofloral honeys with distinctive properties. Considering the limitations of pollen analysis, the volatile profile of honey has been proposed as a helpful supplementary tool for the confirmation of monoflorality; however, research remains regarding the volatile markers that may characterize the monofloral honey types. Therefore, in this study, we tried to expand the research by investigating the aroma profiles of five monofloral honey types (fir, pine, erica, thyme, cotton) and discriminate them through chemometric approach. A purge and trap–gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer system was used for the extraction, separation, and identification of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. Thyme honey had the richest quantitatively aroma profile, with 97 volatile compounds, whereas fir and cotton honeys had 65 and 60 volatile compounds, respectively. From a total of 124 compounds, the 38 were detected in all the studied honey types. Thyme honey was distinguished by the presence (or percentage participation) of benzeneacetaldehyde, benzealdehyde, and benzyl nitrile; erica honey of isophorone and furfural; cotton honey of 1-butanol, 2-methyl, 1-pentanol, and 4-methyl-; and honeydew honeys of α-pinene, octane, and nonanal. The discriminant analysis confirmed that the percentage participation of volatile compounds may lead to the discrimination of the studied monofloral honey types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authentication of Honey)
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9 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Sensory Profile of Greek Islands Thyme Honey
by Inmaculada Rodríguez, Chrysoula Tananaki, Hortensia Galán-Soldevilla, Pilar Ruiz Pérez-Cacho and Salud Serrano
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9548; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209548 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
The sensory profiles of thyme honey from the Greek islands with different thymus pollen grain contents (A: >60%, B: 40–60%, and C: 18–40%) were studied. The results of the physico-chemical analyses fulfilled the criteria set by international quality standards and, specifically, Greek legislation [...] Read more.
The sensory profiles of thyme honey from the Greek islands with different thymus pollen grain contents (A: >60%, B: 40–60%, and C: 18–40%) were studied. The results of the physico-chemical analyses fulfilled the criteria set by international quality standards and, specifically, Greek legislation (moisture content < 18%, hydroxymethylfurfural < 10 mg/kg, and diastase activity > 20 DN). The sensory results showed that there were significant differences between groups with different pollen grain contents (p < 0.01) for all attributes except for floral aroma, with the Group A samples being the lightest in color (4.9 ± 1.8) and having the highest floral odor intensity (5.0 ± 2.0) and salty taste (3.5 ± 1.1). Additionally, samples with the highest pollen grain content (i.e., Group A) had olfactory notes of wood/wax/resin and a chemical aroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authentication of Honey)
15 pages, 2207 KiB  
Article
The Use of Right Angle Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Distinguish the Botanical Origin of Greek Common Honey Varieties
by Marinos Xagoraris, Panagiota-Kyriaki Revelou, Eleftherios Alissandrakis, Petros A. Tarantilis and Christos S. Pappas
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4047; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094047 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2874
Abstract
The standardization of the botanical origin of honey reflects the commercial value and quality of honey. Nowadays, most consumers are looking for a unifloral honey. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel method for honey classification using chemometric models [...] Read more.
The standardization of the botanical origin of honey reflects the commercial value and quality of honey. Nowadays, most consumers are looking for a unifloral honey. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel method for honey classification using chemometric models based on phenolic compounds analyzed with right angle fluorescence spectroscopy, coupled with stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The deconstructed spectrum from three-dimensional-emission excitation matrix (3D-EEM) spectra provided a correct classification score of 94.9% calibration and cross-validation at an excitation wavelength (λex) of 330 nm. Subsequently, a score of 81.4% and 79.7%, respectively, at an excitation wavelength (λex) of 360 nm was achieved. Each chemometric model confirmed its power through the external validation with a score of 82.1% for both. Differentiation could be correlated with hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids, which absorb in this region of the spectrum. Fluorescence spectroscopy constitutes a rapid and sensitive technique, which, when combined with the stepwise algorithm and LDA method, can be used as a reliable and predictive authentication tool for honey. This study indicates that the developed methodology is a promising technique for determination of the botanical origin of common Greek honey varieties. Our long-term ambition is to support producers and suppliers to remain in a competitive national and international market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authentication of Honey)
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13 pages, 2413 KiB  
Article
SPME-GC-MS and FTIR-ATR Spectroscopic Study as a Tool for Unifloral Common Greek Honeys’ Botanical Origin Identification
by Marinos Xagoraris, Panagiota-Kyriaki Revelou, Stela Dedegkika, Charalabos D. Kanakis, George K. Papadopoulos, Christos S. Pappas and Petros A. Tarantilis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3159; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073159 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3344
Abstract
Among the variants of Greek honey, the most commonly available are pine, fir, thyme, and citrus honey. Samples of the above kinds of honey, identified according to European and Greek legislation, were studied using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the [...] Read more.
Among the variants of Greek honey, the most commonly available are pine, fir, thyme, and citrus honey. Samples of the above kinds of honey, identified according to European and Greek legislation, were studied using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. Two chemometric models were developed based on statistically significant volatile compounds (octane; 2-phenylacetaldehyde; 1-nonanol; methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate; 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl); nonanoic acid) and the 1390–945 and 847–803 cm−1 spectral regions, mainly vibrations of fructose and glucose, combined with the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (stepwise LDA) statistical technique. In total, 85.5% of standard samples, and 82.3% through internal validation and 88.5% through external validation, were identified correctly using the GC-MS-stepwise-LDA chemometric model. The corresponding results for the ATR-FTIR-stepwise-LDA chemometric model were 93.5%, 82.5%, and 84.6%. The double validation (internal, external) enhances the robustness of the proposed chemometric models. The developed models are considered statistically equivalent, but FTIR spectroscopy is simple, rapid, and more economical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Authentication of Honey)
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