Biomechanics and Sport Engineering: Latest Advances and Prospects

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2024 | Viewed by 2589

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Polytechnic of Coimbra, ISEC, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: applied biomechanics; experimental stress analysis; structural optimization; medical devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The cooperation between engineering and sport in research activities has grown and is a firm reality. This connection has allowed for studies to be conducted and innovative products to be developed that actively improve the performance of professional and amateur athletes. Helping to prevent injuries, which can inhibit sports practice during leisure or competition, is a challenge faced by athletes and coaches. Both coaches and athletes can benefit from the knowledge that studies in biomechanics can impart to them. Biomechanics can help improve athletes' performance, helping to define training methodologies to optimise athletes' performance and reduce or even prevent injuries.

This Special Issue aims to present the latest advances in biomechanics and sports engineering concerning the understanding of the mechanisms underlying athletes' responses during training, performance improvement, and occurrence of injuries, as well as providing information on the design of equipment and devices used by athletes and coaches. Original research studies and systematic reviews are welcome to this Special Issue.

Dr. Ana Martins Amaro
Dr. Luís Roseiro
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • sport biomechanics
  • exercise performance
  • injury evaluation and rehabilitation
  • injury prevention
  • athletic training

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Sport-Specific Abdominal Wall Muscle Differences: A Comparative Study of Soccer and Basketball Players Using Ultrasonography
by Carlos Romero-Morales, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Unai Torres, Diego Miñambres-Martín, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Isabel Rodríguez-Costa and Sergio L. Jiménez-Sáiz
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(13), 5742; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14135742 - 1 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Aim: This study aims to compare the thickness of abdominal wall muscles—the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), transversus abdominis (TrAb), rectus abdominis (RA), and inter-recti distance (IRD)—between amateur soccer and basketball players using ultrasonography. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 35 [...] Read more.
Aim: This study aims to compare the thickness of abdominal wall muscles—the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), transversus abdominis (TrAb), rectus abdominis (RA), and inter-recti distance (IRD)—between amateur soccer and basketball players using ultrasonography. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 35 male amateur athletes, including 17 soccer players and 18 basketball players. Ultrasonographic measurements of the EO, IO, TrAb, RA muscles, and IRD were taken while the muscles were in a relaxed state for all the participants in both sides. Results: Significant differences were found in the RA muscle thickness, with basketball players showing a greater mean thickness compared to soccer players. No significant differences were observed in the TrAb, IO, and EO muscles between the two groups. The IRD showed a trend towards larger separation in basketball players, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study highlights sport-specific adaptations in the RA muscle, likely due to the distinct physical demands of basketball and soccer. The findings underscore the importance of tailored training and rehabilitation programs that consider these morphological differences to enhance performance and reduce injury risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Sport Engineering: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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11 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Changes in Contractile Properties of Muscle after Anaerobic Exercise
by Justyna Dydek, Katarzyna Bliźniak, Hugo Sarmento, Andreas Ihle, Élvio Rúbio Gouveia, Janusz Iskra and Krzysztof Przednowek
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 3078; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14073078 - 6 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been described as an effective method for identifying differences in muscle response to athletic training stimuli. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluated changes in muscle contractile properties in response to anaerobic effort and related these changes to [...] Read more.
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been described as an effective method for identifying differences in muscle response to athletic training stimuli. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluated changes in muscle contractile properties in response to anaerobic effort and related these changes to Wingate test parameters in more than one lower limb superficial muscle. The main contribution of this work is to evaluate changes in the contractile properties of muscles in response to anaerobic exercise. In a group of 20 physically active men, the body composition analysis was performed using a Tanita DC-360 device. The anaerobic effort was assessed by a Wingate test (30 s), and the contractile properties of muscles were measured using a TMG S2 device. The TMG parameters were measured in selected superficial muscles of the dominant lower limb. The study also calculated indices of the differences (d) and the size of the effect (r). An anaerobic effort in the form of the Wingate test resulted in greater stiffness (Dm) in the vastus lateralis muscle (p = 0.0365; r = 0.47) and a delayed response to stimulus (Td) in the vastus lateralis (p = 0.0239; r = 0.51) and vastus medialis (p = 0.0031; r = 0.66) muscles. The half relaxation time (Tr) (p = 0.0478; r = 0.44) and sustained contraction time (Ts) (p = 0.0276; r = 0.49) in the rectus femoris muscle were also increased. In contrast, a prolonged stimulus-response time (Td) with a decrease in sustained contraction time (Ts) was observed in the gastrocnemius lateralis (Td: p = 0.0054; r = 0.64 and Ts: p = 0.0012; r = 0.74) and gastrocnemius medialis (Td: p = 0.0229; r = 0.52 and Ts: p = 0.0054; r = 0.64) muscles. A significant decrease in contraction time (Tc) (p = 0.0051; r = 0.63) occurred only in the soleus muscle. In addition, significant correlations were shown between selected changes in contractile properties of muscle and parameters of the Wingate anaerobic test. Anaerobic exercise has a significant effect on changes in skeletal muscle contractility parameters. TMG is an effective method for identifying differences in muscle response to sports training stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Sport Engineering: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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Review

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18 pages, 1164 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Osteotomies to Correct Hallux Valgus in the First Metatarsal
by M. Santos, L. Roseiro, E. Cortesão Seiça and A. M. Amaro
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14073043 - 4 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Hallux valgus is one of the most common deformities of the forefoot. When addressing hallux valgus, surgical management plays a central role, with the majority of techniques consisting of cutting (osteotomy) and reshaping the overall anatomy of the metatarsal and phalanx. Understanding and [...] Read more.
Hallux valgus is one of the most common deformities of the forefoot. When addressing hallux valgus, surgical management plays a central role, with the majority of techniques consisting of cutting (osteotomy) and reshaping the overall anatomy of the metatarsal and phalanx. Understanding and analyzing the results of many osteotomies to treat hallux valgus is essential. This systematic review aims to summarize a structure of the different practices used through osteotomies to correct hallux valgus in the metatarsal, the results obtained, and the methodologies used to provide a follow-up. This systematic search was carried out using three databases: the National Library of Medicine, Science Direct, and Sage Journals. This research mainly focused on analyzing the outcomes and post-operative results of the various osteotomies of the first metatarsal manuscripts that addressed more than just the procedure analysis or its results, which were excluded, as in the case of combined pathologies. Fifteen manuscripts were included for full-text analysis based on comparative/explanatory studies of surgical procedures for hallux valgus metatarsal osteotomies and their clinical outcomes. The clinical results were analyzed in two aspects: the dimensional analysis of the metatarsal before and after the surgical procedure and the technologies used to obtain the follow-up. This review will guide future research into the more comprehensive use of the metatarsal osteotomy process and where engineering can and should intervene and make the procedures more precise and straightforward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Sport Engineering: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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