Special Issue "Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Sources: Materials, Waveguides and Applications"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Optics and Lasers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Bertrand Kibler

Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, CNRS UMR6303, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besancon 25000, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nonlinear fiber optics; ultrafast optics; optical solitons and breathers; supercontinuum generation
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frédéric Smektala

ICB, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire, Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nonlinear glasses and fibers; infrared glasses and fibers; nonlinear properties; IR supercontinuum

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past decade, there has been a growing interest in mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy instrumentation and suitable mid-IR light sources, which has mainly driven the development of novel materials and the improving quality of traditional mid-IR materials for a vast range of optical components. Emerging supercontinuum (SC) laser sources appears as a promising alternative to typical sources of mid-IR radiations including thermal light source and tunable lasers. Such SC sources deliver mid-IR radiation through nonlinear frequency conversion in guided optics of commonly available near-IR laser sources or more recent mid-IR lasers. This nonlinear generation is mainly based on parametric processes which allows extreme spectral broadening of pump lasers (i.e., supercontinuum generation) occurring with confined propagation in optical waveguides or fibers. High coherence and spectral power density over an ultra-broad spectral range are the main attractive features of these nonlinear optical devices with modes of operation from quasi-continuous wave to high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulsed sources, thus opening new prospects for remote sensing applications. An abundance of molecules has absorption features in this mid-IR "molecular fingerprint" region, in particular most of pollutants and greenhouse gases emitted from human activity with significant influence on air quality, as well as on the carbon cycle and global climate change. The absorption cross-sections of such gases are typically higher, by at least one order of magnitude, in the mid-IR compared to the near-infrared region.

This Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences entitled “Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Sources: Materials, Waveguides and Applications” aims to cover recent advances in the design and development of mid-infrared broadband continuum sources—from architectures to applications, including theoretical and experimental contributions.

Dr. Bertrand Kibler
Prof. Frederic Smektala
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Infrared glasses and bulk materials

  • Nonlinear glasses and bulk materials

  • Fluorides, tellurites, heavy oxides, chalcogenides materials

  • Specialty nonlinear waveguides and fibers for mid-IR

  • Hybrid materials or fibers

  • Mid-IR laser sources

  • Nonlinear frequency conversion and parametric devices

  • Supercontinuum generation

  • Mid-infrared sensing and gas detection, IR spectroscopic applications

  • Photonic integration

  • Numerical simulations

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Candidate Multicomponent Chalcogenide Glasses for Supercontinuum Generation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112082
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
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Abstract
Broadband supercontinuum (SC) generation requires host material attributes defined by both optical and physical properties and the material’s manufacturability. We review and define the trade-offs in these attributes as applied to fiber or planar film applications based on homogeneous glass property data, and
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Broadband supercontinuum (SC) generation requires host material attributes defined by both optical and physical properties and the material’s manufacturability. We review and define the trade-offs in these attributes as applied to fiber or planar film applications based on homogeneous glass property data, and provide a series of examples of how one might optimize such attributes through material compositional and morphology design. As an example, we highlight the role of varying composition, microstructure, and linear/nonlinear optical properties, such as transmittance, refractive index, and the multiphoton absorption coefficient, for a series of novel multicomponent chalcogenide glasses within a model GeSe2-As2Se3-PbSe (GAP-Se) system. We report key optical property variation as a function of composition and form, and discuss how such glasses, suitable for both fiber and planar film processing, could lend themselves as candidates for use in SC generation. We demonstrate the impact of starting glass composition and morphology and illustrate how tailoring composition and form (bulk versus film) leads to significant variation in linear, nonlinear, and dispersive optical property behavior within this system that enables design options that are attractive to optimization of desirable SC performance, based on optical composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dispersion-Engineered Step-Index Tellurite Fibers for Mid-Infrared Coherent Supercontinuum Generation from 1.5 to 4.5 μm with Sub-Nanojoule Femtosecond Pump Pulses
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101875
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation from 1.5 to 4.5 µm with sub-nanojoule femtosecond pump pulses is demonstrated by using a short segment of dispersion-engineered step-index tellurite fiber with very low OH content. Distinct group-velocity dispersion regimes in a simple design of step-index tellurite fiber are
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Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation from 1.5 to 4.5 µm with sub-nanojoule femtosecond pump pulses is demonstrated by using a short segment of dispersion-engineered step-index tellurite fiber with very low OH content. Distinct group-velocity dispersion regimes in a simple design of step-index tellurite fiber are also reported, which allows to choose the nonlinear pulse propagation regime according to the required tailoring of the supercontinuum source. Numerical simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation are used to determine optimized fiber parameters before experimental demonstrations. We also analyse the coherence properties of the resulting supercontinuum sources. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Octave Spanning Supercontinuum in Titanium Dioxide Waveguides
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040543
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
We report on the experimental generation of an octave-spanning supercontinuum in a 2.2 cm-long titanium dioxide optical waveguide with two zero dispersion wavelengths. The resulting on-chip supercontinuum reaches the visible wavelength range as well as the mid-infrared region by using a femtosecond fiber
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We report on the experimental generation of an octave-spanning supercontinuum in a 2.2 cm-long titanium dioxide optical waveguide with two zero dispersion wavelengths. The resulting on-chip supercontinuum reaches the visible wavelength range as well as the mid-infrared region by using a femtosecond fiber laser pump at 1.64 µm. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fibers for Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation: Interest, Fabrication, and Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091637
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific importance in a variety of research fields and applications. Among these studies, mid-infrared supercontinuum generation has attracted strong interest in the last decade, because of unique properties such as broad wavelength coverage and
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The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific importance in a variety of research fields and applications. Among these studies, mid-infrared supercontinuum generation has attracted strong interest in the last decade, because of unique properties such as broad wavelength coverage and high coherence, among others. In this paper, the intrinsic optical properties of different types of glasses and fibers are presented. It turns out that microstructured chalcogenide fibers are ideal choices for the generation of mid-infrared supercontinua. The fabrication procedures of chalcogenide microstructured fibers are introduced, including purification methods of the glass, rod synthesis processes, and preform realization techniques. In addition, supercontinua generated in chalcogenide microstructured fibers employing diverse pump sources and configurations are enumerated. Finally, the potential of supercontinua for applications in mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy is shown. Full article
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Open AccessReview Ultrafast Mid-IR Laser Pulses Generation via Chirp Manipulated Optical Parametric Amplification
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050744
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Over the past decades, optical parametric amplification (OPA) has become one of the most promising sources of ultrafast Mid-IR laser, owing to its outstanding properties including ultrabroad bandwidth, superior tunability, good beam quality, and scalable energy. In this paper, we review the recent
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Over the past decades, optical parametric amplification (OPA) has become one of the most promising sources of ultrafast Mid-IR laser, owing to its outstanding properties including ultrabroad bandwidth, superior tunability, good beam quality, and scalable energy. In this paper, we review the recent progress in ultrashort laser pulse generation via chirp manipulated OPA, which improves the energy scalability and gain bandwidth by strategically chirping both pump and seed pulses. The gain mechanism is theoretically analyzed and the OPA processes are numerically simulated. In addition, the concept is verified experimentally. Femtosecond pulses with hundreds of mJ are generated in a high energy dual-chirped-OPA (DC-OPA), and ultrabroadband μJ-level spectra supporting sub-2-cycle pulse durations are achieved in BBP-OPA. Furthermore, the obtained pulses show excellent tunability through the NIR to Mid-IR regions, which makes them a suitable seeding source for further amplification as well as powerful tools in various applications such as strong field physics, attosecond science, and ultrafast spectroscopy. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Chalcogenide Glass Fibers
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(5), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050707
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Chalcogenide glasses have the advantages of a wide transparency window (over 20 μm) and high optical nonlinearity (up to a thousand times greater than that of silica glasses), making them good candidates for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. In this review, we describe both the
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Chalcogenide glasses have the advantages of a wide transparency window (over 20 μm) and high optical nonlinearity (up to a thousand times greater than that of silica glasses), making them good candidates for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. In this review, we describe both the history and recent developments in mid-infrared supercontinuum generation from chalcogenide fibers according to three kinds of fiber structures: step-index, microstructured and tapered fibers. We also review the coherence properties of mid-infrared supercontinuum generation and all-fiber supercontinuum sources based on chalcogenide fibers. Full article
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