Special Issue "New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Quinzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Interests: orthodontics; facial anomalies; esthetic dentistry; skeletal anchorage; dentofacial orthopedics; cephalometry; evidence based in orthodontics; craniofacial growth; craniomandibular disorders; digital radiography; orthognathic surgery, digital workflow
Prof. Dr. Riccardo Nucera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, Section of Orthodontics, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario “G. Martino”, 98123 Messina, Italy
Interests: imaging in orthodontics; digital orthodontics; facial esthetics, smile esthetics; palatal expansion; skeletal anchorage; orthodontic biomechanics; evidence based orthodontics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Digital Technology has drastically changed all fields of medicine. Dentistry and Orthodontics have been significantly affected by the introduction of new technologies and new materials (e.g., Technopolymers). Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning have been improved using CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography). Nowadays, all patient’s records can be collected in a digital support with the introduction of intra and extraoral scanners. Digital models of the patient’s arches can be used for diagnostic purposes and CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software can simulate and forecast treatment results. Digitalization has led to a better individualized Orthodontic treatment improving efficiency and efficacy of the treatment itself. All new digital technologies and new materials offer great research opportunities due to the lack scientific description and validation of the newest diagnostic tools with its relative workflow procedures. The aim of the researcher is to collect all scientific literature that can describe and validate the most innovative diagnostic and therapeutic procedures introduced with a broad application of digital technology in Orthodontics. In order to achieve these goals, contributors and experts in various applications of digital orthodontics are invited to contribute to this emergent issue.

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Quinzi
Prof. Dr. Riccardo Nucera
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Digital Workflow
  • CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography)
  • Intraoral and Extraoral Scanner
  • Digital impression
  • Customized orthodontic Devices
  • Technopolymers
  • 3D printing
  • TAD’s (Temporary Anchorage Devices) or Miniscrew
  • Digital Smile Design
  • Orthodontic Aligners

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Impact of Calcitriol on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Cumulative Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8882; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198882 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
A cumulative review with a systematic approach aimed to provide a comparison of studies’ investigating the possible impact of the active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (CTL), on the tooth movement caused by orthodontic forces (OTM) by evaluating the quality of [...] Read more.
A cumulative review with a systematic approach aimed to provide a comparison of studies’ investigating the possible impact of the active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (CTL), on the tooth movement caused by orthodontic forces (OTM) by evaluating the quality of evidence, based on collating current data from animal model studies, in vivo cell culture studies, and human clinical trials. Methods: A strict systematic review protocol was applied following the application of the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). A structured search strategy, including main keywords, was defined during detailed search with the application of electronic database systems: Medline/Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. In addition, a search was carried out with the use of ClinicalTrials.gov search in order to include ongoing or recently completed trials. The Oxford Level of Evidence and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was utilized to critically evaluate the risk of bias and relative quality of studies included. Meta-analysis with the use of RevMan5 software, random effect, and inverted variable method allowed the quantification of cumulative results. Results: Twenty-seven studies were identified which fulfilled inclusion criteria, including two clinical studies. The assessed level of evidence was variable and inconsistent, predominantly being moderate or low due to a significant difference in study design, sample size, and study protocols. Data synthesis rendered from meta-analysis involving various CTL doses demonstrated slight discrepancies in tooth movement between control and experimental groups (mean difference = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.01–0.53, std mean difference = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.09–0.89), as well as relatively moderate heterogenicity. Conclusions: Although it has been suggested that CTL could accelerate OTM in animal studies and clinical context, these scarce data were supported by a low level of evidence and the studies were carried out using inadequate sample size. Well-powered RCT studies would help to overcome the lack of robustness of the research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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Article
Using FEM to Assess the Effect of Orthodontic Forces on Affected Periodontium
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7183; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167183 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 555
Abstract
Orthodontic treatment in patients with no periodontal tissue breakdown vs. horizontal bone loss should be approached with caution even though it can bring significant benefits in terms of periodontal recovery and long-term success. We used the finite element method (FEM) to simulate various [...] Read more.
Orthodontic treatment in patients with no periodontal tissue breakdown vs. horizontal bone loss should be approached with caution even though it can bring significant benefits in terms of periodontal recovery and long-term success. We used the finite element method (FEM) to simulate various clinical scenarios regarding the periodontal involvement: healthy with no horizontal bone loss, moderate periodontal damage (33%) and severe horizontal bone loss (66%). Afterwards, forces of different magnitudes (0.25 N, 1 N, 3 N, and 5 N) were applied in order to observe the behavioral patterns. Through mathematical modeling, we recorded the maximum equivalent stresses (σ ech), the stresses on the direction of force application (σ c) and the displacements produced (f) in the whole tooth–periodontal ligament–alveolar bone complex with various degrees of periodontal damage. The magnitude of lingualization forces in the lower anterior teeth influences primarily the values of equivalent tension, then those of the tensions in the direction in which the force is applied, and lastly those of the displacement of the lower central incisor. However, in the case of the lower lateral incisor, it influences primarily the values of the tensions in the direction in which the force is applied, then those of equivalent tensions, and lastly those of displacement. Anatomical particularities should also be considered since they may contribute to increased periodontal risk in case of lingualization of the LLI compared to that of the LCI, with a potential emergence of the “wedge effect”. To minimize periodontal hazards, the orthodontic force applied on anterior teeth with affected periodontium should not exceed 1 N. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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Article
Digital (R)Evolution: Open-Source Softwares for Orthodontics
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6033; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136033 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Among the innovations that have changed modern orthodontics, the introduction of new digital technologies in daily clinical practice has had a major impact, in particular the use of 3D models of dental arches. The possibility for direct 3D capture of arches using intraoral [...] Read more.
Among the innovations that have changed modern orthodontics, the introduction of new digital technologies in daily clinical practice has had a major impact, in particular the use of 3D models of dental arches. The possibility for direct 3D capture of arches using intraoral scanners has brought many clinicians closer to the digital world. The digital revolution of orthodontic practice requires both hardware components and dedicated software for the analysis of STL models and all other files generated by the digital workflow. However, there are some negative aspects, including the need for the clinician and technicians to learn how to use new software. In this context, we can distinguish two main software types: dedicated software (i.e., developed by orthodontic companies) and open-source software. Dedicated software tend to have a much more user-friendly interface, and be easier to use and more intuitive, due to being designed and developed for a non-expert user, but very high rental or purchase costs are an issue. Therefore, younger clinicians with more extensive digital skills have begun to look with increasing interest at open-source software. The aim of the present study was to present and discuss some of the best-known open-source software for analysis of 3D models and the creation of orthodontic devices: Blue Sky Plan, MeshMixer, ViewBox, and Blender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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Article
Prototype of Augmented Reality Technology for Orthodontic Bracket Positioning: An In Vivo Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052315 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
To improve the accuracy of bracket placement in vivo, a protocol and device were introduced, which consisted of operative procedures for accurate control, a computer-aided design, and an augmented reality–assisted bracket navigation system. The present study evaluated the accuracy of this protocol. Methods: [...] Read more.
To improve the accuracy of bracket placement in vivo, a protocol and device were introduced, which consisted of operative procedures for accurate control, a computer-aided design, and an augmented reality–assisted bracket navigation system. The present study evaluated the accuracy of this protocol. Methods: Thirty-one incisor teeth were tested from four participators. The teeth were bonded by novice and expert orthodontists. Compared with the control group by Boone gauge and the experiment group by augmented reality-assisted bracket navigation system, our study used for brackets measurement. To evaluate the accuracy, deviations of positions for bracket placement were measured. Results: The augmented reality-assisted bracket navigation system and control group were used in the same 31 cases. The priority of bonding brackets between control group or experiment group was decided by tossing coins, and then the teeth were debonded and the other technique was used. The medium vertical (incisogingival) position deviation in the control and AR groups by the novice orthodontist was 0.90 ± 0.06 mm and 0.51 ± 0.24 mm, respectively (p < 0.05), and by the expert orthodontist was 0.40 ± 0.29 mm and 0.29 ± 0.08 mm, respectively (p < 0.05). No significant changes in the horizontal position deviation were noted regardless of the orthodontist experience or use of the augmented reality–assisted bracket navigation system. Conclusion: The augmented reality–assisted bracket navigation system increased the accuracy rate by the expert orthodontist in the incisogingival direction and helped the novice orthodontist guide the bracket position within an acceptable clinical error of approximately 0.5 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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Article
Retrospective Case Series Regarding the Advantages of Cortico-Puncture (CP) Therapy in Association with Micro-Implant Assisted Rapid Palatal Expander (MARPE)
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11031306 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Transverse maxillary deficiency currently affects 8–23% of adults. One of the most widely used orthodontic treatments today in patients with transverse maxillary defects is the maxillary skeletal expander (MSE). This was a retrospective observational imaging study regarding structural bone changes that may occur [...] Read more.
Transverse maxillary deficiency currently affects 8–23% of adults. One of the most widely used orthodontic treatments today in patients with transverse maxillary defects is the maxillary skeletal expander (MSE). This was a retrospective observational imaging study regarding structural bone changes that may occur during healing after the placement of micro-implant assisted rapid palatal expanders (MARPE) in combination with cortico-puncture (CP) therapy. Regarding the magnitude of the mid-palatal suture opening, the mean split at the anterior nasal spine (ANS) and the posterior nasal spine (PNS) was 3.76 and 3.12 mm, respectively. The amount of split at the PNS was smaller than at the ANS, approximately 85% of the distance, showing that the opening of the midpalatal suture was almost parallel in the sagittal plane. On average, one-half of the anterior nasal spine (ANS) moved more than the contralateral by 0.89 mm. In the present study, we show that MARPE associated with CP therapy had a positive outcome on the midpalatal suture opening. This occurred in safe conditions, without post-surgery bleeding, and showing healing at the corticotomy level, with no signs of swelling or sepsis, which are side effects usually associated with more complex surgical treatments. Our results suggest that non-surgical palatal expansion, assisted by MARPE and CP, is achievable and predictable in young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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Article
Digital Workflow for 3D Design and Additive Manufacturing of a New Miniscrew-Supported Appliance for Orthodontic Tooth Movement
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11030928 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
The introduction of digital workflows and their combination with miniscrew assisted appliances has opened new and enthusiastic perspectives in modern orthodontics. However, in all digital workflows currently in use for orthodontic tooth movement, the miniscrews are inserted first in the maxillary bone, often [...] Read more.
The introduction of digital workflows and their combination with miniscrew assisted appliances has opened new and enthusiastic perspectives in modern orthodontics. However, in all digital workflows currently in use for orthodontic tooth movement, the miniscrews are inserted first in the maxillary bone, often by means of a surgical guide, and then the appliance is fabricated and secured over the miniscrews with different fixation mechanisms. By doing so, some adaptation problems can be encountered while securing the appliance over the miniscrews, and the chairside time required can therefore be significant. In the present study, we introduce a digital workflow for the design and fabrication of a new appliance, customized on the individual morphology of maxillary bone by using patient Cone Beam Computed Tomography CBCT, for sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement (DIVA, divergent anchors). Differently from the existing protocols, the appliance is cemented first intraorally, serving as a surgical guide for the subsequent insertion of miniscrews. In this way, the adaptation problems are avoided and the chair-side time is reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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Systematic Review
Are Mechanical Vibrations an Effective Alternative to Accelerate Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Humans? A Systematic Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10699; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210699 - 12 Nov 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to contrast the existing evidence on the effect of mechanical vibrations, either high or low frequency, as an alternative to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement in humans. A literature search [...] Read more.
The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to contrast the existing evidence on the effect of mechanical vibrations, either high or low frequency, as an alternative to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement in humans. A literature search from 2010 to June 2021 was conducted in the electronic databases: PubMed, NCBI, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane, and Ovid, using the eligibility criteria to identify the studies. Only randomized clinical trials (RCT) were included. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE tool and the risk of bias (RoB) in individual studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane bias risk tool. Fifteen RTCs were included for final review. Overall, the RoB was classified as low (3), moderate (5), and high (7). Three articles with low RoB, four with moderate RoB, and four with high RoB found no significant effect in the use of vibrations on orthodontic movement. Only four articles, three of them with high RoB and one with moderate RoB, found that mechanical vibrations are effective at accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The results seemed to indicate that there is no evidence that vibratory stimuli can increase the rate of dental movement or reduce neither the time of dental alignment nor canine retraction during orthodontic treatment. It is important to note that a greater number of high-quality randomized controlled trials are urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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